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Harnessing the Potential of ICTs Literacy and Numeracy Programmes using Radio, TV, Mobile Phones, Tablets and Computers

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Harnessing the Potential of ICTs for Literacy Teaching and Learning http://www.unesco.org/uil/litbase

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Harnessing the Potential of ICTs Literacy and Numeracy Programmes using Radio, TV, Mobile Phones, Tablets and Computers Case studies from the UNESCO Effective Literacy and Numeracy Practices Database (LitBase) http://www.unesco.org/uil/litbase

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2nd edition Published in 2016 by UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning Feldbrunnenstraße 58 20148 Hamburg Germany © UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning While the programmes of the UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning (UIL) are established along the lines laid down by the General Conference of UNESCO, the publications of the Institute are issued under its sole responsibility. UNESCO is not responsible for their contents. The points of view, selection of facts and opinions expressed are those of the authors and do not necessarily coincide with official positions of UNESCO or the UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning. The designations employed and the presentation of material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of UNESCO or the UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning concerning the legal status of any country or territory, or its authorities, or concerning the delimitations of the frontiers of any country or territory. We would like to thank the following people for their support in developing case studies during their internships at UIL: Alena Oberlerchner, Andrea Díaz Hernández, Anne Darmer, Ayda Hagh Talab, Bo Zhao, Julian Kosh, Justin Jimenez, Kwaku Gyening Owusu, Laura Fox, Lingwei Shao, Mahmoud Elsayed, Mariana Simoes, Medaldo Runhare, Michelle Viljoen, Mihika Shah-Wundenberg, Mika Hama, Moussa Gadio, Nisrine Mussaileb, Rouven Adomat, Ruth Zannis, Sarah Marshall, Seara Moon, Shaima Muhammad, Stephanie Harvey, Thomas Day, Ulrike Schmidt, Unai Arteaga Taberna. Edited by Ulrike Hanemann and Cassandra Scarpino Graphic design by Jan Kairies ISBN 978-92-820-1205-5 This publication is available in Open Access under the Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 IGO (CC-BY-SA 3.0 IGO) licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/ by-sa/3.0/igo/). By using the content of this publication, the users accept to be bound by the terms of use of the UNESCO Open Access Repository (http:// en.unesco.org/open-access/terms-use-ccbysa-en).

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Table of Contents Foreword Page 7 Introduction Page 9 Africa Cabo Verde Distance Learning for Adults: Radio ECCA Page 13 Kenya Empowering Self-help Groups through ICT for Better Education Page 17 Niger Alphabétisation de Base par Cellulaire (ABC): Mobiles 4 Literacy Page 23 Senegal Literacy Project for Girls and Women using ICTs Page 28 Senegal Jokko Initiative Page 37 Somalia Somali Distance Education and Literacy Page 44 South Africa Bridges to the Future Initiative Page 49 Arab States Iraq Civic Education Information Service for Female Iraqi Leaders Page 56 Lebanon Adult Literacy Using Information Technology (ALIT) Page 62 Asia and the Pacific Afghanistan Mobile Literacy Programme Page 65 Cambodia Pink Phone Page 71 India Reading for a Billion: Same Language Subtitling Page 78

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Mongolia Literacy through Distance Learning Page 82 Pakistan Mobile-based Post Literacy Programme Page 86 Solomon Islands Community-based Radio Network for Development and Learning Page 92 Latin America and the Caribbean Brazil Programa de Alfabetização na Língua Materna (PALMA) Page 98 Colombia Virtual Assisted Literacy Programme Page 102 Colombia Sistema Interactivo Transformemos Educando Page 107 Costa Rica Information and Communication Technologies in Andragogical Mediation Page 115 Jamaica AutoSkills Page 120 Panama El Maestro en Casa Page 123 Europe and North America Canada AlphaRoute Page 128 Germany Ich will lernen Page 136 Ireland WriteOn Page 141 Turkey Web-based Literacy Programme Page 147 United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland Maths Everywhere Page 154

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Foreword Lifelong learning is the vision guiding the Education 2030 Framework for Action. To implement this Framework, flexible and accessible learning opportunities must be provided using different pathways, modalities, mechanisms, and channels such as information and communication technologies (ICTs). Mobile technologies in particular are regarded as highly promising for accelerating progress towards the literacy target. They are expected to motivate learners, to promote quality and effective learning, and to deliver services more efficiently. However, the great potential for ICTs to benefit literacy teaching and learning is also challenged by limitations, one of them being the lack of research and evidence on the impact of mobile learning on literacy skills. This publication provides a selection of literacy programmes that use radio, TV, mobile phones, tablets and computers to support the development of literacy, numeracy and language skills. Due to continuous demand, the second edition of the publication has been updated with new case studies. All programmes included in this publication are also available on UNESCO’s Effective Literacy and Numeracy Practices database (LitBase). This database allows users to identify trends, challenges and lessons learnt in applying ICTs to literacy teaching and learning worldwide. The programmes share valuable examples of how ICTs can be used creatively and innovatively to complement face-to-face adult literacy teaching. They highlight the prerequisites that must be met to reach the full potential of ICTs. Many programmes featured in this publication are a testimonial to the empowering impact of mobile technologies on young and adult women. Other programmes allow learners to practise and progress at their own pace, at their convenience and in different locations. Learners can connect and interact with each other through internet platforms. There are limitless possibilities for empowering and engaging strategies, thus nurturing high expectations for the future use of ICTs in adult literacy and education. The literacy programmes supported by ICTs in this publication show that harnessing the potential of ICTs is also challenging, particularly in rural contexts with poor infrastructures. Most countries are still too far removed from conditions that would allow them to use ICTs optimally. However, we are also observing rapid developments, particularly with regard to smartphone technologies. The examples in this publication offer creative solutions and strategies that may encourage literacy stakeholders, including policy-makers, programme providers and practitioners, to invest in new technologies that address the learning needs of young people and adults with lower skill levels in reading and writing. It is my hope that this publication contributes to the advancement of innovative and effective ICToriented solutions for literacy teaching and learning. It should support the building of a more solid knowledge base for what works (and what doesn’t) in the field of adult literacy programmes using ICTs. Arne Carlsen, Director UIL 7

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Introduction The right to education as recognised by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights includes the acquisition of literacy, numeracy and other basic skills as a foundation for lifelong learning. Lifelong learning is a central principle of the international post-2015 education agenda. In its Position Paper on Education Post-2015, UNESCO proposes that «flexible lifelong and life-wide learning opportunities should be provided through formal, non-formal and informal pathways, including by harnessing the potential of ICTs to create a new culture of learning» (UNESCO, 2014:4). UNESCO values the role of ICTs in providing universal access to education, equity in education, quality learning and teaching as well as teachers’ professional development. If policies, technologies and capacities allow, education management, governance and administration can also be improved by means of ICTs. The Belém Framework for Action (UIL, 2010), in its article 11 on Adult Literacy, states that «Literacy is an indispensable foundation that enables young people and adults to engage in learning opportunities at all stages of the learning continuum» (ibid., p.6). As an age-independent, context-bound and continuous process, the acquisition and development of literacy takes place both within and outside explicitly educational settings and throughout life. Increasingly, reading, writing, language and numeracy are viewed as part of a broader conception of key competencies, including ICT skills, which require sustained learning and updating. Instead of being perceived as a standalone set of skills to be developed and completed in a short time frame, literacy and numeracy are increasingly seen as fundamental components of a complex set of foundational or basic skills. As a consequence, a number of UNESCO member states have included ICT skills, together with other essential skills, in their literacy definitions (UIL, 2013:21). With the implementation of the OECD Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competences (PIAAC), the use of ICT skills was introduced as one of the new elements into direct testing of literacy skills. Problem solving in technology-rich environments «as the ability to use digital technology, communication tools and networks to acquire and evaluate information, communicate with others and perform practical tasks» (OECD, 2013: 59), includes the use of computers at different proficiency levels. However, ICT skills do not only represent a novel dimension which has been integrated in official literacy definitions and major surveys to assess skills levels among the adult population of participating countries. Different technologies have been used already for decades to support adult education and learning. These include radio, television and audio and video cassettes. More recently digital ICTs such as computers, tablets, e-books, and mobile technology have spread at great speed and also found their way into the teaching and learning of literacy and numeracy skills. The large spectrum of ICTs, which can be applied to different contexts, includes satellite systems, network hardware and software as well as videoconferencing and electronic mail. Each one of these technologies opens up new possibilities to develop literacy skills from the safety of one’s home and offers a virtually unrestricted access to learning materials (Kim et al., 2012). The great potential of ICTs for learning is also challenged by limitations. Especially for the older generation it is difficult to catch up with ICT skills, which is why they are at risk to be left behind. In addition, a lack of literacy skills is often connected to poverty, which may restrict access to and the efficient use of those technologies. Meanwhile, despite growing use of mobile phones and personal computers, access to the internet is restricted in many parts of the world. For example, in Kenya about 72% of the population own a mobile phone but only around 32% are internet users (UNICEF, 2012). The challenges of using mobile learning to accomplish Education for All (EFA) goals and of mainstreaming mobile learning include building strong multi-sector partnerships to foster widespread uptake, linking mobile analytics to learning theory, training teachers in mobile learning design and promoting mobile learning for all (UNESCO, 2013). After television, radio is the mass communication technology that reaches the widest audience throughout the globe. It is a low-cost but powerful tool, especially for reaching vulnerable populations in remote areas. This compilation includes case studies from Cape Verde, Panama, Solomon Islands and Somalia as examples of how radio helps to preserve local cultures and languages while contributing to global understanding and promoting development, lifelong learning and cultural diversity. At the same time it supports life skills and adult basic educa- 9

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Introduction tion programmes. Very often, distant learning supported by ICTs is just a complement to face-to-face teaching. This is for example the case in Mongolia, where the face-to-face teaching strategy is supplemented by a distance learning mode using radio, video-CDs and DVDs. The Same Language Subtitling Programme in India is an example on how millions of newly literate people can be motivated to further develop their reading skills by combining this practice with the consumption of popular culture on TV. Mobile phones, tablets and personal computers are further extending their reach and offer a high value with regard to literacy teaching and learning, especially when an internet connection is available. Smartphones and tablets are the most recent generation of ICTs, and are outperforming other technologies, because of their independence from landlines and because they provide the opportunity to include interactive learning features. This compilation offers examples from Afghanistan, Brazil, Cambodia, Iraq, Niger, Pakistan, Senegal and the UK. The Cambodian pink phone project is an example for how mobile technology has empowered women leaders at grassroots level to reduce domestic violence incidents in their communities by enabling them to take action in a timely manner. The use of tablets has been successfully piloted in the Amazon rainforest of Colombia offering the learning software in four different indigenous languages in addition to the national language. The many examples of literacy and numeracy practices using web-based learning programmes through computers include literacy programmes from Brazil, Canada, Colombia, Costa Rica, Germany, Ireland, Jamaica, Kenya, Lebanon, and Turkey, from which valuable lessons can be drawn. The examples of literacy and numeracy programmes included in this compilation confirm that the use of ICTs to support the acquisition and further development of reading, writing and numeracy skills is usually part of broader blended learning strategies. Traditional classroom teaching and learning approaches are complemented by self-directed learning, where learners can practice and progress at their individual pace, at their own time, and in different places. These strategies contain also possibilities for learners to interact with each other and share the learning experience from different places. A number of programmes featured in this selection are enabling learners to connect with each other and exchange information about health, nutrition, religion and other important day-to-day topics or to coordinate their community development activities. These inspiring programmes arose from different cultural backgrounds and are transferable to a variety of contexts. The adult literacy and numeracy programmes presented in this compilation also show that there are many challenges associated with the introduction and maintenance of ICTs. Often the financial sustainability of such projects is a major issue. One key challenge is to better ensure that programmes acknowledge the realities and limitations of existing infrastructures, as well as the specific social and cultural contexts, in order to support programme ownership and sustainability over time. At the same time the programmes offer creative solutions on how to overcome some of those hurdles. Most countries are still far from a situation that would allow them to make optimal use of ICTs, and the aim of providing effective learning opportunities for everyone, anytime and anywhere is far from being fulfilled. Particularly when the introduction of ICTs such as mobile phones and personal computers into adult learning becomes strongly market-driven, there is a risk of excluding those with lower incomes. Many literacy providers in poor countries struggling with making available minimal levels of services to learners may be questioning the suitability of ICTs for their context. Furthermore, there are critical voices on how computers transform education, work, and international development in ways that are ecologically unsustainable. While many people interpret digital technologies as beneficial and culturally neutral, some scholars have drawn attention to how they reinforce problematic assumptions of the «modern world» (Bowers, C.A., 2014). Therefore, it is crucial to develop educational strategies that will contribute to more critical and informed citizens and a public debate about the uses and risks of digital technologies. The recent ICT development, particularly with regard to smartphone technologies, has led to high expectations for the future. However until now there is not enough evidence to show that mobile technology truly leads to a better learning success (Kim et al., 2012). Due to the unpredictability of mobile learning, it can be difficult to gather data on the impact of mobile learning projects (Vavoula and Sharples, 2009). While our knowledge of learning has improved significantly thanks to progress in cognitive research, research into the effect of ICT interventions on the learning process is nearly non-existent. In addition, available research on the effectiveness of ICTs often seems to be contradictory, difficult to interpret, and hard to apply to policy. Even though research-based evidence on the improvement of adult literacy skills through the use of ICTs is still limited, this compilation offers promising examples showing that ICT can be creatively used to supplement face-to-face adult literacy teaching and can be applied to gain and 10

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Introduction maintain literacy skills on a higher level (Chudgar, 2014). Fascinating and exciting new technologies, software and applications are appearing almost on a daily basis. However, exploiting the potential of ICTs can never be an end in itself. Technologies are only tools, if powerful ones. They have the potential to contribute to effective teaching and learning literacy and numeracy: enhancing access and outreach, motivating learners to engage or re-engage in learning, improving the quality of teaching and learning, and boosting the possibilities for lifelong learning. However, in order to make effective use of the potential of ICTs, many difficulties have to be overcome and some prerequisites must be met. These cover a wide spectrum including education policies and strategies; physical, hardware, and software infrastructures; human and financial resources; implementation modalities; and teaching and learning contents and methodologies. The experiences documented in this publication show that the practice of effectively integrating ICTs into the teaching and learning of literacy and numeracy is not a simple one-step process. It involves a series of deliberate decisions, preparatory actions, creativity and pilot testing. It requires careful analysis of which educational objectives can be supported by ICTs; which ICTs are the most appropriate with regard to learners’ and teachers’ motivations and capacities, context realities and development prospects; and which investment in the necessary human, physical and instructional infrastructures is necessary and sustainable over time. Innovations require deliberate effort and commitment, a solid base of knowledge, consultation of stakeholders and participatory development processes, testing of different options, planning for large-scale implementation, and openness to self-critical assessment, modification and adjustment. A prudent step-by-step incremental approach, succeeded in time by a comprehensive strategic approach, has proven to be the most effective. A successful approach to introducing ICTs in the teaching and learning of literacy and numeracy recognizes the central role of facilitators, educators or teachers who do not only need to be convinced of the benefits of ICTs and sufficiently trained in its pedagogical use, but also should be actively involved in the early stages of planning and developing such learning systems. Action research will then turn such experimental projects and piloting into productive learning experiences. It will also contribute to quality assurance and the creation of a solid knowledge base. This may encourage further investment in new technologies that address the learning needs of marginalised population groups, and are both sustainable and cost-effective. All literacy programmes selected to be featured in this publication contain valuable experiences and lessons to share. More examples of innovative literacy programmes can be found on UNESCO’s Effective Literacy and Numeracy Practices Database (LitBase) at www.unesco.org/uil/litbase, which is a continuously developing database of successful adult literacy programmes. Ulrike Hanemann Sources ✎✎ Bowers, C.A. (2014). The false promises of the digital revolution. Peter Lang, New York. ✎✎ Chudgar, A. (2014). The promises and challenges of using mobile phones for adult literacy training: Data from one Indian state. International Journal on Educational Development. vol. 34 (1), pp. 20 – 29. ✎✎ Kim, P. et al (2012). A comparative analysis of a game-based mobile learning model in low-socioeconomic communities of India. International Journal of Education. vol. 32 (2), pp. 329 – 340. ✎✎ OECD (2013). OECD Skills Outlook 2013: First Results from the Survey of Adult Skills, [pdf] Available at: http://skills.oecd.org/OECD_Skills_ Outlook_2013.pdf (Accessed 10 March 2014). ✎✎ UNESCO (2013). The Future of Mobile Learning: Implications for Policy Makers and Planners. Paris, France. ✎✎ UNESCO (2014). Position Paper on Education Post-2015. ED-14/EFA/POST-2015/1 ✎✎ UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning (2010). Belém Framework for Action. UIL, Hamburg, Germany ✎✎ UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning (2013). 2nd Global Report on Adult Learning and Education. Rethinking Literacy. Hamburg, Germany ✎✎ UNICEF (2012). Kenya Statistics, [web] Available at: http://www.unicef.org/infobycountry/ kenya_statistics.html (Accessed 19 March 2014). ✎✎ Vavoula, G. and Sharples, M. (2009). Meeting the Challenges in Evaluating Mobile Learning: A 3-level Evaluation Framework. International Journal of Mobile and Blended Learning, Vol. 1, (2), pp. 54 – 75. 11

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CABO VERDE Distance Learning for Adults: Radio ECCA COUNTRY PROFILE Population 519,000 (2006 estimate) Official Language Portuguese Internet Users per 1000 Inhabitants 35 (2002) Households Possessing a Radio Receiver 66% (2002) Access to Primary Education – Total Net Intake Rate (NIR) 87.8% (2005) Total Youth Literacy Rate (15–24 years) 96% (1995-2004) Adult Literacy Rate (1995-2004) Total: 81%, Male: 88%, Female: 76% PROGRAMME OVERVIEW Programme Title Distance Learning for Adults: Radio ECCA Project for Socio-Economic Development Language of Instruction Portuguese Programme Partners Government of Cape Verde, Spanish Agency for International Cooperation, Regional Government of the Canary Islands Date of Inception 2002 CONTEXT AND BACKGROUND Cape Verde is an archipelago consisting of ten islands. Although primary education is mandatory for children between 6 and 14 years and free 13

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Distance Learning for Adults: Radio ECCA for those between 6 and 12 years, access to education is still a major challenge for most people due to poverty and low educational investment, including investment in workpower and school development. Adult distance learning and the use of information and communication technologies in learning is therefore regarded as a vital means of increasing people’s access to education. Distance education is also officially recognised by law as a means of reducing geographical / regional disparities and promoting equality of opportunities in education and training for all young people and adults as well as a vehicle for promoting national development. The Law of Foundations of the Education System of Cape Verde establishes distance education as a special modality of education, which «shall complement recurrent and continuing education». The law also stipulates that learning achievements gained through distance education should be recognised as equivalent to those gained through the formal education system. The pilot phase of the distance learning programme for youth and adults based on the Adult Distance Learning (ECCA System) began in 1999 with financial and technical support from the Government of Cape Verde, the Regional Government of the Canary Islands and the Spanish Agency for International Cooperation. Since then, the programme has evolved and expanded in different phases. Between 2002 and 2005, the «Adult Distance Learning (ECCA System) for the Economic Development of Cape Verde» project was launched and implemented. This was followed by the launch of the educational radio service programme in 2003, which is still operational (see: http://www.radioecca.org/). In addition, a third phase (2006 – 2011) of the adult distance education programme was implemented. The principal goal of the Adult Distance Learning programme (ECCA System) is to support the National Programme of Adult Education and Training, which combines distance education with adult basic education, secondary education, and vocational education and training, as well as community learning for development. PROGRAMME The second programme phase (2006 – 2011), Training for the Design and Implementation of an Integrated Adult Distance Learning and Training System (ECCA System) for the Economic Development of Cape Verde and Related Curricular Design, is an expanded follow-up of the 2002 – 2005 version. The programme is intended to enable all out-of-school youth and adults to access education, regardless of their literacy skills or levels of formal education and economic status. 14

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Distance Learning for Adults: Radio ECCA OBJECTIVES The general goal of the programme is to set up a national training system for out-of-school youths and adults that is based on distance learning and uses radio communication and other ICTs as a means of learning. At the same time, curriculum and learning materials should be designed in order to improve the current face-to-face teaching system. Therefore, the specific objectives of the programme are to: ✎✎ design a new national curriculum of distance learning and related learning materials for learners at different literacy levels and/or stages of educational training; ✎✎ train Cape Verdean professionals in both the development of curricular design and in the development, design, reproduction and recording of teaching materials; ✎✎ develop training activities with the ECCA Distance Learning Radio System to ensure equal opportunities in terms of access to education and to the world of work; and ✎✎ adopt the ECCA Distance Learning System, thereby providing the Directorate of Literacy and Adult Education (DGAEA) with an educational radio service and related equipment designed to improve the quality and outreach of the educational radio station network, increase Internet radio broadcasting and enable access to suitable computer equipment. APPROACHES AND METHODOLOGIES Training of Professionals in the Distance Learning System Members of the Ministry of Education’s technical staff are being given intensive training in the use of the ECCA Distance Learning System in order to enable them to perform the different functions and tasks related to its implementation. One of the tasks is the development of an Integral System of Adult Education and Training, based on a renewed and expanded vision of education and training. It is an integral, plural, open and flexible system intended to train youth, adults and their communities. It recognises the prior learning and life experiences that adults have already gained and sees the training of adults as a competency-based process of lifelong learning. It lays the foundations for a national system of recognition, validation and certification for the competencies that adults have acquired through formal, non-formal and informal channels. A first version of a competency-based and modular Curricular Design for Adult Education and Training is being prepared. Instead of individual subjects, the curriculum focuses on four main areas (communication, knowledge, citizenship and employment) in order to develop four key competencies, 22 skills and 180 items for evaluation. Most of the thematic areas support the development of the tourist industry and 15

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Distance Learning for Adults: Radio ECCA some are related to food, languages (English, Spanish and French), sales and customer services, receptionist duties, leisure and entertainment, tourist guide activities, environmental education, community development and computer programmes, among others. The innovative feature of this new curricular design is the inclusion of distance learning; a methodology which strengthens the activities carried out so far by the DGAEA. A further project activity consists of conducting a technical study for the creation of a nation-wide educational radio service to provide equipment to radio studios. In addition, there are plans to install seven radio stations and distribute computers with Internet access to nine adult education and training centres during the «embryonic» stage of the digital literacy project. Furthermore, the DGAEA will be equipped with printing facilities to enable support materials to be produced autonomously. A telecommunications centre will be installed to improve internal and external communication. A webpage and a virtual collaborative environment will help learners and facilitators communicate and exchange information. The project is aimed at transferring the ECCA Adult Distance Learning System technologies to the DGAEA in order to help it implement the national adult education and training system. Methods of Distance Learning and Teaching The ECCA Distance Learning System is based on the synchronised use of three elements: print materials, radio classes and orientation tutorials: ✎✎ The print materials comprise all the information required to follow the course. These include questionnaires, charts, exercises and evaluations which accompany, complement and build on the contents of the radio classes. Additional support materials include video, audio, and CD-ROM materials. ✎✎ Each radio class includes a precise and active explanation of the content of the print materials which the learners complete following the instructions given to them by the educator. Each class usually lasts 30 minutes and provides information on the topic of the day. ✎✎ The orientation tutorials complement the print materials and radio classes and are intended to facilitate contact between learners and educators. This contact can be set up face-to-face or from a distance (by telephone or via a telematic system) and enables system-related feedback to be generated. PROGRAMME IMPACT AND ACHIEVEMENTS ✎✎ To date, 25 courses have been developed and more than 20,000 certificates have been issued to youths and adults who have been empowered to enter the job market as semi-professionals. ✎✎ Distance education based on the use of new ICTs expands learners’ opportunities for work-based, advanced vocational training. ✎✎ Innovative pedagogical approaches allow for learning experiences which are tailored to participants’ characteristics, learning needs and specific vocational activities. LESSONS LEARNED ✎✎ Distance learning based on ICTs constitutes an ideal solution for Cape Verde which – due to its geographic situation and state of economic development – is on its way to becoming a «knowledge society». The education system is under great pressure to provide quality education and training based on new technologies that are tailored to meet the challenges of socio-economic development with a particular emphasis on the tourist industry. ✎✎ Distance learning based on ICTs will be more successful if it is implemented as a national education and training system in the context of a favourable education policy. ✎✎ The ICTs must be viable and adapted to the needs of the country and the context in order to provide sustainable solutions that are able to support the achievement of both national education targets and the UN Millennium Development Goals. ✎✎ The educational radio system is better adapted to the context of African countries. This is proven by the results of experiences with the ECCA System in the Canary Islands, Cabo Verde, Morocco and Mauritania. CONTACT Florenço Mendes Varela Director Geral de Alfabetização e Educação de Adultos Rua Pedagogo Paulo Freire, nº 1 Achada Santo António Praia Cabo Verde Email: fmendes50@hotmail.com http://www.radioecca.net/ http://www.dgaea.gov.cv/ 16

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KENYA Empowering Self-help Groups through ICT for Better Education COUNTRY PROFILE Population 43,924,000 (2013) Official languages English, Swahili Poverty (Poverty headcount ratio at USD 2 PPP a day) 67.2% (2011) Total Expenditure on Education as % of GNP 6.7 (2011) Net Enrolment Rate Primary Education 82% (2009) Youth Literacy Rate (15-24 years, 2011) Total: 82%, Male: 83%, Female: 82% Adult Literacy Rate (15 years and over, 2011) Total: 72% (2011), Male: 78%, Female: 67% PROGRAMME OVERVIEW Programme Title Empowering Self –Help Groups in Kenya Through ICT for Better Education and Alternative Livelihood Activities Implementing Organisations Coastal Ocean Research and Development in the Indian Ocean (CORDIO East Africa) (NGO), Avallain Ltd. Kenya Language of Instruction English and Kiswahili Date of Inception initial work started in 2007, online learning material was launched in May 2010 Programme Partners Avallain Switzerland, Coastal Oceans Research and Development-Indian Ocean (CORDIO) and Suganthi Devadsason Marine Research Institute (SDMRI) CONTEXT AND BACKGROUND Although, with a GDP of USD 44.10 billion, Kenya has the largest economy in South-East and Central Africa (World Bank, 2013), 67.2% of its population lives on less than USD 2 per day (UIS, 2011). The Education For All (EFA) Global Monitoring Report notes that Kenya is among the countries furthest away from achieving the 96% target for adult literacy by 2015. Instead, an adult literacy rate of 78% is projected (UNESCO, 2014), representing a 6% improvement since 2011. Despite increasing the proportion of GNP spent on education by 2% since 1999, the total government budget for education fell by approximately 8% between 1999 and 2011. Although some progress has been made, it has not always reached the poorest and most marginalized parts of the population. Children from wealthier backgrounds have a far better chance of enrolling at school and gaining basic literacy and numeracy skills. In 2003, primary school fees were abolished, contributing to an expansion in access to primary education. Yet, despite this, only 75% of children in Kenya graduate from grade 4, of whom around 70% are able to read (numbers that nevertheless compare favourably to other sub-Saharan African countries). Behind these figures are significant discrepancies in achievement. The youth literacy rate for the poorest Kenyans is around 70%, compared to 90% for the richest. The issue is compounded by gender discrimination, particularly in the poorest households, with 6% fewer girls completing primary education than boys. Almost two-thirds (61%) of all illiterate adults in Kenya are women. Poor teacher training is likely to be a contributing factor limiting progress in education. A recent report on school quality highlighted the fact that teachers receive little training and, therefore, do not fully master their subjects (Ngware et al., 2010). Kenya faces not only important social challenges but also significant environmental threats, concerning poorer people’s reliance on water and land resources, which are related to the country’s high poverty rate. The Empowering Self-Help Groups in Kenya through ICT for Better Education and Alternative Livelihood Activities programme aims to address these challenges through the promotion of alternative liveli17

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