The MUSIC guide to key-parameters in High Pressure Die Casting

 

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The MUSIC Project is aimed at developing a MUlti-layers control&cognitive System to drive metal and plastic production line for Injected Components under the Factory of Future (FoF) initiative, targeted at improving efficiency, adaptability and sustainabi

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The MUSIC guide to key-parameters in High Pressure Die Casting Edited by Franco Bonollo and Nicola Gramegna Assomet Servizi Srl EnginSoft SpA

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The MUSIC guide to key-parameters in High Pressure Die Casting

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Copyright© 2015 - MUSIC Consortium MUSIC: MUlti-layers control&cognitive System to drive metal and plastic production line for Injected Components Collaborative IP Project - FoF-ICT-2011.7.1:Smart Factories: energy-aware, agile manufacturing and customization Contract no. 314145 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning or otherwise without the permission in writing of the publisher. ISBN: 978-88-87786-12-5 ________________________________________________________________________________ * Photo on the cover by Amit Shyam - Oak Ridge National Laboratory (Tennessee) Title: “Silver Cermet” - This thin film of silver cermet leaves visible facets when sintered on a ceramic substrate at 950 deg Celsius. The facets are caused by evaporation of silver which is close to it melting point of 960 deg Celsius.

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INDEX INTRODUCTION................................................................................................................................. 7 CHAPTER 1................................................................................................................................................ 9 Methodology for quantitative classification of quality requirements for HPDC products considering their in-service function and performance requirements 1.  Introduction ...................................................................................................................................... 11 2. Quality requirements for classes of HPDC components............................................ 11 2.1. Foundries and alloys........................................................................................................ 12 Geographical distribution of EU HPDC foundries..................................... 12 Typical structure and size of HPDC foundries.............................................. 13 Alloys used by EU HPDC foundries.................................................................... 14 2.2. HPDC products................................................................................................................... 15 Main classes of HPDC products........................................................................... 15 Main in-service function and performance requirements................... 16 2.3. Quality control and classification............................................................................. 17 Classes of defects in HPDC products................................................................ 17 Methods for quality control................................................................................... 22 Quantitative evaluation of defects..................................................................... 26 Frequency of defects................................................................................................. 26 2.4. Template table for the quantitative evaluation of defects........................ 27 2.5. Information modelling of the product/quality requirements................. 29 2.6. Placement of MUSIC Partners Typical Components (AUDI, RDS).......... 30 2.6.1. Introduction....................................................................................................... 30 2.6.2. AUDI Typical Component: Shock Tower............................................ 30 2.6.3. RDS Typical Component: Motor Gear housing.............................. 34 3. Conclusions............................................................................................................................................ 36 4. References............................................................................................................................................... 39 CHAPTER 2............................................................................................................................................. 41 HPDC process requirements and parameters 1. Introduction ...................................................................................................................................... 43 2.  Process requirements for HPDC components................................................................. 43 2.1. HPDC Process parameters............................................................................................ 43 2.1.1. Relevant HPDC process parameters ........................................................ 43 2.1.2. Most quality-influencing HPDC parameters......................................... 55 2.1.3 HPDC Process tracking system (RFID)....................................................... 67 5

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Index 2.2. HPDC Process design...................................................................................................... 68 2.2.1 HPDC Process design at AUDI....................................................................... 68 2.2.2 HPDC Process design at RDS.......................................................................... 71 3. Conclusions............................................................................................................................................ 73 ANNEX 1..................................................................................................................................................... 75 HPDC process requirements and parameters Dictionary of defects of die casting processes................................................................... 92 References............................................................................................................................................... 94 ANNEX 2..................................................................................................................................................... 99 The “horse-shoe” Reference Die for HPDC 1. Concepts and basics of MUSIC HPDC Reference Die.............................................100 2. Preliminary design of MUSIC HPDC Reference Die..................................................100 3. Numerical simulation of Reference Die casting process......................................101 4. Design monitoring system for the “horse-shoe” Reference Die.......................103 ANNEX 3...................................................................................................................................................105 I.R. Temperature monitoring during HPDC processe 1. “Total Thermal Vision” IR Temperature Measurement System..........................107 ANNEX 4...................................................................................................................................................105 Advanced sensors network for monitoring HPDC processes 1. Sensors Network..........................................................................................................................110 2. Sensors for High Pressure Die Casting ...........................................................................110 3.  Mould Filling: Inner Sensors................................................................................................113 4. Metal front contact sensor (FMKS) ...................................................................................113 5. Mould internal pressure sensor (FIDS) ...........................................................................114 6. Metal front temperature sensor (FMTS-02 new) ......................................................115 7. Development of innovative sensors................................................................................116 8.  Multi-Airpipe-Sensor for Vacuum systems..................................................................117 9. RFS – Humidity Sensor Measurements...........................................................................117 10. GS - Residual gas Fraction Measurements.................................................................118 11. LMS - Air Flow Measurements .........................................................................................118 12. VSBV – Vacuum..........................................................................................................................119 13. Die fill control sensor FFCS..................................................................................................119 14. New monitoring system.......................................................................................................120 6

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The MUSIC Project is aimed at developing a MUlti-layers control&cognitive System to drive metal and plastic production line for Injected Components under the Factory of Future (FoF) initiative, targeted at improving efficiency, adaptability and sustainability of manufacturing systems as well as their better integration within business processes in an increasingly globalised industrial context. This ambitious and challenging goal can represent a key-action for leading European High Pressure Die Casting and Plastic Injection Moulding Companies to cost-based competitive advantage, achieved by lower scrap generation, efficiency, robustness and minimum energy consumption. The essential tool to do this will be a completely new ICT platform, based on innovative Control and Cognitive system linked to real time monitoring and allowing an active control of quality. Written at the mid-term of the Project, this book, referred to High Pressure Die Casting (HPDC) of Aluminium alloys, intends to analytically describe methods, tools, parameters and innovative approaches developed to monitor and control the process and the quality product. The book collects the guidelines to design and implement the Intelligent Sensor Network (ISN) in HPDC production line as first outcome of MUSIC project. The monitoring network is able to provide useable, meaningful and quantitative data on product quality, as well as to define strategies (varying production process parameters, changes to the tooling, etc.) to move toward higher quality product with economic efficiency. This real time control system capability will be exploited, during next two years, in order to train a cognitive-based ICT platform for the industrial optimisation of High Pressure Die Casting production transforming the acquired knowledge and control methods into know-how. The final MUSIC outcome, “Control and Cognitive system”, will impact on intelligent management of manufacturing information for new smart factory oriented to energyaware, agile manufacturing and customization. As Coordinator and Scientific Manager of MUSIC project, our wish is that this book could be useful to the people involved in Light Alloys foundry industry (more than 2000 Companies, mostly SMEs, with an enormous potential due to the increasing demand of lightweight and reliable products in each application fields) and our thanks are for all the colleagues who very cooperatively worked in this Project. Nicola Gramegna Franco Bonollo 7

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CHAPTER 1 Methodology for quantitative classification of quality requirements for HPDC products considering their in-service function and performance requirements N. Gramegna, G. Scarpa, P. Donaggio EnginSoft SpA F. Bonollo, G. Timelli, E. Fiorese University of Padova - DTG L. Kallien, M. Winkler University of Aalen - GTA H. Eibisch AUDI AG E. Hepp, R. Seefeldt MAGMA GmbH A. Igartua, B. Zabala IK4 - TEKNIKER E. Barbero, M. Salata RDS Moulding Technology SpA G.C. Mei Assomet Servizi srl 9

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1.  Introduction The aim of this Chapter is to define the guidelines and standard procedures that characterize the huge variety of aspects related to products coming out from HPDC process. Product requirements include the dimensional tolerance affecting the assembling phase of the single component in the vehicle frame. The maximum acceptable deformation is not clearly defined in the standards and it depends on the joining methods: riveting, welding (linear, spot welds) and adhesive. The product requirements are fundamental to determine measurable criteria (and their edges) necessary to design a monitoring network (ISN) able to provide useable, meaningful and quantitative data on product quality, as well as to define strategies (varying production process parameters, changes to the tooling, etc.) to move toward a higher product quality. This Chapter will „„ offer an up-graded survey of the EU High Pressure Die Casting (HPDC) manufacturing field; „„ identify the approaches adopted to specifically define quality requirements; „„ evaluate the placement of MUSIC HPDC (AUDI, RDS) Partners, with respect to the EU scenario for HPDC quality requirements. 2.  Quality requirements for classes of HPDC components A general description of HPDC requirements in terms of quality can be done only after that a proper knowledge of this manufacturing field on a EU basis has been achieved. This knowledge is referred to „„ characteristics of EU HPDC Companies, „„ alloys mainly used in production of components, „„ main classes of products, „„ typical in-service functions & requirements for these products, „„ typical defects and imperfections associates to these products, „„ methods adopted for quality control, „„ quantitative approaches implemented in quality control, „„ frequency of defects. Once this knowledge is obtained, the placement of HPDC MUSIC Partners can be evaluated, and proper strategies and approaches for the set up of monitoring networks can be elaborated. 11

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Chapter 1 2.1. Foundries and alloys NOTE: Paragraph 2.1 has been elaborated on the basis of public data and of the survey carried out by EU StaCast project (New Quality and Design Standards for Aluminium Alloys Cast Products, FP7-NMP-2012CSA-6, PROJECT n. 319188, www.stacast-project.org). The sharing of these data has been approved by MUSIC and StaCast Consortia, in the frame of a policy of cross-cutting cooperation among EU projects. Geographical distribution of EU HPDC foundries The World business environment for the whole Aluminium industry is shown in Figure 1. The relevant figures about the situation of EU Al alloys foundries are the following ones [sources: ASSOFOND, Report on EU & Italian Foundry in 2011, Assofond, Milano (2012); EAA Annual reports, Bruxelles (2012), in http://www.alueurope.eu/; CAEF, Annual reports, Bruxelles (2011), in http://www.caef.org/; Organisation of the European Aluminium Recycling Industry, http://www.oea-alurecycling.org/en/recycling/ eckdaten.php]: „„ t here are roughly more than 2000 Aluminium alloys foundries in Europe (Table 1); the number of Companies in the supply chain can be estimated as equivalent; „„ they are basically SMEs, with an average number of employees around 50 (but major part of them has less than 20 employees), „„ t he end users of cast products are the transport industry (60%), mechanics (7%), electro-mechanics (9%), civil engineering (20%), with a growing trend in automotive and transportation, motivated by the achievable reduction in fuel consumption and emission; „„ the production, due to the well-known effects of crisis, has been strongly reduced in 2008 and 2009, with a partial recovery in 2010 and 2011 (see Table 2); „„ t he total number of persons directly employed in the field in Europe can be estimated in a range between 80.000 and 90.000; the total number of persons employed in the supply chain can be estimated as equivalent. Figure 1. The World business environment for the whole Aluminium industry 12

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Italy Germany France Poland UK EU 2008 960 346 335 245 236 ~ 2550 2009 920 344 319 245 220 ~ 2450 2010 917 345 315 245 216 ~ 2800 2011 914 344 311 n.a. 210 ~ 2600 Table 1. Number of non-ferrous foundries in Europe (Al alloys foundries can be estimated as 80% of them) Country 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Germany 773.000 882.000 802.000 560.000 797.000 Italy 897.000 912.000 820.000 560.000 730.000 Spain 129.000 125.000 110.000 81.000 100.000 Sweden 55.000 57.000 51.000 31.000 32.000 EU n.a. 3.070.000 2.940.000 2.100.000 2.815.000 Table 2. Production of Al alloys castings in some European Countries (values in tons) 2011 844.000 833.000 113.000 41.000 3.022.000 The more relevant foundry processes adopted are High Pressure Die Casting (HPDC, about 60-70% of European Aluminium alloys foundry production), followed by Gravity Casting (GC), Low Pressure Die Casting (LPDC) and Sand Casting (SC). Typical structure and size of HPDC foundries In order to adequately define the characteristics of EU HPDC foundries, it is very useful to consider the results of the survey recently carried out in the frame of the EU StaCast (New Quality and Design Standards for Aluminium Alloys Cast Products, www.stacastproject.org) Project (n. 319188 in the frame of FP7-NMP-2012-CSA-6). The survey was carried out on 82 Companies and Institutions, split as follows: „„ 58 Foundries (HPDC, LPDC, permanent mold casting) „„ 11 Providers of Materials and Services „„ 2 Die-Makers „„ 3 End-Users „„ 8 Universities and RTD Centres Among the HPDC foundries (43 companies), the majority (Figure 2) is constituted by SMEs (55.8%), while large industries (IND) correspond to 44.2%. As far as the production data is concerned (Figure 3), there is a relatively homogeneous distribution of the foundries among the 5 individuated categories. More than Figure 2. Partition SME vs IND of Foundries which answered the StaCast Questionnaire 13

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Chapter 1 a half of the HPDC foundries, being SMEs, has a year production lower than 3000 tons (37.3% less than 1000 tons/year, 14% from 1000 to 3000 tons/year). On the other side, a significant part of foundries (16.3%), essentially IND, has a production higher than 10.000 tons/year. Considering the average production data for the first four classes of production (less than 1000 tons/year, from 1001 Figure 3. Production data (Tons/Year) for the HPDC Foundries to 3000 tons/year, from 3001 to 5000 tons/year, from 5001 to 10.000 tons/year) and a conservative value of 15.000 tons/year for the fifth class (more than 10.000 tons/year), the overall production of the “StaCast” foundries can be estimated in terms of almost 250.000 tons/year, roughly representing more than 8% of the annual EU production. This estimation gives a further and good support in terms of reliability of the performed survey. Alloys used by EU HPDC foundries Figure 4 collects the information concerning the alloys used by HPDC foundries. The alloy which has the widest diffusion is EN AB 46000 (Al-Si9-Cu3(Fe)), which is used by almost 75% of foundries, followed by EN AB 43400 (Al-Si10-Mg(Fe)) and EN AB 47100 (Al-Si12-Cu1(Fe)), both used by 51% of the foundries. It can be observed that alloys which are not included in the actual CEN 1706 standard are very few, and mentioned only by 30% of foundries. Figure 4. Alloys used by the HPDC Foundries which answered the StaCast Questionnaire 14

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2.2. HPDC products Main classes of HPDC products From Figure 5, it can be observed that 83.7% of the HPDC foundries are manufacturing castings for automotive applications (with a similar percentage for SMEs and IND), followed by Electronics (30.2%), Mechanical Engineering (27.9%), and Architecture and Design (9.3%). In the “Other” category, mainly applications for mechanics and engineering have been Figure 5. Final applications of castings produced by HPDC mentioned. Among the various categories of HPDC castings, a useful classification was suggested some years ago by the Italian Association of Metallurgy (Ref.: Gruppo di Lavoro Qualità dei Getti Pressocolati: “Qualità dei getti pressocolati: Indagine sulla situazione attuale, prospettive di una norma sulle condizioni di fornitura dei getti pressocolati”; Centro di Studio Pressocolata, Associazione Italiana di Metallurgia, Milano, 2006), and adopted by StaCast: „„ Housing and Covers, „„ Thin wall components, „„ S afety components „„ Engine blocks. Figure 6 shows the partition of castings among these classes. Among the various suggested categories, HPDC foundries are mainly producing Housing and Covers (32.6%), followed by Thin wall components (27.9%), Safety components (14.0%) and Engine blocks (4.7%). Engine blocks are almost exclusively produced by IND, which are also predominant in the production of safety components (in both cases, they are critical castings, requiring Figure 6. Main fields of application of castings manufactured by the Foundries which answered the StaCast Questionnaire 15

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