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INTERNATIONAL PAINT GUIDE

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Boat Painting Guide & Colour Card Aus/NZ Edition

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Boat Painting Guide & Colour Card For over a century we’ve been creating the most innovative paint solutions to protect, beautify and improve the performance of all types of boats. No matter where you are, in whichever waters around the globe, you’ll find high performance coatings backed by meticulously researched knowledge and support from International Paint. Whether we’re in the lab researching and developing new products, or at sea putting our products to the test, we’re in our element. Getting the chemistry right is critical to us, as is knowing the subtle differences between people and water all over the world. Wherever there are boats, we’re right at the heart of the matter, making connections, solving problems, sharing knowledge… Contents Antifoulings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .04 Topsides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .08 Varnishes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 Primers & Undercoats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 Epoxy Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14 Why do I need a Thinner? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15 Miscellaneous Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15 Quick Reference Guide Colour Card 03 The Echo Program Blister Repair and Prevention Topsides Antifouling ‘Step-by-Step’ Project Guides Before You Start n Quick Reference Guide n Before You Start Health & Safety . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16 n ‘Step-by-Step’ Project Guides How to prepare bare substrates . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18 Always check the weather! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20 Making small repairs to GRP surfaces . . . . . . . . .22 Removing aged finishes or varnishes . . . . . . . . . .23 Applying finishes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26 Preparing a non-skid deck . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29 Applying varnishes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32 Applying antifouling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35 Painting outdrives, stern gear, propellers & keels . .38 Our World is Water Ask the Experts At International Paint, we recognise the importance of providing high-quality technical support and advice to all our customers. Whether you’re a novice or a more experienced DIY’er, you’re sure to have a question for us – and we’d love to help – here’s how you can reach us… Peter Nicholson Technical Sales Representative, Queensland Removing antifouling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25 n Antifouling Is my new antifouling compatible? . . . . . . . . . . . .40 How much antifouling paint do I need? . . . . . . . .41 Below water schemes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42 How can I best achieve fuel efficiencies? . . . . . . .45 yachtpaint.com Australia: 1800 251 431 New Zealand: 0800 808 807 Asia: +65 6862 2928 Pacific Islands: +61 7 5573 9600 yacht.australia@akzonobel.com yacht.newzealand@akzonobel.com yacht.asia@akzonobel.com Product data sheets n Topsides Two-part premium paint systems . . . . . . . . . . . . .46 How much topside paint do I need? . . . . . . . . . . .49 Sikkens Cetol® Marine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .49 Material safety data sheets One-part conventional paint systems . . . . . . . . . .47 Two-part premium varnish systems . . . . . . . . . . .48 Product labels n Blister Repair and Prevention How to protect against osmosis . . . . . . . . . . . . . .50 Osmosis protection scheme . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .51 How to treat osmosis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .51 Got a question? We’ve got experts who’ve got the answer! n The Echo Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .52 n Colour Card Topside Finishes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .53 Antifoulings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .56 02

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Quick Reference Guide n Antifoulings Use this guide to our antifouling products to help you choose the perfect product for your project. Boat Paint Guide Polishing Micron 66 ® Slow Polishing Bottomkote n n n n n Hard Trilux n ® n Micron Extra ® n Coppercoat n n Awlcraft n n n n Trilux 33 ® n n n n n Ultra Ultra strong formula for high fouling areas Hard durable finish Biolux technology for sustained antifouling protection ® VC® Offshore n Key attributes n n n n n n Ultimate antifouling performance – one complete application protects even in the harshest fouling conditions Available in red, blue and black Superb protection in any fouling area Long term performance Polishes away through a controlled chemical reaction Reduces slime build-up Premium copolymer antifouling for harshest fouling areas Excellent protection from one complete application Minimum paint build-up, wears away with use Biolux® technology for sustained antifouling protection High strength for heavy fouling area Minimum paint build-up – wears away with use Reduced maintenance – minimal build-up reduces preparation time Quick drying Easy application Medium strength Traditional eroding antifouling Wears away with use Economical Easy application Protection in most fouling conditions Minimum paint build-up, wears away with use Easy application Economical n n n n n n Premium antifouling for use on aluminium Slow polishing, avoids seasonal paint build-up For all substrates including aluminium Bright colours, including bright white Biolux® technology for sustained antifouling protection Hard antifouling for aluminium in bright colours For fast, active craft and craft on dry moorings Biolux® technology for sustained antifouling protection For racing, sailing and power boats Suitable for salt and freshwater With fluoro microadditive for a low friction surface Hard, smooth finish can be burnished to a very low profile n n n n n n n Available in a range of 20 colours Easy application n n Thinners No. 3 No. 3 No. 3 No. 3 No. 3 No. 3 No. 3 No. 3 No. 3 Practical coverage (m2 per litre) 6.9 10.0 8.7 8.5 6.0 9.0 10.5 9.4 11.3 Number of coats 2-3 2-3 2-3 2-3 2-3 3-4 2-3 2-3 2-3 Substrates Suitable for frequently used high speed craft Application method ✗ ✗ ✗ ✗ ✗ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Suitable for high fouling areas Use antifouling paints safely. Always read the label and product information before use. Interested in the relative environmental impact* of your chosen product? For more information go to echoprogram.com GRP WOOD STEEL/IRON ALUMINIUM BRONZE STAINLESS STEEL LEAD ‘ Deale Stanley-Hunt, Regional Sales Manager, Australia * When compared to the largest selling product in OUR range. “Want more information on the different types of antifouling?” The answer is only a click away at yachtpaint.com 05 06 Helplines: +65 6862 2928 (Singapore) / 1800 251 431 (Aus) / 0800 808 807 (NZ) / +61 7 5573 9600 (PI)Helplines: +65 6862 2928 (Singapore) / 1800 251 431 (Aus) / 0800 808 807 (NZ) / +61 7 BRUSH ROLLER GOOD EXCELLENT OUTSTANDING For comprehensive application and scheme information, always read the product data sheet before you start. Visit our website for more information – yachtpaint.com 04 Helplines: +65 6862 2928 (Singapore) / 1800 251 431 (Aus) / 0800 808 807 (NZ) / +61 7 5573 9600 (PI)

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Quick Reference Guide n Topsides Use this guide to our topside products to help you choose the perfect product for your project. Boat Paint Guide Quick Reference Guide Adrian White, Business Manager, New Zealand “How do I know which type of antifouling to use?” The types of antifouling available can be split into two types, hard and eroding. You will also find other descriptions such as ablative, polishing or self-polishing. All these descriptions can be put under the umbrella of eroders. Hard antifouling Hard antifouling does not wear away much at all, although abrasive material in the water such as silt and sand may lead to a very minor reduction in film build. Eventually however, you are left after a few seasons with a build up of product that requires removal. The product becomes unsound and does not retain sufficient internal strength to be able to hold together when new product is applied to it. If you have a seriously fast boat or a fast boat that is used very regularly then hard is probably the best way to go. Boats moored in fresh water normally use these types, as the eroding types may not erode very well. Keen racing types sometimes prefer hard products as they can be wet sanded to a smooth finish prior to racing. Eroding antifouling Eroding antifoulings, as their name suggests, wear away leaving eventually no antifouling on your hull. Eroders are ideal for boat owners who list easy maintenance as a priority. They work by slowly wearing down whenever water moves across the hull leaving a fresh layer of biocides. This results in minimal coating build-up at the end of the season and reduces the amount of preparation needed for the next season. Some eroders such as Micron® 66 will smooth themselves out with time and this can help to reduce hull drag which in some cases can result in an increase in hull speed and/or reduced fuel burn. When the paint film starts to get thin, the biocides are preferentially washed out leaving paint that is essentially not antifouling paint. This is the time to apply new product. SUBSTRATE PRIMER ANTIFOULING PAINT FILM ANTIFOULING PAINT FLAKE COPPER OXIDE CAVITIES IN LEACHED LAYER Key attributes n Ultimate performance, two-part polyurethane finish Chemical cure for the hardest finish & highest abrasion resistance Unique UV protection for superior, long-lasting gloss and colour Professional-quality results made easy n n Premium quality high-gloss durable yacht enamel Silicone alkyd formula lasts twice as long as conventional one-part enamels Excellent UV resistance Extended gloss and colour retention characteristics Easy to apply giving deep, lustrous finish n n Slip resistant polyurethane deck paint Contains fine mineral additive for hard wearing, non-slip surface Suitable for all substrates Low sheen finish prevents sunlight dazzle Apply straight from the can with brush or roller n n n n n n n n n Thinners No. 9 No. 1 No. 1 “Which product should I choose for my topside?” Before starting your project, it’s important to consider the area you’re painting, as this might affect your choice of product. Modern construction methods using fibreglass, steel and aluminium provide a stable surface and are compatible with all types of finish products. However, if your boat is made of wood, the characteristics of the substrate and the construction method used will have a bearing on the product you choose. Diagonally planked constructions or moulded veneers are highly stable, so present no problem. However, carvel and clinker (or lapstrake) constructions are flexible by nature, meaning the wood tends to move as the moisture content varies. Hard systems – such as Perfection – cannot sufficiently flex to accommodate this movement, making them likely to crack. A one-part product, such as Toplac, is therefore recommended. Need more hints and tips to achieve a professional finish? Get advice from the experts at yachtpaint.com Practical coverage (m2 per litre) Number of coats Substrates Application method 12.0 2-3 12.0 1-2 9.5 1-2 Recommended undercoat Perfection Undercoat Pre-Kote Pre-Kote For a non-slip finish add: Intergrip Intergrip Interested in the relative environmental impact* of your chosen product? For more information go to echoprogram.com Colour Card 09 * When compared to the largest selling product in OUR range. GRP WOOD STEEL ALUMINIUM BRUSH ROLLER Click or call and ask the experts! Why do I need a Thinner? For more information see Page 15. Visit our website for more information – yachtpaint.com Visit our website for more information – yachtpaint.com 07 08 Helplines: +65 6862 2928 (Singapore) / 1800 251 431 (Aus) / 0800 808 807 (NZ) / +61 7 5573 9600 (PI) The Echo Program – Blister Repair and Prevention Topsides Antifouling Neil Nicolson Specialist in Professional Finishes Development ‘Step-by-Step’ Project Guides Before You Start Perfection Toplac® Interdeck What is Intergrip?... Intergrip is a synthetic, granular material that can be added to topside finishes prior to application or sprinkled onto wet paint as an aid to providing a more slip-resistant finish. The final result is determined by the amount of material added into the finish.

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Quick Reference Guide n Varnishes Use this guide to our varnish products to help you choose the perfect product for your project. Boat Paint Guide Quick Reference Guide Key attributes n Ultimate performance, clear, two-part polyurethane varnish Chemical cure for the hardest finish & highest abrasion resistance Superior gloss lasts four times longer than conventional one-part varnishes Professional-quality results made easy 2:1 mix ratio: Easy to measure and mix n n Premium quality, traditional varnish with excellent UV protection Rich golden colour and deep gloss Good flow-out and self-levelling characteristics for easier application Suitable for interior and exterior use n High quality one-part polyurethane varnish Suitable for interiors, exteriors and over existing varnish Good UV resistance and abrasion resistance Quick drying n A satin finish polyurethane varnish for interior use Resistant to hot water, mild acids and alkalis Fast-dry formulation minimises dust contamination n n Low maintenance wood treatment Less work, wipe clean and recoat – no need to sand Superior UV protection Does not crack or flake Microporous – allows wood to breathe Longer lasting – affords a longer time period before the need to recoat n n n n n n n n n n n n n n Thinners No. 9 No. 1 No. 1 No. 1 No. 1 Number of coats Will vary depending on usage. Please check product label/data sheet. 2-5 6-10 6-10 3 4 Suitable for use direct to oily timber (e.g. teak or iroko) Application method ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ UV Protection For interior use only The Echo Program Interested in the relative environmental impact* of your chosen product? For more information go to echoprogram.com BRUSH ROLLER GOOD ‘ OUTSTANDING For a non-slip finish, use Non-Slip Additive with your chosen varnish. Visit our website for more information – yachtpaint.com 10 Helplines: +65 6862 2928 (Singapore) / 1800 251 431 (Aus) / 0800 808 807 (NZ) / +61 7 5573 9600 (PI) Colour Card 11 * When compared to the largest selling product in OUR range. Blister Repair and Prevention Topsides Practical Coverage (m2 per litre) 12.0 18.0 16.0 10.3 10.0 Antifouling ‘Step-by-Step’ Project Guides n Before You Start Perfection Plus Schooner® Tropical Goldspar® Original Goldspar® Satin Cetol® Marine

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Quick Reference Guide n Primers & Undercoats Use this guide to our primers and undercoats to help you choose the perfect product for your project. Boat Paint Guide Quick Reference Guide Yacht Primer Key attributes n Primocon n Interprotect n Perfection Undercoat n Pre-Kote n n n Quick drying, with anticorrosive properties Pigments contain aluminium flake to provide an anti-corrosive protective barrier n Quick drying, with anticorrosive properties Can be used under all major antifoulings* or as a conversion coat over incompatible or unknown antifoulings n Offers excellent anticorrosive protection Can be used as an antifouling tie-coat over existing epoxy primers n Provides an excellent base for a long-lasting gloss finish Easy application, fast drying and easy sanding Semi-gloss appearance n n n n n Long-lasting, easy to apply and rub down Long overcoating times allow coat-on-coat application n n Typically used Above water, under one-part undercoats Do not overcoat with two-part products Below water, under antifoulings or to seal unknown antifoulings Where a high-performance anti-corrosive system is required Do not use over one-part products or antifoulings Under Perfection finish Do not use over one-part products Under International one-part finishes Do not use under two-part products Thinners No. 1 No. 3 No. 7 No. 9 No. 1 Practical coverage (m2 per litre) Number of coats Substrates 12.0 4 7.4 1-5 8.1 2-5 12.0 1-2 12.0 1-2 * Application method Suitable for above waterline Suitable for below waterline GRP WOOD STEEL ALUMINIUM * * * * * * Over suitable primer ✓ ✗ LEAD ZINC BRUSH ✗ ✓ ROLLER ✓ ✓ ✓ ✗ For more information go to echoprogram.com ✓ ✗ For comprehensive application and scheme information, always read the product data sheet before you start. 12 Helplines: +65 6862 2928 (Singapore) / 1800 251 431 (Aus) / 0800 808 807 (NZ) / +61 7 5573 9600 (PI) * When compared to the largest selling product in OUR range. Visit our website for more information – yachtpaint.com Colour Card 13 Interested in the relative environmental impact* of your chosen product? The Echo Program Blister Repair and Prevention Topsides Antifouling ‘Step-by-Step’ Project Guides Conventional one-part primer for use above the water Conventional one-part primer for use below water Quick drying, easy to apply, two-part epoxy primer High performance two-part polyurethane undercoat Undercoat for one-part finishes Excellent opacity allows for easy colour changing Before You Start Primer Undercoat

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Quick Reference Guide n Epoxy Products Epoxies are extremely robust and versatile products suitable for use above and below the waterline. These products have been sold for decades and their strength, reliability and performance have surpassed the test of time. The products below are suitable for use under all International yacht paint systems. Boat Paint Guide Quick Reference Guide Colour Card 15 The Echo Program Blister Repair and Prevention Topsides Antifouling Deale Stanley-Hunt, Regional Sales Manager, Australia ‘Step-by-Step’ Project Guides Before You Start n Why do I need a Thinner? Thinners are solvents which are usually the same, or very similar, to those used within the product they are recommended with. Thinners can be used as an additive to ease application, or to clean brushes and equipment. Enamel Thinner Epifill® A medium to high density twopart epoxy filler. Epifill can be used above and below the waterline and is ideal for all manner of filling jobs. It is especially suitable for those jobs where compressive forces are high (ie: between keels and hulls). It is also ideal for use as bedding material under deck fittings such as winches. It has an easy to use 2:1 mix ratio. Antifouling Thinner For thinning antifouling paints and Primocon Primer Epiglue® Epiglue is a high performance marine and general purpose epoxy resin adhesive. Its thixotropic nature enables it to be used for both close contact and gap filling joints. It offers a virtually colourless glue line once cured and is suitable for above and below the waterline. Epiglue has an easy to use 2:1 mix ratio. For thinning single pack alkyd paints and varnishes Brushing Thinner Brushing aid for Toplac and Perfection colours when temperature conditions reduce products flow and brushing properties Epoxy Thinner For thinning two-part epoxy paints Everdure Everdure is a high performance two-part epoxy timber sealer which effectively seals out dry rot and densifies the timber. Everdure is blended from selected epoxy resins to allow maximum penetration and migration in to the timber. This seals out moisture, hardens the surface and densifies the timber. Everdure is also an ideal base before the application of a clear varnish on either interior or exterior wood. Everdure has a 1:1 mix ratio. Microsurfacer Microsurfacer is a two-pack, ultra high build surfacing compound that can be applied by brush roller or spray. It can be used to fill low areas, typically around 0.5mm deep prior to applying primers and undercoats. It is a very easy to use and very easy sanding product. Should be overcoated with Interprotect after being sanded smooth. Mix ratio is 6:1 by volume. Polyurethane Retarder Thinner For thinning two-part polyurethane paints “Want more information on the different types of thinners?” Click or call and ask the experts! Interfill® 833 Interfill 833 is a low-tomedium density, very smooth and creamy two-part epoxy filler suitable for all filling work and for the smaller fairing jobs. Can be used above and below the waterline and has an easy to use 1:1 mix ratio. Epiglass® HT9000 Epiglass HT9000 Epoxy Resin system has been developed to offer a comprehensive range of resin and hardener combinations for the boatbuilding industry. It includes systems for gluing, filling, fairing and sheathing timber, GRP, steel, aluminium and ferro hulls. HT9000 has a simple hardener range (standard and fast) to accommodate all uses. HT9000 has a 3:1 mix ratio. n Miscellaneous Products Sanding Guide Coat Surface preparation is the most important job when it comes to obtaining the best possible finish. Sanding Guide Coat is used to highlight fine sanding and scratch marks into easily visible blue lines that can be sanded away as you progress from coarse to fine sand paper. It saves time and helps you achieve the best possible result. Fast Cure Clear Fast Cure Clear is a fast drying urethane used for priming wood prior to the application of single pack varnishes or two pack urethane finishes. It will fill the wood grain easily and quickly while forming a strong bond between the wood and subsequent paint or varnish system. Fast Cure Clear will drastically cut down the time and effort required to achieve the high aesthetic standards of traditional wood finishing. 14 Helplines: +65 6862 2928 (Singapore) / 1800 251 431 (Aus) / 0800 808 807 (NZ) / +61 7 5573 9600 (PI) Visit our website for more information – yachtpaint.com

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Before You Start n Health & Safety Providing health and safety precautions for paint products is a legal requirement and forms a specific section on our labels. However, the wording is laid down by law and is often difficult to understand. This section is intended to help you interpret and understand the symbols and phrases you will find in our literature and on our product labels. We’ve also included some further information to make applying paint a safer job. Before starting work always read the label. Each tin will display a number of warning symbols and written warning phrases which will quickly indicate those areas where particular care should be taken. Other general safety precautions are detailed below and will help should any problem occur whilst using our paints. Avoid eye contact Eye protection should be used during paint application and when there is any risk of paint splashing on the face. Safety glasses or goggles are inexpensive, available from many DIY stores, and are well worth wearing. Use eyewear that complies with appropriate local standards. If material does contaminate the eye, it is recommended that the eye is flushed with clean fresh water for at least 15 minutes, holding the eyelids apart, and medical attention sought. Boat Paint Guide Risk of fire or explosion Most paints contain organic solvents – some of which evaporate into the air upon opening the container. Any dangers can be reduced if a few simple precautions are taken: n Avoid naked flames where paint is being stored, opened or applied n n n n n Do not smoke Store paint in a well-ventilated, dry place away from sources of heat and direct sunlight Keep the tin tightly closed Avoid sparks from metals, electrical appliances being switched on and off, or faulty electrical connections Do not leave paint soaked rags lying around, in the pockets of overalls or in waste bins. Some types of paint can dry out and auto-ignite. Avoid ingestion Food and drink should not be prepared or consumed in areas where paint is stored or is being used. In cases of accidental paint ingestion seek immediate medical attention. Keep the patient at rest, do NOT induce vomiting. Avoid inhalation The inhalation of solvent vapour from paint, or dust from sanding, can be reduced by the provision of adequate ventilation or extraction. If this is not sufficient, or if specifically stated on the label, suitable respiratory protection should be used. Wear a cartridge type respirator when abrading old antifoulings – never burn off or dry-sand antifoulings as this may create harmful fumes or dust. In badly ventilated areas wear an air-fed hood or cartridge respirator with an organic vapour filter. Solvent fumes are heavier than air. Breathing these fumes can make you dizzy, feel drunk and headachy and could even result in collapse. Read the label carefully and ensure that the recommended protection is worn. Spray painting creates additional health hazards. Spray mists should not, under any circumstances, be inhaled. Read the label carefully and ensure recommended protection is worn; generally an air-fed hood is the best protection as it provides a fresh air feed to the user. Timothy Chen Topsides Colour Card 17 The Echo Program Blister Repair and Prevention Technical Sales Executive Avoid skin contact Skin irritation can occur from contact with paint products. You should, therefore, always wear protective gloves and protective clothing when applying or mixing any paint products. Overalls, which cover the body, arms and legs, should be worn. Skin cream, of a non-greasy barrier type, may be used on the face. Do NOT use petroleum jelly as this can help the absorption of paint into the body. Remove rings and watch straps before commencing work, as these can trap paint particles next to the skin. Remove any paint that does get onto the skin by washing with warm water and soap or an approved skin cleanser. After washing, apply a skin conditioner. Never use solvent or thinners to clean the skin. “Need more expert advice on working safely with our products?” The information shown in this section is provided as a basic guideline only. To ensure you have access to up-to-date information on personal and environmental health and safety and choosing the most suitable tools and equipment, we now publish more comprehensive ‘Before You Start’ information on our website. Alternatively, you can always call us via your local International help line number, where a member of our Technical Support Team will be pleased to provide you with information and advice, tailored to your particular needs. Click or call – expert advice at your fingertips For further information on Personal Protective Equipment, visit yachtpaint.com 16 Helplines: +65 6862 2928 (Singapore) / 1800 251 431 (Aus) / 0800 808 807 (NZ) / +61 7 5573 9600 (PI) Visit our website for more information – yachtpaint.com Antifouling Personal Health ‘Step-by-Step’ Project Guides Before You Start

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‘Step-by-Step’ Project Guides Top tips from the experts... Commencing with some basic advice on substrates and preparation, this section provides a series of useful step-by-step guides to common boat painting projects, along with all those useful bits of extra information and advice that can really contribute to making your project an outstanding success. Written by experts in a series of easy-to-follow steps, complemented with simple illustrations, these guides provide the ultimate quick reference tool to the discerning DIY boat owner. Chummy Chen Sales Manager, China Boat Paint Guide Ensure that all evidence of corrosion (e.g. iron oxide and iron sulphide) is removed prior to the application of an International or VC primer, following the product recommendations provided in the paint systems guides. Fibreglass Degrease with solvent or warm water and liquid detergent. Sand well using 180-220 grade paper. Clean thoroughly and allow to dry completely. Prime using an International primer following the product recommendations provided in the paint systems guides. Bare Wood/Plywood Sand smooth with 80-180 grade paper and then 280 grade paper. Remove sanding dust by brushing or dusting. Wipe down thoroughly with solvent and allow to dry completely, to ensure any residual sanding dust is removed, before applying products recommended for application direct to wood (see paint systems guides). How to prepare bare substrates All surfaces should be thoroughly degreased and free from any sanding debris prior to the application of any paint to the surface. Aluminium Degrease with solvent or warm water and liquid detergent. Sand well using 60-120 grade aluminium compatible) paper. Clean thoroughly and allow to dry. Prime using an International primer as soon as possible (within 8 hours) following the product recommendations provided in the paint systems guides. Lead Degrease with solvent or warm water and liquid detergent. Sand well using 120 grade paper or power wire brush. Clean thoroughly and allow to dry. Prime using an International primer following the product recommendations provided in the paint systems guides. Zinc/Galvanised Steel Degrease with solvent or warm water and liquid detergent. Sand well using 60-120 grade aluminium compatible) paper. Clean thoroughly and allow to dry completely. Prime using an International primer following the product recommendations provided in the paint systems guides. Steel Degrease with solvent or warm water and liquid detergent. Grit blast to Sa 2.5 – near white metal surface. If grit blasting is not possible, grind the Bronze Clean thoroughly and abrade to bright metal using 80 grade paper. Take care when abrading bronze propellers, as excessive abrading can alter the profile of the propeller causing it to be out of balance. Clean thoroughly and allow to dry completely before applying products recommended for application direct to bronze (see paint systems guides). Cast Iron Degrease with solvent or warm water and liquid detergent. Grit blast to Sa 2.5. If grit blasting is not possible, grind the metal surface with 24-36 grade abrasive discs to a uniform clean surface with a 50-75 micron anchor pattern. Use an angle grinder on small areas or a wire brush, prepare to a minimum St.3 according to ISO8501-1. Clean thoroughly with solvent and allow to dry completely. 18 Helplines: +65 6862 2928 (Singapore) / 1800 251 431 (Aus) / 0800 808 807 (NZ) / +61 7 5573 9600 (PI) Visit our website for more information – yachtpaint.com Colour Card 19 The Echo Program Blister Repair and Prevention Topsides Stainless Steel Light grit blast to produce a profile of 50 microns, clean thoroughly and allow to dry completely prior to application of an International primer following the product recommendations provided in the paint systems guides. Antifouling metal surface with 24-36 grade abrasive discs to a uniform, clean, bright metal surface with a 50-75 micron anchor pattern. Use angle grinder on small areas. Clean thoroughly and allow to dry completely. Prime using an International primer following the product recommendations provided in the paint systems guides. Oily woods e.g. teak Ensure that the surface is thoroughly degreased using a recommended solvent to ensure all oils are removed. Sand smooth with 80-180 grade paper and then 280 grade paper. Remove sanding dust by wiping with solvent, to ensure any residual dust is removed. Ensure the surface is completely dry before applying products recommended for application direct to wood (see paint systems guides). ‘Step-by-Step’ Project Guides

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‘Step-by-Step’ Project Guides n Always check the weather! When painting outside, always check what weather conditions are anticipated during the preparation, application and drying phases of any project. Should fair weather prevail, whether or not to commence painting will then depend on the air and surface temperatures, humidity and dew point. You may find the following hints and tips helpful when planning your project – further, product-specific guidelines can be found on individual product labels and data sheets. Peter Nicholson Technical Sales Representative, Queensland Remember that surfaces heat up and cool down at a different rate to the surrounding air temperature, meaning even though the ambient temperature might seem warm, the temperature of the surface being worked on may still be quite cold. Very often one side of a boat will be in the shade and the other in bright sunlight meaning the application conditions will differ. Additionally, in the morning the surface temperature of the sunny side will generally be lower than the ambient temperature, whereas in the afternoon it may be higher. Boat Paint Guide This is because rising temperatures cause timber to expand, which can lead to blisters forming in the paint or varnish film. A good tip is to apply when the temperature is falling, as the timber will better absorb the paint or varnish, giving better overall results. Key points to note when applying epoxies (e.g. Epifill®, Interprotect®) n General Guidance Notes: n n n Relative humidity is important as air can only hold so much water or solvent vapour at any one time. So, as the relative humidity increases, the level of solvent vapour the air can hold reduces, meaning paint will effectively dry more slowly. Air and substrate temperature will affect the drying properties of any paint. Failing to observe the recommended drying times can result in coating failure, including improper drying, wrinkling and loss of adhesion. Always avoid extreme air or temperature conditions; International products are tested across a range of temperatures, to ascertain the drying times and application characteristics of each product. Drying time recommendations are provided on our products labels; further information relating to weather considerations can be found on our product data sheets, available on our web site. Low temperatures will increase drying times; always check the ‘through-dry’ of each interim coat, before sanding or overcoating. n Overcoating too early can cause wrinkling, blistering and loss of gloss in the finished paint job. High temperatures will reduce drying times, but can make application more difficult, as product flow and levelling can be compromised – particularly when applying finishes or varnishes. Where appropriate, thinning recommendations to help with higher temperature application are provided on labels and data sheet. When applying two-part products in higher temperatures the pot life of the product will also be affected, reducing your work time window. n Choosing a faster drying product or scheme, where available, will help to minimise the window for dust contamination. n n n n n n Do not paint in direct sunlight, or when the substrate itself is excessively warm, as the residual heat of the substrate can adversely affect the application and drying properties of any paint product; this can result in poor flow and levelling, rapid drying, cracking and loss of gloss. Surface temperature can be measured using a surface thermometer. Avoid applying two-part finishes or varnishes late in the afternoon or when relative humidity exceeds 80% as these products are particularly sensitive to moisture. Condensation during application or overnight ambient temperature changes can affect the chemical cure of these products resulting in loss of gloss. When painting or varnishing timber avoid applying if the ambient temperature is increasing (or predicted to increase) significantly. n Although epoxies generally cure well in most conditions, when the temperature falls to 7°C or below, curing can slow or even stop. Remember to check both day and overnight temperatures whether working outdoors or in a shed. Epoxy products usually respond well to a little heat; on cold days introducing a safe form of heating into the application area is well worth considering. n 20 Helplines: +65 6862 2928 (Singapore) / 1800 251 431 (Aus) / 0800 808 807 (NZ) / +61 7 5573 9600 (PI) Visit our website for more information – yachtpaint.com Colour Card 21 Blistering The Echo Program n Blister Repair and Prevention The effects of dust contamination may be further reduced by sanding lightly between each coat, removing residual dust by wiping down with a suitable solvent and allowing to dry before applying the next coat. This will also help improve the initial aesthetics. n High humidity conditions can reduce the amount of solvent evaporation during the drying/curing stages; with epoxies this can lead to a ‘soft cure’. As epoxy-based materials are generally applied at a higher film thickness, solvent can remain trapped in the film for many days leading to slow or poor final cure. Topsides Antifouling Dew point is important when applying paint to a surface, as the evaporation of the solvent from the paint draws heat and/or energy from that surface, cooling it down. If conditions are right condensation may form on the surface of the paint resulting in various problems. Sanding too early can cause the paint to wrinkle under the sand paper, in some cases even tearing or gouging into the paint film making refurbishment difficult. Sanding before the paint film is ‘through-dry’ can also block the sand paper, meaning more sheets are needed to complete the task. Key points to note when applying finishes and varnishes: n Dry, well ventilated conditions are preferable when applying finishes or varnishes. Whilst gentle air movement will assist the drying process, a dust-free environment is critical to achieving a good quality gloss finish; always avoid painting in windy conditions. Whilst curing in high humidity conditions, particularly at lower temperatures, epoxies can develop an ‘amine bloom’ on the surface. This slightly sticky substance must be removed and can normally be washed off with a mild detergent. If it is not removed it can lead to the de-lamination of subsequent coats. Failure to remove the bloom will also make sanding more Blooming difficult. ‘Step-by-Step’ Project Guides

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‘Step-by-Step’ Project Guides n Making small repairs to GRP surfaces When working with fillers it’s important to remember that epoxy fillers are recommended for both above and below the water areas; polyester fillers are suitable for use above the water only. International® Epifill® is a two-part epoxy filler, suited to most DIY repairs above and below water. Matthew Hart Technical Helpline, New Zealand Boat Paint Guide Once cured, sand with 80-220 grade paper. The finished repair should be smooth and level with the surface. If required a second layer of filler may be applied, repeating the same process. The repaired area can then be primed, ready for painting. 1 Two-part epoxy fillers are the most widely used fillers in the yachting industry. They are invariably solvent free. A benefit of being solvent free is that they do not attack the underlying primer. Epoxies must be mixed in the proper ratio. Too much curing agent and they will leave a sticky film on the surface that is not suitable for overcoating. Too little curing agent will weaken the filler and cause it to crumble later on. Below the waterline, epoxy fillers must be used. Polyester fillers should not be used as they have a greater propensity to absorb water. Click or call and ask the experts! n Before starting your project, always check the weather conditions! See Pages 20-21. n 2 Inspection Inspect for damage. Small repairs can be tackled easily, but any damage affecting a large area, or affecting the structure or hull integrity, should be referred to a professional for proper assessment. 3 Neil Nicolson Specialist in Finishes Development See Pages 50-51 for information on osmosis treatment and prevention. 1 Before starting your project, always check the weather conditions! See Pages 20-21. CONTINUES OVER 22 Helplines: +65 6862 2928 (Singapore) / 1800 251 431 (Aus) / 0800 808 807 (NZ) / +61 7 5573 9600 (PI) ‘ Visit our website for more information – yachtpaint.com Colour Card 23 The Echo Program 4 Applying the filler Mask off the damaged area and apply Epifill® using a palette knife or spatula. Allow to cure, following the recommendations provided on the product label. Health and Safety Before commencing work ensure the area you are working in is adequately ventilated. Ensure you are wearing the correct PPE; we recommend safety spectacles, goggles or visors, nitrile rubber gloves, overalls (ensuring skin is not exposed) and a dust mask. Blister Repair and Prevention Preparation and Priming Remove any loose filler or gelcoat and abrade edges to remove loose material. Remove all debris and prime with an International primer, according to the scheme recommendations provided elsewhere in this guide. For an osmosis protection scheme use Interprotect®. When preparing a surface previously painted with a finish or varnish scheme it may be necessary to remove the aged product, back to bare substrate. This will be required if the existing coating is in poor condition or if you’re intending to apply a two-part product onto a surface previously painted with a one-part finish or varnish. Topsides n Removing aged finishes or varnishes Antifouling ‘Step-by-Step’ Project Guides Health and Safety Before commencing preparatory work, ensure the area you are working in is adequately ventilated. Ensure you are wearing the correct PPE; we recommend safety spectacles, goggles or visors, nitrile rubber gloves, overalls (ensuring skin is not exposed) and a face mask. “Working with epoxy fillers?” n

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‘Step-by-Step’ Project Guides n Removing antifouling 2 Boat Paint Guide Remove any sections of the aged finish or varnish that are already loose, flaking or detached using a scraper – rounding the ends of the scraper before commencing will avoid gouging the surface, resulting in unnecessary repairs. If your existing antifouling is in poor condition, we recommend removing it completely before repainting. Two methods are suitable for removing antifouling. Method 1 is wet sanding with coarse abrasive paper and method 2 is with a suitable antifouling paint remover. Kate Moss Specialist in Antifoulings Development 3 4 Abrade using 60-120 grade paper, removing as much of the paint or varnish as possible. 2 3 See Pages 18-19 for bare substrate preparation guidelines. Matthew Hart, Technical Helpline, New Zealand “Hints to help you achieve a perfect finish.” n n We do not recommend using a chemical paint stripper when working with fibreglass as this may cause damage to the substrate. When working with wood, always work in the direction of the grain, whether sanding or applying varnish. This will avoid scratches that can still show through, even after many coats of paint or varnish. Click or call and ask the experts! Removal Method 2: Chemical Stripper Use a suitable chemical stripper and follow instructions very carefully, ensuring that the primer under the antifouling is not damaged too severely. Be extra careful that the chemical stripper is suitable for use on GRP surfaces as some types may soften and unduly affect the GRP surface, even if coated with primer. For best results, work on a small area at a time. CONTINUES OVER 24 Helplines: +65 6862 2928 (Singapore) / 1800 251 431 (Aus) / 0800 808 807 (NZ) / +61 7 5573 9600 (PI) ‘ Visit our website for more information – yachtpaint.com Colour Card 25 The Echo Program Blister Repair and Prevention Removal Method 1: Sanding Using coarse abrasive paper, wet sand until desired level or all of the antifouling has been removed. Take care that the primer under the antifouling is not damaged too severely and ensure that sanding is not taken back into the substrate, as with GRP vessels the coarse abrasive paper may scratch and damage the surface unduly. Topsides 5 Prepare according to substrate, following bare substrate preparation guidelines. Preparation High pressure fresh water wash, to remove loose antifouling; ensuring all residue and wash water is contained and disposed of, according to local legislation. Mask off areas to be stripped. Antifouling Before starting your project, always check the weather conditions! See Pages 20-21. ‘Step-by-Step’ Project Guides Clean the surface with warm water and liquid detergent and rinse with fresh water to remove any polish, wax or contaminants. 1 Health and Safety Before commencing preparatory work, ensure the area you are working in is adequately ventilated. Ensure you are wearing the correct PPE; we recommend safety spectacles, goggles or visors, nitrile rubber gloves, overalls (ensuring skin is not exposed) and a solvent mask or a respirator (if working on larger areas or in confined spaces).

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‘Step-by-Step’ Project Guides Final clean up Ensure surface is well washed down with either fresh water or water and liquid detergent. Allow to dry before commencing painting. Boat Paint Guide 4 Previously painted surfaces: 2 Inspection Check for areas of damage, separation or peeling, or any other indications See Page 35 for antifouling application advice. Using a two-part finish? Ensure your existing coating is compatible. 3 Timothy Chen, Technical Sales Executive “Is your existing antifouling in good condition?” If your existing antifouling is in good condition, it may not need removing and can simply be overcoated, following a high pressure fresh water wash. Always ensure you check for compatibility before applying new antifouling; incompatible or unknown antifouling should be sealed with Primocon. See Page 40 for more information on antifouling compatibility. Click or call and ask the experts! 4 Preparation – in good condition Clean with warm water and liquid detergent to ensure any residual polish, wax or surface contaminants are removed. Rinse with fresh water and allow to dry. Sand smooth with 280-320 grade paper. Clean thoroughly and allow to dry completely. Continue at Step 6. Preparation – in poor condition If previous finish is cracking, peeling or showing signs of separation from the substrate this should be See Page 23 for advice on removing existing finishes. Neil Nicolson Specialist in Finishes Development Bare substrate: 5 1 Health and Safety Before commencing preparatory work, ensure the area you are working in is adequately ventilated. Ensure you are wearing the correct PPE; we recommend safety spectacles, goggles or visors, nitrile rubber gloves, overalls (ensuring skin is not exposed) and a solvent mask. Before starting your project, always check the weather conditions! See Pages 20-21. For health and safety reasons, two-part polyurethane products should only be spray applied by a professional applicator. Priming Bare substrates should be primed to promote good adhesion and provide a smooth even surface, prior to undercoating. Your choice of primer will be dictated by the substrate; product recommendations are provided on labels and data sheets. Remember to pay particular attention to drying times and overcoating intervals. Due to the porous nature of aged gelcoats, the risk of moisture or solvent entrapment – leading to blisters – is increased; applying Interprotect® followed by Perfection Undercoat can reduce this risk and seal the gelcoat, prior to applying the finish. CONTINUES OVER ‘ 26 Helplines: +65 6862 2928 (Singapore) / 1800 251 431 (Aus) / 0800 808 807 (NZ) / +61 7 5573 9600 (PI) Visit our website for more information – yachtpaint.com Colour Card 27 The Echo Program Blister Repair and Prevention Before starting any painting project consider the 3 most critical questions: 1) What preparation is necessary 2) Does the substrate matter and 3) What repair and upkeep is needed. Page 46 of this guide will provide this information and help you choose the best product for your project. Topsides n Applying finishes Masking Before priming/undercoating, mask off the area to be painted. Antifouling ‘Step-by-Step’ Project Guides

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‘Step-by-Step’ Project Guides n Preparing a non-slip deck 6 Boat Paint Guide Undercoating Primed or previously painted surfaces should be undercoated. An undercoat will provide additional depth of colour and improve the durability and film build of the overall paint system. International offers two undercoats for use with its finishes range. See Pages 46-47 for undercoat recommendations. Mixing the second coat of undercoat 50:50 with the topcoat will produce a satin effect, which will highlight any imperfections (to be sanded smooth) as well as improving the gloss and depth of colour of the finish. A deck demands a tough coating to protect it from everyday wear and tear. Where a non-slip surface is required International offers 3 alternative solutions. Richard Jerram Technical Helpline 1 7 Application Sand the undercoat smooth with 320-400 grade paper and remove dust with a wipe or tack rag. Use Sanding Guide Coat to make sanding easier and more accurate. Before starting your project, always check the weather conditions! See Pages 20-21. Apply the finish, according to label recommendations. Previously painted surfaces: 2 Inspection Check for areas of damage, separation or peeling, or any other indications that the existing coating is not firmly adhered to the substrate. 3 Adrian White, Business Manager, New Zealand “Achieve a perfect result every time!” n n n n n n n n n Ensure an even spread by holding the brush at 45° – this minimises brush marks. The best finish is achieved on large areas by two people, one to apply the paint, the other following immediately behind to ‘tip off’ the finish. Clean or change brushes every 20 minutes or so. Always use lint-free cleaning cloths. Stir the can occasionally during the work. Dampen the ground with water before commencing painting to avoid any dust rising. Use a worn brush for the final coat, this will ensure less brush marks. Painting is best achieved on warm, dry mornings – cold weather retards drying and damp will spoil the gloss. Never apply direct from the can as this will introduce contamination. Always pour the amount of paint that you expect to use into a separate container. Click or call and ask the experts! See Page 23 for advice on removing existing finishes. CONTINUES OVER ‘ 28 Helplines: +65 6862 2928 (Singapore) / 1800 251 431 (Aus) / 0800 808 807 (NZ) / +61 7 5573 9600 (PI) Visit our website for more information – yachtpaint.com Colour Card 29 The Echo Program Preparation – in poor condition If previous finish is cracking, peeling or showing signs of separation from the substrate this should be totally removed. Blister Repair and Prevention Preparation – in good condition Clean with warm water and liquid detergent, rinse with fresh water and allow to dry. Sand smooth with 280-320 grade paper. Clean thoroughly and allow to dry completely. Continue at Step 6. Topsides Antifouling ‘Step-by-Step’ Project Guides Health and Safety Before commencing preparatory work, ensure the area you are working in is adequately ventilated. Ensure you are wearing the correct PPE; we recommend safety spectacles, goggles or visors, nitrile rubber gloves, overalls (ensuring skin is not exposed) and a solvent mask.

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‘Step-by-Step’ Project Guides Masking Before priming or applying a deck finish, mask off the area to be painted. Boat Paint Guide 4 Using Non-Slip Additive (hand-mixed method): 7 Application Sand primer (if used) with 180-220 grade wet or dry paper. Add Intergrip to International® Perfection or Toplac®. Bare substrate: 5 Priming Your choice of primer will be determined by the substrate and the choice of deck finish product. Priming recommendations are provided on labels and data sheets. Remember to pay particular attention to drying times and overcoating intervals. Due to the porous nature of aged gelcoats, the risk of moisture or solvent entrapment – leading to blisters – is increased; applying Interprotect® followed by Perfection Undercoat can reduce this risk and seal the gelcoat, prior to applying the finish. Mix thoroughly. Apply 1-2 coats to deck area, using a brush or roller. For best results either stipple by brush or use a mohair roller. Using Interdeck (ready-mixed formula): 6 Using Non-Slip Additive (broadcast method): 8 Application Sand the primer (if used) with 180-220 grade wet or dry paper. Remove dust with a dust wipe or tack rag, according to label recommendations. Mix Interdeck thoroughly; apply 1-2 coats. For best results either stipple by brush or use a mohair roller. While the paint is still wet, sprinkle NonSlip Additive over the surface. Allow to dry thoroughly following the recommendations provided on the finish label. Remove excess grit. Apply second coat of finish. 30 Helplines: +65 6862 2928 (Singapore) / 1800 251 431 (Aus) / 0800 808 807 (NZ) / +61 7 5573 9600 (PI) Visit our website for more information – yachtpaint.com Colour Card 31 The Echo Program Blister Repair and Prevention Topsides Application Sand primer (if used) with 180-220 grade wet or dry paper. Apply one coat of International Perfection or Toplac. Antifouling ‘Step-by-Step’ Project Guides Using a two-part finish? Ensure your existing coating is compatible.

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