Inclusive Market-oriented Development


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ICRISAT Annual Report 2010

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vision a prosperous food-secure and resilient dryland tropics mission to reduce poverty hunger malnutrition and environmental degradation in the dryland tropics goal partnership-based international agricultural research-for-development that embodies science with a human face.


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contents message from the director general message from the chairman inclusive market-oriented development brain and brawn belie bad soil a c-change in southern india 6 8 2 3 not by bread alone 10 from relief to resilience 12 now healthy wealthy and wise 14 watersheds wishing-wells for women 16 about icrisat icrisat governing board 2010 18 icrisat senior and collaborative staff members 20 financial summary 24 partnerships publications and awards list of restricted projects that commenced in 2010 26 workshops conferences and meetings in 2010 32 training courses during 2010 35 publications 38 icrisat in the news 39 awards 2010 40 icrisat annual report 2010 icrisat annual report 2010 11


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message from the director general a dam smith a social philosopher and a pioneer of political economy 1723-1790 once said no society can surely be flourishing and happy of which the far greater part of the members are poor and miserable the world bank has warned that rising food prices driven partly by rising fuel costs have pushed 44 million more people into poverty since june 2010 estimating that about 1.2 billion people worldwide currently live in extreme poverty in the dryland tropics alone poverty and hunger are widespread three hundred million people there live on less than one dollar a day and seven hundred million live on less than two dollars a day this level of absolute poverty in the tropical drylands along with a high rate of child malnutrition of nearly 42 percent in dryland asia and nearly 27 percent in dryland africa is a staggering and unacceptable tragedy these are disturbing facts but reminders nevertheless about improvements needed in our world for us at icrisat they are reminders about our vision and mission in the dryland tropics as well as our commitment to face the challenge of creating conditions that will allow those who are poor today to escape poverty this past year has been one of introspection as we sought insights into the ways of combating poverty the result is our new strategic plan to 2020 our new mission statement is anchored on the conceptual framework that we call inclusive market-oriented development or imod which promotes progression from subsistence towards market-oriented agriculture thus empowering smallholder farm families and building their resilience on the path to prosperity in our fight against poverty we have identified four strategic thrusts ­ resilient dryland systems markets institutions and policies grain legumes and dryland cereals we have also formulated a business plan that describes how we will fulfill our commitments to 2015 in addition icrisat has identified six development outcomes that we strive to achieve ­ 1 food sufficiency 2 intensification 3 diversification 4 resilience 5 health and nutrition and 6 women empowerment this annual report features outcomes in these areas achieved during the year 2010 these are actual stories from the field revealing what we hope is a representation of larger impacts in the regions where we work as ever we acknowledge the guidance of our governing board towards the realization of our vision and mission as also the immense support of our scientists staff members and stakeholders in our efforts to bring and share happiness and prosperity to millions of poor smallholder farmers in the dryland tropics william d dar director general 2 icrisat annual report 2010


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message from the chairman am proud of icrisat i am proud of the way icrisat is developing but most of all i am proud of the way my colleagues are actually making a difference to the lives of the poor smallholder farmers in the dryland tropics while the development and funding of the new cgiar consortium was still uncertain icrisat with its partners wisely and boldly re-thought its approach and developed a new ambitious strategic plan to 2020 plus the business plan needed to implement this strategy at the governing board meeting in arusha tanzania last september the board unanimously approved this new strategy our excitement was captured in the arusha declaration the core of the declaration states anchored on the principle that people must determine their own destiny the new strategy challenges the widespread pessimistic belief that the drylands of the developing countries will constantly depend on external aid for economic growth we at icrisat will never accept this view icrisat s new strategic approach called inclusive marketoriented development is full of promise icrisat scientists in asia and sub-saharan africa working closely with partners already have a successful track record of helping smallholder farmers gain access to market opportunities there are numerous examples for instance the export of peanuts from malawi to the eu the packets of peanuts in my local supermarket do not mention icrisat our noncommercial status will not permit it but these peanuts could only re-enter european markets because of icrisat s involvement through capacity building coupled with the aflatoxin testing techniques first developed at patancheru that ensure export of disease-free peanuts another example of this synergy between our work in asia and africa are the high-yielding medium-duration wilt-resistant and largeseeded varieties of pigeonpea developed by icrisat and our partners that are transforming the lives of many dryland farmers in kenya malawi mozambique tanzania and uganda and the development of a thriving export market to india our new strategy will build on this solid foundation in conclusion dimidium facti qui coepit habet once you have started you are half way there on behalf of the governing board i wish to congratulate icrisat and our partners for living up to our expectations and the excellent strategic plan they have developed i thank the donors and stakeholders for the support they provide and i wish icrisat every success in their work for the farmers of the semi-arid tropics i nigel poole chair icrisat governing board icrisat annual report 2010 3


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icrisat s development outcomes 1 food sufficiency smallholder farmers in the dryland tropics producing sufficient food from grain legume and dryland cereal systems to at least meet their food needs 2 intensification smallholder farmers capturing additional market opportunities from sustainably intensified and value-added grain legume and dryland cereal systems 3 diversification smallholder farmers diversifying their crops systems and products achieving major value gains 4 resilience smallholder farmers/households maintaining food nutritional and economic security during periods of environmental and economic shocks 5 health and nutrition smallholder households consuming more nutritious and safe diets 6 women empowerment women in smallholder households engaging in and benefiting from the recently devised inclusive market-oriented development approach 4 icrisat annual report 2010


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inclusive market-oriented development icrisat annual report 2010 5


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the microdosed plot on the left gives much better yield than the one on the right outcome food sufficiency brain and brawn belie bad soil uman beings inhabit a great range of environments they are found in the coldest and hottest of climates in lush green surroundings and in the driest tropics of the world ­ and still manage to survive yet in the present day and age mere survival is not enough we need quality variety and sustainability in life poor soil fertility and low rainfall have affected crop production for decades in the sahel food crises and food insecurity are the main factors contributing to chronic malnutrition in these region but thanks to fertilizer microdosing farmers can now give mother nature a hand and change this challenging situation for the better average rates of fertilizer usage in subsaharan africa ssa are a mere 8 kg/ha compared to the world average of 100 kg/ha farmers in ssa have long been encouraged to use higher rates of fertilizer but could not afford to do so because of this low fertilizer usage yields of most food crops are often less than 500 kg per hectare in the dry areas keeping african farmers mired in poverty microdosing is the strategic application of small doses of fertilizer in the hill of the plant at sowing or at the base of the plants h shortly after planting this departs from the conventional method of spreading fertilizer across the field this precision placement helps the roots grow more quickly capture more native non-added nutrients and find water although microdosing entails a lot of manual labor the combination of these effects significantly increases the agronomic as well as economic efficiency of nutrient and water use and consequently raises yields icrisat and its partners ­ nars universities ngos and farmer organizations ­ have worked for several years to develop this technology tied with the warrantage credit system where farmers take a loan against their grain harvest in lean periods and sell the grain when prices are high to repay the loan icrisat is currently working with partners in the alliance for a green revolution in africa agra to increase the production of millet sorghum cowpea and maize by 50 targeting an increase in farm income of 30 for at least 360,000 farm households in burkina faso niger and mali this project is well on the way to achieving its goals take the story of mamadou batougounè sylla of baraouili mali who has become a champion in his village when the agra 6 icrisat annual report 2010


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mamadou sylla explaining his achievements to visitors in his farm in baraouili ségou mali icrisat project started he was among the first farmers to join ten years ago mamadou was like any other farmer in baraouili he had sufficient farmland but the soil was too poor to produce enough food to feed his family he then joined the microdosing project and worked with extension agents and sasakawa 2000 an ngo supervising farmers ten years ago i could barely feed my family and i had to crop 20 ha of land and hire labor with little return on my investment he says he planted millet sorghum maize groundnut and sesame and yet harvested too little to make a living with the project he learned about microdosing and became a lead farmer he was selected to set up demonstration plots and farmer field schools on his farm and teach other farmers of his village his motto do not take everything from the soil feed the soil so that it can feed you mamdou s millet and sorghum yields increased from 300-500 kg/ha to 1800-2000 kg/ha cropping only 10 ha half his land holding was enough to feed his family of 30 he now owns 3 bulls 2 donkeys 10 cows and 10 goats he invested in more efficient equipment ­ 2 plows 1 multi-cultivator 1 planter and 2 carts his engagement in promoting new technologies was officially rewarded with a medal of agricultural merit by the government of mali his goal is to bring women and children into the picture when he talks about his newly gained knowledge to visitors he always asks young farmers to come and listen he donated a portion of his land to a group of women to produce and sell groundnut seed an income-generating activity for women in the region his message to his friends in the village is to test and select new technologies to fit their needs in addition to higher crop yields two more crucial advantages of fertilizer microdosing are its adoptability and profitability the cost of fertilizer at the village level is often more than three times as much as in the developed world due to high transport and transaction costs by using much lower rates of fertilizer in more efficient ways and with input stores nearby farmers are much more inclined to adopt the practice indeed if all african farmers are like mamadou a green revolution and food sufficiency in sub-saharan africa is certainly within reach in the near future icrisat annual report 2010 7


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duttala narayana reddy in his flourishing chickpea field outcome intensification a c-change in southern india d uttala narayana reddy a chickpea farmer and head of a household of 10 is a contented man along with his neighbors in kurnool district andhra pradesh southern india he is reaping the vast benefits of the chickpea revolution that triggered significant improvements in the living standards of farmers in nearly 100 villages of the district to appreciate the chickpea revolution in southern india we need to go back a few decades northern india with its long winters has the most suitable conditions for chickpea cultivation however expansion of irrigation and high-input agriculture led to large replacement of chickpea by wheat and other cash crops during 196465 the chickpea area in northern india punjab haryana uttar pradesh and bihar states was 5.14 million hectares it has now shrunk to only 0.73 million hectares chickpea garbanzo or bengal gram is the most produced and consumed pulse crop of india contributing 40 of the country s pulse production india is the largest chickpea producing country with 67 share of total global production despite this chickpea production in india is not adequate to meet domestic demand making it the largest importer of chickpea for many years icrisat in partnership with the indian council of agricultural research icar and state agricultural universities saus developed short-duration chickpea varieties with high yield potential and resistance to fusarium wilt which were well adapted to short season environments of central and southern india thirty-five varieties have been released through this partnership mainly in central and southern india where the cropping season is shorter and warmer than in the north the chickpea area in central madhya pradesh maharashtra and southern states andhra pradesh karnataka increased from 2.05 m ha in 196465 to 5.56 million ha in 2008-09 this increase helped india to meet import demands the chickpea revolution in southern india is particularly apparent in the state of andhra pradesh short-duration chickpea varieties such as jg 11 kak 2 jaki 9218 and vihar developed through partnership with saus in india have been rapidly adopted and now cover over 90 of the chickpea area acharya ng ranga agricultural university the public seed sector and progressive farmers played important roles in the spread of improved varieties the chickpea area in andhra pradesh was 163,000 ha during 1999-2000 and 90 of this area was under the four-decade old chickpea variety annigeri during the last 10 years from 1999 to 2009 chickpea area has increased from 163,000 to 628,000 hectares and production has increased from 95,000 to 884,000 tons/year 8 icrisat annual report 2010


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bumper harvest of chickpea being taken to market for sale the increase in productivity levels from 583 kg/ha to 1400 kg/ha during this period is most remarkable andhra pradesh once considered an unfavorable state for chickpea cultivation has today the highest yields for chickpea in india with an average yield of 872 kg/ha australia mexico myanmar and canada are the major chickpea exporting countries the total chickpea production of andhra pradesh is now close to the total chickpea production of these countries the phenomenal increase in andhra pradesh has helped india to better meet its domestic demand for the first time in three decades india was the net exporter of chickpea in 2007 as its exports 162,000 tons exceeded the imports 145,000 tons earlier duttala narayana reddy and his friends cultivated sorghum their incomes were just enough to meet basic necessities and food requirements after switching to chickpea cultivation they found that during the drought years as well as during years of heavy rain varieties such as jg11 and vihar do well with minimum crop loss compared to the old varieties incomes have increased from $75/ha to $500/ha the chickpea area in andhra pradesh expanded as farmers replaced crops such as sorghum cotton chilies and tobacco with chickpea which is less labor intensive and more profitable the chickpea variety jg11 developed through partnership with jawaharlal nehru krishi vishwa vidyalaya agricultural university jabalpur is currently the most popular variety in andhra pradesh covering about 80 of the chickpea area this variety spread very rapidly during the recent years and there was a huge demand for seed public seed corporations produced over 46,000 tons certified seed of jg11 in a period of 3 years 2008­2010 which is a record for any chickpea variety in india farmers benefitting the most are in kurnool district since chickpeas are grown only during the postrainy season november to may and also due to mechanization farmers with extra time on their hands are taking up dairy farming in addition to chickpea cultivation they now earn additional incomes of $2,250 to $3,250 per year these farmers have acquired television sets motor bikes tractors and threshers they now live in brick houses as opposed to the earlier huts and mud dwellings narayana reddy is educating his grandchildren in a residential school a practice not common among the farming community and some farmers are actually saving about $4,500 a year in their bank accounts there has been a transformation from subsistence to market-oriented cultivation for chickpea in andhra pradesh which provides an excellent example of imod the success story of chickpea in andhra pradesh is proof positive that adoption of technologies with adequate support systems can enhance production of chickpea in other regions of south asia and sub-saharan africa where yield levels continue to remain low icrisat annual report 2010 9


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avrdc and icrisat help farmers to produce superior tomatoes outcome diversification not by bread alone he road from niamey niger to the icrisat sahelian center in sadoré is 45 km long on the left parallel to the road is the mighty niger river on the right are the typical degraded lands of the sahel dotted with rocks and shrubs and offering an unbroken vista of niger s dry dusty reddish-brown soil in recent years the monotony of this landscape has been broken by vegetable stalls standing out like jewels in the desert displaying heads of brilliant green lettuce plump purple eggplants bright red tomatoes and succulent okra we also see patches of vegetable and fruit gardens that supply the produce to these stalls and moringa and pomme du sahel trees the lives of people in these rural districts have improved radically due to the icrisat-developed african market garden amg icrisat s crop and systems diversification program in west africa began supporting farmers in 2008 providing training technical support and along with our partner the world vegetable center avrdc superior vegetable seeds the year round availability of healthy vegetables has benefitted many families in the entire district hadiza sidibé from the women farmers group of yobbi in birni n gaouré niger is happy with the 0.5 ha amg system hadiza has five children t and used to be a teacher but turned to vegetable farming when she acquired a drip irrigation system with artesian energy today instead of buying expensive vegetables for her family she sells vegetables earns 50 more than before and has considerably improved her family s living conditions twenty-five year old fati amadou is married with four children she is part of the doga womens group who benefitted from a vegetable garden with a drip irrigated african market garden and a rainfed section the garden is off the road half way between niamey and sadoré before the project fati would make a little money selling deep fried dough pastries on the street and braiding women s hair now i can eat lettuce and tomatoes that i grow myself i thank icrisat because in the past there were days when there was nothing to eat says fati amadou adding i wish that our garden could be bigger so that our husbands can also be enticed to work here the secretary of the doga women s group who benefitted from a vegetable garden is 45-year old adiza soumana a mother of four before the project adiza sold cloth moringa leaves and potatoes in the local market she thanks god for her garden because she can now eat better with the lettuce and tomato we add some oil 10 icrisat annual report 2010


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eggplant okra and other vegetables provide for a well-balanced diet and cassava powder and it s a real delight she says times are often difficult before the rainy season so any crop we can grow during the dry season helps us tremendously she adds she urges all women to go out and work in gardens instead of creating problems with their husbands regarding food for the family foureyra hamidou is another member of the doga group who received training in vegetable production from icrisat foureyra works on an irrigated and rainfed garden on the niameysadoré road forty-seven years old and with six children she explains the hardships of her life which include the grinding of millet and corn to make porridge for her family and her husband s poor health i thank icrisat for thinking of us in this way with the project thanks to god we have our share we eat well and we are happy to have had a good harvest she adds gratefully she realizes that without this garden it would be difficult to get lettuce she recommends that women join the group and work to guarantee their life she continues without the union we are nothing the african market garden refers to a holistic vegetable production system enhanced with drip irrigation utilizing improved variety seeds adequate fertilizer natural and chemical effective pest management practices appropriate production/harvest techniques and ideal yearround crop production planning different versions of amgs have been developed to take advantage of the women s social structure communal system and the men s individualism individual system in addition rather than petrol or electricity artesian and solar energy are used to pump water needed for the drip irrigation the african market garden success is not restricted to niger icrisat has helped to install amgs in a total of eleven sahelian countries chiefly benin burkina faso ghana mali and senegal with similar benefits over a period of nine years icrisat later joined by avrdc has been selecting purifying and breeding new vegetable varieties for the sahel to replace/stop import of seeds from europe in 2010 the women of these districts produced 12 times more vegetables than before they sell more than 80 of their produce and consume the rest diets based solely on millet are things of the past these farmers are making money and are feeding their families with more nourishing food making it possible to reach the daily allowance of vegetable consumption recommended by the us department of agriculture icrisat annual report 2010 11


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farmers queue up to receive relief maize seed in zimbabwe outcome resilience from relief to resilience t hese days life is a little bit easier for emilia marufu a 41-year old widow living in macharaga village in masvingo zimbabwe in 2009/10 marufu grew enough maize to feed herself and her two children she also didn t need to work in her neighbor s fields to earn cash that would enable her to supplement what she grew with store-bought maize meal in fact marufu used the extra time to work on her vegetable garden which has now become her most important source of cash i ve bought two goats with the money from my fields she says improved hybrid maize seed and better crop management practices have made the difference in marufu s life marufu received the hybrid maize seed through the zimbabwe emergency agricultural input program zeaip funded by the world bank and managed by grm international the program was implemented in the 2009/10 cropping season by ngos either through direct distribution of maize seed in 40 districts of zimbabwe or through vouchers that could be redeemed for maize seed at local retail shops in 5 districts a total of 3045 tons of improved maize seed was made available to more than 300,000 households in the country relief programs have become a part of zimbabwe s agricultural landscape stemming from the country s propensity for drought and a decade of economic uncertainty however while providing important inputs to farmers implementing relief programs in the long term comes with its own consequences it can create a culture of dependence and can suppress local market development for example seed companies in zimbabwe stopped supplying rural outlets since they believed that farmers would receive free seed from ngos in order to better understand the efficacy of relief programs and determine ways to ensure the development of local industries and business grm international invited icrisat to conduct an impact assessment of zeaip for the 2009/10 cropping season impact assessments can generate important knowledge on what works and why says kizito mazvimavi economist at icrisat-bulawayo based on the results we can tailor how relief is provided to various communities in the future in order to ensure a more successful transition from relief to selfsufficiency mazvimavi and his team conducted two surveys in 2009/10 during post-planting 12 districts and postharvest seasons 6 districts in zimbabwe they interviewed a total of 1079 households and revisited 364 households towards the end 12 icrisat annual report 2010


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agro-dealer in chivi district hands over groundnut seed to farmers in exchange for vouchers of the season the post-planting survey results showed that zeaip was very successful in targeting farmers more than 70 percent of the beneficiaries did not have access to draft power farmers without draft power are often among the poorest and have to wait for their neighbors with draft animals to help them with their fields this delay in planting often results in reduced yields the results also showed that more than 90 of the seed that was distributed was actually sown in other words zeaip seed was planted on 134,000 hectares contributing to a 14 increase in the total area planted to maize during the 2009/10 cropping season as compared to the 2008/09 season the postharvest results were also positive harvest data showed that on average farmers who planted zeiap hybrid seed had more than doubled their yields 1411 kg/ha compared to those who used recycled seed 620 kg/ha marufu for example got a yield of 333 kg/ha in the 2008/09 season when she used recycled maize seed in 2009/10 she had a yield of 1167 kg/ha using hybrid maize seed as well as the conservation agriculture package which meant she planted her seed on time with the first effective rains of the season the rainfall pattern for the two seasons were similar with midseason droughts affecting yields the survey also captured the opinions of some of the 46 agro-dealers who were engaged in the program and helped implement the voucherbased distribution most of the agro-dealers interviewed were paid on time and felt that the voucher-based program allowed them to create business links and networks with seed co one of the main seed companies in zimbabwe they also felt they had improved their knowledge on aspects such as seed storage and had even increased sales of their other products we have to move from direct distribution of seed to market-based options so that commercial market channels can be revived in zimbabwe but in some areas direct distribution may be the only option as there are still villages in the country with very little market infrastructure mazvimavi says assessments of the situation have helped to determine which mode of delivering relief inputs can work best for each area for the greatest success given the political instability and natural disasters that continue to affect many countries in eastern and southern africa these assessments are helping us generate a lot of interesting information on designing relief programs that can be used elsewhere it also expands our understanding of how to rebuild agricultural systems after periods of shock mazvimavi says icrisat annual report 2010 13



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