Como dibujar monitos animados

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how to make animated films

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to the spirit of walt long may his vision live in the hearts and minds of animators everywhere!

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how to make animated films tony white s complete masterclass on the traditional principles of animation tony white an animation apprenticeship the way the pros used to do it amsterdam · boston · heidelberg · london · new york · oxford paris · san diego · san francisco · singapore · sydney · tokyo focal press is an imprint of elsevier

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focal press is an imprint of elsevier 30 corporate drive suite 400 burlington ma 01803 usa linacre house jordan hill oxford ox2 8dp uk © 2009 tony white published by elsevier inc all rights reserved no part of this publication may be reproduced stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means electronic mechanical photocopying recording or otherwise without the prior written permission of the publisher permissions may be sought directly from elsevier s science technology rights department in oxford uk phone 44 1865 843830 fax 44 1865 853333 e-mail permissions@elsevier.com you may also complete your request online via the elsevier homepage http elsevier.com by selecting support contact then copyright and permission and then obtaining permissions recognizing the importance of preserving what has been written elsevier prints its books on acid-free paper whenever possible library of congress cataloging-in-publication data white tony 1947how to make animated films tony white s complete masterclass on the traditional principles of animation tony white p cm an animation apprenticeship-the way the pros used to do it includes bibliographical references and index isbn 978-0-240-81033-1 pbk alk paper 1 animated films technique 2 animation cinematography i title ii title tony white s complete masterclass on the traditional principles of animation iii title masterclass on the traditional principles of animation nc1765.w49 2009 741.5 8 dc22 2009005710 british library cataloguing-in-publication data a catalogue record for this book is available from the british library isbn 978-0-240-81033-1 for information on all focal press publications visit our website at www.books.elsevier.com 09 10 11 12 13 printed in china 5 4 3 2 1

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contents preface xiii introduction xix first a reality check xix your own personal animation course xx 2d or not 2d that is the question xxi however xxii prerequisites for study xxiii equipment xxvi let the fun begin xxxiii acknowledgments xxxv part 1 how to be an animator 1 10-step foundation course 3 masterclass 1 animation basics 5 key breakdown and in-between positions 5 creating key positions 8 creating the breakdown position 12 top pegs/bottom pegs 17 charting explained 18 in-betweening 19 flipping as opposed to rolling 22 arcs and paths of action 22 timing and the spacing of drawings 24 suggested reading 30 assignment 1 30 masterclass 2 the bouncing ball 33 weight mass and flexibility 34 gravity and the path of action 34 key positions 35 squash 35 stretch 37 timing 38 v

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contents weight 40 in-betweening the bouncing ball 41 distorting mass and volume 46 the descending bounce 47 flip your drawings always 47 final double-checks 48 suggested reading 50 assignment 2 50 masterclass 3 generic walks 59 the lower body 60 walk cycle 65 shooting a walk cycle 69 in-betweening on one s 69 testing the walk 72 the upper body 72 suggested reading 76 assignment 3 76 masterclass 4 personality walks 77 hip and shoulder rotation 77 overlapping action on the hands 79 overlapping action on the head 81 rotation on the head 81 keeping good balance throughout 81 in-between placement and timing 84 double-bounce walk 87 chart timing and variation 88 observation and reference footage 89 the animator s survival kit 89 suggested reading 89 assignment 4 90 masterclass 5 generic runs 91 key generic run stages 92 run exercise 95 additional pointers for runs 96 vi

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contents head-on runs 100 suggested reading 102 assignment 5 102 masterclass 6 quadruped walks 111 front legs 113 rear legs 114 synching the legs together 115 adding the body 117 neck and head 119 adding the tail 123 moving background 126 multilayered backgrounds 129 nonwalk pans 131 realistic quadrupeds 132 suggested reading 135 assignment 6 135 masterclass 7 weight 137 standard rubber ball 138 ping-pong ball 140 bowling ball 141 comparing the three versions 142 the pose is everything 143 tips 145 suggested reading 149 assignment 7 149 masterclass 8 anticipation 151 the benefits of anticipation 152 anticipations are for everything 156 suggested reading 159 assignment 8 159 masterclass 9 dialog 161 body language 162 facial animation 172 lip synching 179 vii

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contents two-character dialog 184 further references 192 suggested reading 193 assignment 9 193 masterclass 10 final project 195 staggers 196 successive breakouts of joints 199 eye blinks 202 eyebrows 207 always gravity 208 conclusion 211 suggested reading 212 assignment 10 212 part 2 how to make an animated film 213 production challenge 215 film production 1 exploring ideas storytelling and scriptwriting 217 meaning and wtf 226 assignment 227 film production 2 concept art viz dev and camera maps 229 concept art 229 camera map 232 assignment 233 film production 3 character design 235 style 235 personality 238 attitude 239 proportion 239 head heights 240 silhouette 241 detail 242 process 243 warm-up exercise 246 assignment 249 viii

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contents film production 4 thumbnails 251 assignment 254 film production 5 storyboards 255 process 260 final check 264 assignment 266 film production 6 filmmaking techniques 267 framing 267 transitions 275 staging 278 continuity 281 crossing the line 282 assignment 284 film production 7 audio record 285 guide track 286 final track 288 assignment 291 film production 8 animatic and bacher boards 293 bacher boards 294 animatic process 296 the animatic is your film bible 300 check your scene timings 301 assignment 302 film production 9 background and environment layouts 303 distance and perspective 305 focus of attention 306 silhouetted action 307 process 308 dividing the layout 310 pose test animatic 313 assignment 313 film production 10 color script 315 the right time to do the color script 316 process 317 ix

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contents professional approach 317 size of artwork 319 don t ignore the color script 320 four valuable tips 321 assignment 322 film production 11 audio breakdown 323 assignment 329 film production 12 block in key poses 331 assignment 335 film production 13 placement and timing 337 assignment 340 film production 14 two-dimensional in-betweening 341 assignment 345 film production 15 rolling flipping and pencil testing 347 flipping 348 full-scene flipping 349 pencil test 350 assignment 354 film production 16 clean-up 355 line quality 358 shapes dimensions and volumes 362 assignment 366 film production 17 scanning 367 peg bar 369 secure the field guide scanning area 370 scanner size 372 assignment 373 film production 18 background and environments 375 compositional color values 378 horizontals and verticals 378 light source and contrast 378 x

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contents perspective and lines of focus 381 verticals in panning shots 382 light against dark dark against light 384 areas of greatest contrast 385 use your eyes 386 assignment 387 film production 19 coloring 389 flat-colored backgrounds 396 imported background artwork 396 assignment 398 film production 20 compositing 399 layers 400 transparency 402 cycle animation 403 depth of field 404 titles and effects 405 assignment 406 film production 21 rendering 407 screen format ratio 408 resolution 409 frame rates 410 assignment 410 film production 22 final edit 411 scene edit 412 music 414 sound effects 417 final audio mix 419 music and effects track 420 assignment 421 appendixes 423 1 about the accompanying dvd 423 2 about the desktop academy 427 xi

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contents 3 about the animaticus foundation 429 4 about the digipen institute of technology 431 5 exposure exhibitions and festivals 435 6 exposure sheets and production folders 439 7 glossary 453 index 463 xii

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preface we are in an era where there are probably more books about animation than there ever were so you would presume that with all that information out there a young and aspiring student of animation would have more than enough to choose from however if you objectively look around at all those books offered you will find one or two truly great books but the rest tend to regurgitate the same old material over and over again much of it losing its value and accuracy in translation and through imitation many people also refer to the classic age of cartoon films without ever really acknowledging that the great cartoon industry we once knew in the good old days has effectively been long long gone the actual core principles of animation never change of course they are timeless and eternal and will forever be so however the obsessive presentations that still hark back to an era where rubbery characters slapstick gags and the inevitable squash and stretch chase scenes proliferate ad infinitum are totally misleading the animation that once was is no more and the classic industry of cartoon filmmaking is now merely an illusion i am often criticized for being so pedantic about this knowledge and for insisting that there is one way to do something and no other in reality animation can be approached in any way that you wish to and may it forever be so for variety is the spice of life however i write what i write with a knowledge that if you want to animate well and you want to animate in keeping with the requirements of the modern production age you will find it so much easier and so much better to adhere to the core principles that grace every era of the world of animation today there is a new animation industry to conquer arguably as powerful as it ever was in the cartoon days games animation proliferates as well as web animation tv animation and also still a little hollywood-style theatrical animation yet each one of these can take the art form to previously unconquered heights and there is still huge cause for optimism as a veteran who spans four decades of animation s expression covering eras old and new i still very much believe that what i have learned and experienced are still worthy of sharing and still of value to modern student and professional animators whatever form of animation they pursue in truth my heart lies with the independent animated filmmakers who spend hours days weeks months and even years on a project that they believe has something to say outside of the more predictable mainstream animation and with those who believe that new and wonderful forms of animated expression can be found my writing speaks to these valiant folk too because i believe there may still emerge a true renaissance of what animation as an art xiii

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preface form is and what it may still be i therefore humbly lay out before you what animation can do through my own experiences and hope that this book will assist you to discover finer and more assured ways of finding your voice some but sadly not nearly enough amazing innovative movies of note have graced our screens in recent years such as hayao miyazaki s spirited away and silvan chomet s triplets of belleville these films seem cut from a different cloth from the classic films and it really shows they keep my belief in real and vital animated storytelling well made alive beyond films like these hollywood seems to regurgitate the same tired old script and visual formulas ad infinitum and already the dominant three-dimensional 3d animation industry offerings are beginning to find a creative rut in the mainstream the only exception to this trend is the mercurial and ever-innovative pixar studio the most recent film of which wall-e took a definite turn toward something even more innovative but beyond that cherished shrine for good things there is very little of the classic world that is around and that offers anything new and exciting for the professional animator with any degree of consistency therefore we have to consider new ground for exploration that is if the industry is to grow and thrive and the animators of tomorrow are to find a career worthy of the name one area that has most definitely grown and thrived of course is the games-based animation industry it now represents the most immediate and approachable source of income for an aspiring young animator and as an industry it well outpaces the languishing world of the more traditional cartoon-based production world i.e movies tv and web-based animation in fact i am told that the games industry is now rapidly approaching the music industry for the world s largest producer of consumer-targeted media entertainment so what constitutes a professional animator in this day and age certainly modern animators need to be more chameleon and even somewhat schizophrenic when it comes to their chosen career path contemporary animators tend to be more nomadic as well often having to travel far and wide to where the work is for much of the time they have to be significantly more versatile too working in the games industry one moment the web animation industry the next and on feature film entertainment when they are lucky occasionally an animated commercial will become an opportunity but production in that field is a pale shadow of what it was in the 1970s and 1980s when i was able to perfect my craft and both volume and creativity reached a kind of golden age in the united kingdom through the work of remarkable animators such as richard williams oscar grillo eric goldberg and of course the remarkable folks in my own animus productions studio as it once was called artistic ability in cartoon styles alone doesn t cut it anymore modern animators whether they use two-dimensional 2d 3d clay or cut-out styles seem to be xiv

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