SPORT IN HISTORY

 

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ATISALANI ANADOLU LISESI ISTANBUL TURKEY LICEUL TEHNOLOGIC PETROL MORENI ROMANIA VI LICEUM OGOLNOKSZTALCACE IM. KROLA ZYGMUNTA AUGUSTA W BIALYMSTOKU BIALYSTOK POLAND BAUSKAS VALSTS GIMNAZIJA BAUSKA LATVIA I.I.S. P. SRAFFA – CREMA CONVITTO NAZIONALE DOMENICO CIRILLO - SCUOLE ANNESSE - BARI ITALY

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I.I.S. P. SRAFFA CREMA ITALY 2015 / 2016 CLASSES III A PSV III B PSV III A PCU III A PSC II A PSS LICEUL TEHNOLOGIC PETROL MORENI ROMANIA 2015 / 2016 CLASSES XA XI A ATIŞALANI ANADOLU LİSESİ ISTANBUL TURKEY 2015 / 2016 CLASSES 10 H 10 A 6th HIGH SCHOOL IN BIAŁYSTOK POLAND 2015 / 2016 CLASSES IF/C BAUSKAS VALSTS GIMAZIJA BAUSKA LATVIA 2015 / 2016 CLASSES 10 A 11 A CONVITTO NAZIONALE DOMENICO CIRILLO BARI ITALY 2015 / 2016 CLASSES II AL.L. III B.S.

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SPORT in HISTORY We all know that every country has its own traditions, its uses and customs but sports, for example, can unite a country to another. They have been handed down over time and have sprouted from the likes or needs of each population. For example, in Italy Roman soldiers had to be healthy so they could improve their fighting skills. Latvians represented their country with their success in sport. Turkish fighters had to be vigorous to fight bravely because if they were not ready to fight, they would die soon. In Romania, sport was very important because soldiers had to be able to fight against their enemies. So they had to be healthy and very strong. With time, many sports have disappeared because they were considered very cruel, such as gladiator fights or court games played in castles in the Middle Ages. Some of the sports played in the past have been passed on for generations and are still played today. Sport was important for ancient peoples, let’s discover how!

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THE EXTRA NEWS ALL ABOUT THE BIG WORLD WE LIVE IN The Olympic games According to historical records, the first ancient Olympic Games can be traced back to 776 BC. They were dedicated to the Olympian gods and were staged on the ancient plains of Olympia. They continued for nearly 12 centuries, until Emperor Theodosius decreed in 393 A.D. that all such "pagan cults" be banned. Olympia, the site of the ancient Olympic Games, is in the western part of the Peloponnese which, according to Greek mythology, is the island of "Pelops", the founder of the Olympic Games. The central part of Olympia was dominated by the majestic temple of Zeus, with the temple of Hera parallel to it. The Olympic Games were closely linked to the religious festivals of the cult of Zeus, but were not an integral part of a rite, according to specialists, the Olympic Games owed their purity and importance to religion. The Olympic winner received his first awards immediately after the competition. Following the announcement of the winner's name by the herald, a Hellanodikis (Greek judge) would place a palm branch in his hands, while the spectators cheered and threw flowers to him. Red ribbons were tied on his head and hands as a mark of victory. Through the 12 centuries of the Olympic Games, many wonderful athletes competed in the stadium and the hippodrome of ancient Olympia's sacred area, moving the crowds with their great achievements. Although mortal, their Olympic victories immortalised them. Of the best athletes who left their mark on the sacred valley of Olympia, some surpassed all limits and became legends by winning in successive Olympic Games and remaining at the forefront of their sport for more than a decade. It is worth mentioning some of their extraordinary achievements, which, even by today's standards, would be the envy of athletes such as Nurmi, Zatopek or Lewis. All free male Greek citizens were entitled to participate in the ancient Olympic Games, regardless of their social status. Orsippos, a general from Megara; Polymnistor, a shepherd; Diagoras, a member of a royal family The official award ceremony would take place on the last day of the Games, at the elevated vestibule of the temple of Zeus. In a loud voice, the herald would announce the name of the Olympic winner, his father's name, and his homeland. from Rhodes; Alexander I, son of Amyndas and King of Macedonia; and Democritus, a philosopher, were all participants in the Games. Married women were not allowed to participate in, or to watch, the ancient Olympic Games. However, unmarried women could attend the competition, and the priestess of Demeter, goddess of fertility, was given a privileged position next to the Stadium altar. The ancient Olympic Games were initially a one-day event until 684 BC, when they were extended to three days. In the 5th century B.C., the Games were extended again to cover five days. The ancient Games included running, long jump, shot put, javelin, boxing, pankration and equestrian Olymevenpts.ic Games Events Boxing Equestrian events Running Chariot racing Riding Pankration Pentathlon: Discus, Javelin, Running, Wrestling, Jump

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Events Chariot Race: It was the most famous ancient Greek, Roman, Byzantine sports. It was dangerous for drivers and horses because they suffered injuries but they generated a strong spectator enthusiasm. The women could watch chariot races but not many other sports. Discos: In the discos the thrower could throw directly in front of himself. The thrower practiced his position because it was required. Jumping: In the jumping the athlete wore weights to toss his body forward. They ran with weights attached to them. Running with armor: It was called a Hoplite Hoplitodromos in Ancient Greece. It consisted of men running in some pieces of armor. This event can be seen as an indication to the games being connected to war. Culture The ancient Olympics were mainly a religious festival . The games were practised in honour of Zeus. Olympia became a central place to adore the Greek Pantheon and a temple. Artistic expression was a major part of the games. Sculptors, poets and artisans would participate to the games with their works. Poets would write poems in praise of the Olympic victors. Baron Pierre De Coubertin , was one of the founders of the modern Olympic Games and he wanted to imitate the ancient Olympics in every way. Running Over time, running has become a very important discipline, so as to become part of the olympic games. This discipline is shrouded by myth and legend and this makes it even more interesting and full of charm. What does Socrates think? ...I suspect that the sun, moon, earth, stars, and heaven, which are still the Gods of many barbarians, were the only Gods known to the aboriginal Hellenes. Seeing that they were always moving and running, from their running nature they were called Gods or runners (Theous, Theontas)... — Socrates in Plato – Cratylus -

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Boxing in ancient Greece Ancient Greek Boxing dates back to the VIII century BC It was practiced in many Greek cities and it was a significant part of ancient Greek athletic culture. There are lots of legends about the origin of boxing. One legend says that the ruler Theseus invented a form of boxing in which two men sat face to face and beat each other with their fists until one of them died. The boxers could wear gloves and wrappings on their arms belows the elbows. The second legend says that Mycenaean warriors included boxing among their competitions for honouring the fallen. Fighters wore leather straps (himantes) over their hands and breast to protect themselves from injury. There was no protection for the face or the head. What do the historians say? Historians say that the boxing was originally developed in Sparta. In fact, Spartans didn’t use helmets because they tought that boxing was necessary for preparing them to the blows to the head they would receive in battle. The main rules were: no holds or wrestling, any type of blow with the hand was allowed, no gouging with the fingers, no rings, no rounds or time limits, victory was decided when one fighter gave up, no weight-classes. The equipment was: Himantes-> leather straps used as protection for the knuckles and hand. They were long straps that were wrapped around the hands. Sphairai-> similar to himantes, but they contained a padded interior while the exterior was harder. Oxys-> they were leather bands encircling the hand,wrist, and forearm. Korykos-> they were the equivalent to modern punching bags. They were filled with sand or flour. There were important ancient Olympic Champions like: Diagoras of Rhodes, Melankomas, Gladius of Carystus. -

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Pankration Pankration was a sporting event introduced into the GREEK OLYMPIC GAMES in 648 BC and founded as a blend of boxing and wrestling but with scarcely any rules. The only things not acceptable were biting and gouging out the opponent’s eyes. The term comes from Greek “Pankràtion” literally meaning “all of might” from pan- “all” and –kratos “strength, might, power”, to indicate that the wrestler defeated his opponent by using all its power and all parts of the body, with ever empty hand technique allowed. Pankration competitions were held in tournaments, most being outside of the Olympics. THEAGENES OF THAOS He was an ancient Greek Olympian, typically spelled Theogenes. He was renowned for his extraordinary strength and swiftness. At the age of nine, he was said to have carried home a brazen statue of a god from agora. Altogether he was said to have won 1300 crowns. The popular story among the Thasians was that Heracles was his father. History In Greek mythology, it was said that heroes Heracles and Theseus invented Pankration to kill their enemies (Minotaur and the Nemean lion). In this context, it should be noted that pankration was also referred to as pammachon or pammachion, meaning “total combat”. The term pammachon was older, and would later become used less than the term pankration. Structure of the ancient competition There were neither weight divisions nor time limits in pankration competitions. However, there were two or three age groups in the competitions of antiquity: men (Andres) and boys (paides). In pankration competitions, referees were armed with stout rods or switches to enforce the rules. The judges appear, however, to have had the right to stop a contest. There was neither round nor time limit, they fought until one of the two surrended; that could be for failure, for the K.O. or declared by the athlete. Preparation and practice The basic instruction of pankration techniques was conducted by the paedotribae (physical trainers), who were in charge of boys’ physical education. High level athletes were also trained by special trainers who were called gymnastae, some of whom had been successful pankration competitors themselves. The preparation of pankratiast included a very wide variety of methods. The gyms in antiquity were also hub of education. Gymnasion was the term that showed the locations of the sport, which had also spaces for other disciplines. This word derives from Gymnos which meant naked: in fact the athletes were trained naked, unlike the Romans and the Etruscans. -

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ANCIENT ROME Sports in the Roman Empire Fun, strength and blood The Romans assimilated ideas and customs from the cultures and societies they conquered and as for sport they were highly influenced by the Greeks. However, Roman sports were not so artistic as Greek sports. The Romans wanted to develop and strengthen the body above all for military purposes and they gave great importance to spectacle and violence. The ancient city of Rome had a place near the Tiber river called the Campus where Roman soldiers drilled. Later, the Campus became Rome’s field playground, and similar grounds were developed in several other centres and military settlements. In the campus, the youth met to play sports such as jumping, wrestling, boxing and racing. Riding, throwing, and swimming were also favourite physical activities. In the countryside, free time activities also included fishing and hunting. Ball games were popular as well. They included Handball (Expulsim Ludere), field hockey, catch, and some form of Football. Board games played in ancient Rome included dice (Tesserae or tali), Roman chess (Latrunculi), Roman Checkers (Calculi), tic-tac-toe (Terni Lapilli), and ludus duodecim scriptorum and tabula, predecessors of backgammon. There were several other activities to keep people engaged like chariot races, musical and theatrical performances, public executions and gladiator battles. In the Colosseum, Rome’s amphitheatre, the floor was also flooded to hold mock naval battles.

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Sports in ancient Rome Chariot racing Chariot racing was the most popular sport in Rome. All social classes from slaves to the emperor himself loved it and although there was no public gambling on the races private betting was popular. Most Roman charioteers (called aurigae or agitatores) began their careers as slaves, and those who were successful soon accumulated enough money to buy their freedom. But some, like gladiators, were volunteers who were paid to race. Chariot-drivers belonged to one of four teams: red, blue, white or green. Races were held in a circus, so named because of its oval shape. The oldest and largest circus in Rome was the Circus Maximus. Up to twelve chariots could take part in a race. Each chariot was drawn by a team of four horses. Each race was seven laps of the circus. The races were very dangerous. The drivers raced their horse-drawn chariots at top speed round the arena. They were allowed to ram and bump into each other, and chariots often overturned, resulting in what the Romans called anaufragia, or shipwreck. Even though drivers wore protective clothing, many were injured or even killed during a race. Winners were guaranteed fame and riches, but, because the races were so dangerous, their lives were often short. Gladiator fights Roman gladiator games were an opportunity for Emperors and rich aristocrats to show their wealth to their people, to commemorate military victories, celebrate birthdays or simply to distract the population from political and economic problems. Huge popular events were held in large arenas throughout the Empire, among which the Colosseum (or Flavian Amphitheatre) in Rome was the biggest. Thousands of spectators from all social classes wanted to be entertained by exciting spectacles where wild and exotic animals were hunted, prisoners were executed, religious martyrs were thrown to the lions and the of the Roman virtues of honour and courage, the gladiators, used all their fighting skills in a kill or be killed contest. Races were held in a circus, so named because of its oval shape. The oldest and largest circus in Rome was the Circus Maximus. Up to twelve chariots could take part in a race. Each chariot was drawn by a team of four horses. Each race was seven laps of the circus.The races were very dangerous. The drivers raced their horse-drawn chariots at top speed round the arena. They were allowed to ram and bump into each other, and chariots often overturned, resulting in what the Romans called anaufragia, or shipwreck. Even though drivers wore protective clothing, many were injured or even killed during a race. Winners were guaranteed fame and riches, but, because the races were so dangerous, their lives were often short. The fights usually lasted 10-15 minutes. Gladiators were owned by a person called lanista and trained in the lanista school. There was only one simple rule: gladiators had to fight until the death of the opponent. If the loser did not die, or was simply wounded, the emperor decided if he had to live or die. If he gave a thumbs-up, the warrior lived, and if he gave a thumbs-down, the warrior died. The winners received a Laurel Crown and were considered celebrities. -

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Sports in ancient Rome Weightlifting Boxing One of the favourite Roman sports was boxing. It was a popular game during the period of the republic as well as of the empire. Boxing gloves were made of leather cut into thin pieces and tied under the palm of the hand so the fingers remained uncovered. Boxing was regulated by certain rules: fighters were not allowed to grab their opponent, or to use their feet to make one another fall. Anyway it often occurred that boxers died either during the fight itself or soon after. If both the fighters were tired but didn’t want to give up the fight they could have a rest to recover their strength. If the fight lasted too long the boxers could stand still but received blows without defending themselves, except for a certain position of the hands. The contest did not end until one of the combatants was compelled by fatigue, wounds or despair, to give up which was generally done by lifting up one hand. Running In Roman times a wrestling contest was divided into two parts: the fight of the athletes as long as they stood upright and where the athletes struggled with each other while lying on the ground. The contest continued until one of them gave up. Running was another favourite activity in ancient Rome. Boys competed in footraces with one another on the Campus Martius, which was ani deal location for this activity. Women and sport in ancient Rome In Ancient Rome the opportunity for participation in sport by women was the result of a gradual improvement of their position in society. For example, in the early republic women could not choose their husband. By the first century B.C. it was understood that marriage was a contract which required the free consent of the two parties. It was in this new social climate that women started to appear on the sport scene. Women started attending the baths where they were involved in ball-playing. Furthermore, women practiced and participated in gladiatorial combats against other women in the arena. Roman women, also, participated in swimming, running, weight-lifting and dancing. -

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Sports in ancient Rome Ball games The folliculus was an inflated leather ball, filled with air. Boys and old men among the Romans threw it from one to another with their arms and hands as a gentle exercise of the body. But the pila was the name of the ball used by the serious athletes. The Romans loved ball games which were played by people of all ages. These games were often played before taking a bath, in a room called the sphaeristerium which was attached to the baths. -a ball game in which the player threw the ball to the ground with force so that it rebounded, then he struck it down again with the palm of his hand and went on doing that many times: the number of times was counted; trigon or pila trigonalis, which was played at by three players, who stood in the form of a triangle. Probably trigon was played with multiple balls, perhaps two per player. It required skill, dexterity, quick reflexes and eye-to-hand coordination. Roman ball games included: - a ball game, in which the ball was thrown up into the air, and the players tried to catch it, before it fell to the ground; -football, which was similar to the present game and was played by a great number of people divided into two opposing teams; -another ball game played by a group of players, who threw the ball from one to another. The person who had the ball pretended to throw it to a certain individual, but then he suddenly turned, and threw it to another. -"Harpastum" a rugby style game (you could use your hands and feet) which was used by Julius Caesar and his generals as a form of military training to improve the physical fitness of the Roman Army; -"Expulsim Ludere" which was very popular among the Romans. They used a single wall, and the game was similar to what is known today as one-walled handball. Handball courts existed at the baths and in private villas, but almost any wall could be used. Undoubtedly children and boys played this game in the streets. Swimming Swimming was one of the favorite activities of Roman boys who practiced it in the Tiber River, next to the Campus Martius. Most Roman baths also had pools. Women enjoyed swimming as well. Wrestling In Roman times a wrestling contest was divided into two parts: the fight of the athletes as long as they stood upright and where the athletes struggled with each other while lying on the ground. The contest continued until one of them gave up. -

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THE MIDDLE AGES Popular sports and games A time of feasts, games and sports Religion and the church may have played a central role in Medieval history but the inhabitants of that time period also knew how to have fun. Aside from festivals, acrobatics, dancing and music, people from the Medieval times enjoyed playing a wide variety of games and sports. Outdoor games played by the lower levels of society gradually evolved into noble pastimes, including archery, horseback and swordfighting, branched out into various types of sports. Sporting events were also the best venues to display the power and influence of knights and nobles. They were held on occasion of festivals and people from across the land gathered to take part in such celebrations. Medieval society covered a wide variety of sports, most of which were the ancestors of present-day sports. A number of outdoor sporting games like gameball, bowls, colf, shinty, stoolball, hammer-throwing, horseshoes, skittles and wrestling were popular among Medieval citizens as well as archery, jousts and tournaments. Noblewomen were especially fond of hunting. It was one of a few Medieval sports they took part in during their spare time. Compared to members of the nobility, peasants and serfs enjoyed a number of Medieval sports and outdoor games. Peasants from different villages competed at folk-football events and village members could showcase their teamwork and take pride in their village. Sports as most of the events we know and practice at present could trace their roots to that time. The medieval society of Europe also enjoyed entertaining games including card games, dice games, board games, and childTrheenm’s egdaimeveasl.sSoocmieteyoofftEhuerionpdeooarlsgoaemnejosywedhiechntweretraeinvinegrygpaompeuslairndcluurdininggtchaerdMigdadmleeAs,gedsicwe egraemcehse,sbs,oabradckggaammems,oann,d NinechMilednre’sn’Ms ograrmis,eas.lqSuoemrqeueosf.the indoor games which were very popular during the Middle Ages were, chess, backgammon, nine men’s Morris, alquerques.

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