The Storm - December 2015 Issue


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December 2015 Issue of The Storm

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December Issue 2015 The Storm Happy Holidays! Please recycle this paper when you’re done reading


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December Issue 2015 EDITORIAL Our Staff Advisor Ms. Topp A Message From Your Editor Season’s greetings! It’s that time again, believe it or not. After we come back from Thanksgiving break those 2 weeks before Christmas/Holiday break fly by, every time. A lot has gone down this holiday season, between the whole Starbucks holiday cup controversy, the horrific mass shootings and terrorist attacks, and just about everything else. This issue is meant to recap the school’s events that have elapsed since our October issue, as well as bring up important subjects of concern at the moment. You will notice the recurring theme of horrific incidents in this issue and I don’t want this to go unnoticed. In fact, this has validated a thought of mine that I’ve had for a while. You see, on the day of Thanksgiving I was watching a movie when all of a sudden I heard shouting from across the street. For the record, I was in the United States, but will disclose the particular state for the mere fact that it doesn’t matter . What I’m about to say could, and does , occur around the world, even on our own beloved island. Back to the story, so my sister who was in the same room as me had asked if I heard shouting coming from outside. Pausing my movie, I did in fact begin to hear the screams. Running to a window that views out on to the main street I saw a man and a woman in the middle of the street yelling at each other. I couldn’t make out the words so I thought it was useless to keep watching. Not much later my sister called me back into the room saying the police had arrived. That’s when it got worse. Five cop cars drove up and forced the man to leave the woman’s (who turned out to be his girlfriend) house. The man then proceeded to resist the police, but to their dismay ended up driving away in his car. The story doesn’t finish there, but the rest of it is not important to what I’m trying to expose. My point with this story is that if you walk away from this newspaper learning something new, which I hope a lot of you do, then I want you to know this. Note that cruelty and sadness knows no time. Bad things will happen when they are “not supposed to”, such as on a day when people are meant to be giving thanks for all of the blessings in their life. As Murphy’s Law states, anything that can go wrong, will go wrong. Time is no exception here. With that, I hope you have a joyful holiday season and remember to be grateful for your circumstances. - Alessandra De Luca Alessandra De Luca Editor in Chief Layout/Graphic Design Genesis Vega Photographer Sila Avilés In-Depth Editor Abby McCarley News Editor Alexa Charak Sports Editor Adriana Rodríguez Op-Ed Editors Samara Kleiman Monica Aponte Robilee Frederick Feature Editor Journalists Monica Aponte Claudia Arbona Sila Avilés Maria Báez Ivia Bou Catalina Camus Evalise Dexter Andrés Estrella Isabel Fernández Jake Grossman Olivia Katz Sofia Langan   2  


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 December Issue 2015 SJS LIFE HUMANS OF SAINT By: Sila Avilés JOHN’S “There is an incident in my life that stands out and really impacted me. I was taking a class in a university and having trouble adjusting to life here in Puerto Rico. First of all, I didn’t speak Spanish; I spoke “Spanglish” mostly. I was raised in the United Sates, and I had never come to Puerto Rico except one time when I was on the Ramey Air Force for a month. Other than that, I never had any interaction, except when I met my wife while she was visiting in New York. We fell in love and got married, but she missed her island. So when I got out of the air force, I came to Puerto Rico. It was something I did not expect; it was culture shock. I remember being in class at the university, and we were discussing our identity. One of the students got up and said, “You’re not Puerto Rican.” That really impacted me, because when I was in the United States, I had to defend being Puerto Rican. We had many fights and all kinds of conflicts in which we had been discriminated against, and to come here the island and be told, “you’re not really one of us”— it hurt me. It chocked me, it stunned me, it impacted me, and it got me angry. But from that moment on, I decided to really try to understand the new cultural ambience I was in.” - Mr. Manon “When I grow up I would like to work somewhere in the film industry because I was once on a set for a music video, and it’s a really relaxing and non-stressful environment. Also because I’m a really big fan of movies and I’ve seen so many, plus I’m really critical about them. One of the movies that made me realize what I want to pursue was the movie Drive (2011). I would like to travel while pursuing my career in the film industry.” - Porter Sharpe 9 Grade th “When I grow up I want to be a robotics engineer or a medical doctor. My biggest struggles this year have been keeping up with my schoolwork as well as extracurricular activities in order to achieve a maximum potential. The extracurricular that I want to achieve the most is robotics to participate in the VEX IQ competitions.” - Ricardo Marrero   7 Grade th 3  


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December Issue 2015 SJS LIFE 34th Annual Between the dates of November 30 and December 4, a group of twelve students and two faculty members from grades ninth through twelfth had to opportunity to go to Washington D.C. and take part in the MOAS competition. MOAS (Model Organization of American States) is a three-day competition held every year in Washington D.C, modeling the Organization of American States. Schools from throughout the Americas gather together to discuss problems pertaining to these countries. M.O.A.S By: Alexa Charak the s i ohn’s Puerto J t Sain chool in d to e s t i y v l n on be i etition. o t o Ric comp S A O the M Not  pictured  in  photograph:  Patrick  Jurkiewicz  (12 ),   Ms.  Rivera   th Fact Fun : From  left  to  right:  Oscar  Garnier  (9 ),  Marisabel  Cabrera  (11 ),  Jake  Grossman   th th th th (11 ),  Victoria  Bonano  (11 ),  Alexa  Charak  (10 ),  Raquel  Aguirre  (10 ),  Serena  Tsui   th th th th (11 ),  Sol  Bender  (10 ),  Andrea  Castro  (9 ),  Mr.  Sanabria,  Georgiana  Unanue  (9 ),   th Andrea  Saldaña  (9 )   th th Patricia  Herández     11th     SJS @ ART artstudio     Genesis Vega 11th Veronica Vargas 12th 4  


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December Issue 2015 SJS LIFE PSAT... IS IT WORTH STUDYING FOR? By: Andrés Estrella The SAT is one of the driving forces that determines what we do after high school. The purpose of going to a good prep school is to get into a good college. So, what do we do that prepares u s for this? The PSAT. The PSAT is designed to make the SAT experience familiar, so students can do well in the SAT and ultimately apply and get into the college of their choice. Now, the question is; is it even worth studying for? SJS offers PSAT classes in which students practice and study the techniques required to excel in the PSAT. 9th grader Daniela Alsina says, Taking the tes t felt great, becau se I knew the material and I had tak en tes t preps . The classes did help me with the exam its elf, had I not tak en the classes, I wouldn't have remembered half of the material on the tes t. “ P SA T? SA T? ” Sure, the PSAT is important for developing critical thinking skills, but what happens when the SAT comes? Are we prepared to take the SAT by knowing the format of the PSAT? Senior Patrick Jurkiewicz answers that question when saying, Personally, I believe taking the SAT was the same as taking the PSAT. Of course you study a tad bit harder right before an SAT. I feel that The PSAT, is like a checkpoint, a self evaluation of what we do and do not know, it's purpose is to ‘train’ you for the SAT but it also allows colleges   “ and universities to spot gifted individuals. ” The PSAT shows colleges and universities the potential you have to excel at the SAT. 9th grader Daniela Alsina believes. It’s a weird feeling when you realize that one test (the SAT) and the grade you get in it determines what college you will go to, hence your future (Although many other factors go into college acceptance, your SAT score is weighed heavily in the decision process.) Realizing that this one test determines your fate, it’s best to get all the practice you can get, and that is why the College Board institutes the PSAT, so that students feel familiar in the test-taking environment and can excel in the PSAT. As Senior Patrick Jurkiewicz says, “Practice makes Perfect.” 5  


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December Issue 2015 SJS LIFE No Time For Sleep By: Sila Avilés Nicholas  Farmer  (7th)     Did You Know? -Sleep deficiency can lead to a risk of heart disease, diabetes, or stroke. -A study made on teenagers showed that each hour lost from your sleep could increase your chance of becoming obese. Source:   “I  definitely  find  myself  less  focused  at  school   when  I  sleep  less.  Sometimes  I  have  a  project  due,  or   something  else,  and  I  stay  up  until  1  in  the  morning.  It   makes  the  next  day  a  lot  harder  to  tolerate  with  my  lack   of  sleep.”   Valerie  Heredia  (7th)   “I  find  my  self  not  focusing  at  all  in  class.  I’m  constantly   falling  asleep  because  of  all  the  projects  and  homework   I  have  to  do.”   Sleeping Disorder is a medical disorder that affects of the sleeping pattern of a person. Sleeping disorders can   affect the performance of the body physically, mentally, socially and emotionally. Studies show that it is important for teenagers to get 8 to 10 hours of sleep every night in order to avoid this unhealthy life style.   Natalia  Santiago  (10th)   “I  usually  go  to  sleep  around  11pm.  But  if  I  have  a  project   or  test  the  next  day  I  usually  go  to  sleep  around  1  or  2  in   the  morning.  It’s  really  ridiculous,  but  it  happens.   Once  I  had  a  test  and  a  project  due  the  next  day,  and  I   went  to  sleep  at  3am.  I  was  freaking  out,  because  I  had   both  things  for  the  next  day.  It  was  a  whole  mess  of   things.”   Victor  Gonzalez  (11 )   “I  usually  go  to  sleep  around  10,  but  when  there’s  days   with  homework  and  tests  I  usually  go  to  sleep  at  11  or   12.  Sometimes  I  don’t  finish  my  homework  and  I   leave  it  for  the  morning  of  the  next  day.”   th My  Experience   Last  year   my  sleeping   schedule   got  really   messed   up.  I   would   come   home,   fall   asleep,   and   then   study   around   midnight.  Or  I  would  study  all  night  and  sleep  around  3   hours.  It  got   to   a  point  that   my   body   could   not  handle   it;  I   got  severe  headaches  and  dizziness,  and  had  to  visit   every  type  of  doctor  trying  to  discover  what  I  had.  First   we   thought   I   had   a   virus,   but   that   wasn’t   the   case.   All   the  doctors  I  went  to  said  the  same  thing;  that  nothing   was   wrong   with   me   internally.   Finally,   I   went   to   a   neurologist   and  was   told  I   had   a  sleeping   disorder.   By   not  sleeping,  my  body  reacted  by  giving  me  headaches   and   dizziness.   This   whole   chaos   lasted   for   over   2   months,  and  it  was  DURING  FINALS!   6   Diego  Cresto  (7th)   “I  don’t  sleep  a  lot,  but  I’m  always  focused  anyway.”     Sarah  Cabré  (9th)   “When  I  don’t  get  enough  sleep  one  night,  I’m  tired  the   whole  day,  so  it  makes  me  want  to  go  to  sleep  earlier   the  next  day.  If  I  have  to  much  homework,  then  I  can’t   go  to  sleep  and  I’m  just  tired  for  the  rest  of  the   week.”    


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December Issue 2015 SJS LIFE No more Midterms? By: Alexa Charak Last year, Saint John’s introduced a new component to its curriculum: projects in place of midterm tests. This way of bringing together ideas from a semester is known as Project Based Learning or PBL. Project Based Learning is a way of learning in which students spend a number of days researching and concluding on a topic based on something previously learned. This school year, SJS is making a big change. PBL will be put into action for the entire Secondary Division. The last week of the semester, between the 14th and the 17th of December, students in grades 7th-12th will be creating projects based on things learned throughout the entire semester. PBL gives students a chance to work with new people, in a new environment, on something that is more than spending a night memorizing a textbook. At the end of the 2014-2015 school year, some teachers gave the option to make a project instead of taking a test. The English Department, for example, came up with a project that involved all the books that were read that year.   7  


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December Issue 2015 SJS LIFE By: Isabel Fernández Peanuts Movie Premiere Have you heard that peanut butter is brain food? Well according to Charlie Brown it is! This year’s Saint The premiere was held on Tuesday November 3rd and was a huge success. Students, parents, and teachers of all grades had a chance to watch the movie together before it came out. More importantly, this event was raise money for the scholarship fund. Mr. Portela’s favorite part of th e each every premiere is “The gathering for the movie. Ho w sch oo l ot her an d co m m un it y so cia lize.” com es to ge ther to ta lk to Although he was very excited, it was impossible to be anymore excited than his daughter, During premiere that the once event, again John’s School annual movie premiere was the Peanuts Movie. In the movie, Charlie Brown tries to win the affection of the Little Red everyone enjoyed a fun-filled included a cocktail hour and a DJ. There were also new fun events this year. All atendees had the chance to get their faces painted, received free frisbees at the end of the movie, and catch their Big Board dressed as their favorite movie characters. Haired Girl who just moved into his neighborhood. the movie Throughout there are small clips where Snoopy is writing a story about fighting against his archenemy, Red Baron. Valentina, who couldn’t wait to see the movie with all its characters, especially Snoopy and Woodstock, and spend time with her family.   t even d e l t l i un f e studen f a “I t i s n i t e s t h w s t h e u allo ct wi th that d n a ra body to inte ” nts kids. r i pare e th Mr.  Portela  and  his  daughter  Valentina   SPIRIT POINT WINNERS for most attendance   “I  want  to   see  how   they  change   Snoopy  from   the  70’s.”   Federico  Valldejuly  (3rd  grade)   8   SENIORS


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December Issue 2015 LOCAL NEWS New Uniform Rule in PR Public Schools By: Claudia Arbona In 2016, public schools in Puerto Rico will begin making a change in dress code. Students will be given the option of choosing to wear either a skirt or pants regardless of gender. This new policy, announced on October 12, was implemented to decrease bullying in schools. Particularly, the change is beneficial to kids who are LGBTQ+. By having the option to choose a skirt instead of pants, a young teen transitioning from male to female has the freedom to express his/her identity however he/she chooses. This new regulation was put in place with the hopes of decreasing bullying and discrimination towards LGBTQ+ kids and fosters an environment of acceptance within schools. Nevertheless, it will only apply to public schools; meanwhile private schools can make the choice of whether to take on this new rule. Hmm… Maybe if skorts are brought back, perhaps SJS could have them allowed for everyone as well. By: Catalina Camus Are you Safe Walking the Streets? Do you walk in the streets without an item of elf defense with you? Do you walk the streets not being aware of your surroundings? Do you carry your phone in your hand when you walk? When you walk at night do you feel like you are in the “young, wild and free” by Wiz Kalifah music video? Part of being a teen is believing that we own the world. Where we think we know it all, and walk around thinking there is a force field around us. This is attributed to how teenagers usually are: we are ignorant to hazards and choose to place little importance on them. For this reason, we are the number one target for criminals. A lot of Saint John’s students rely on walking to get to school. The Condado area is known among us as the “high-end neighborhood” but it is still very unsafe. When I asked Sophia Shames about her experience walking back to her house, the first thing she said to me was “It’s scary.”   “When it’s dark out I’m scared that something could happen to me. I try not to walk alone.” If you answered yes to the questions, then you most likely are not safe walking the streets. We tend not to realize that the world is not always in our favor, therefore we must be careful when roaming the streets of our beloved hometown. Here are some ways to feel safer: • • • Always carry pepper spray If you feel like you are about to cross the street with someone who feels sketchy, you should cross the sidewalk once you are within the __ mile radius, that way it becomes unpredictable Always look at pedestrians in the eye showing you are alert and aware of your surroundings.   9  


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December Issue 2015 By: Alessandra De Luca This  year,  one  of  the  Student  Council‘s   new  initiatives  included  unifying  the  student   body.  In  hopes  of  achieving  this,  Spirit  Week   was  conducted  October  19-­‐23.  The  week  was   full  of  spirit,  excitement,  and  fun  with  a  bit  of   rivalry  over  who  was  to  win  the  grand  prize  –   a  trip  to  Caja  de  M uertos  during  a  school  day.     Here’s  how  it  worked:  each  day   of  the  week  corresponded  with  a  specific   theme  and  within  that  theme,  each   grade  was  designated  a  subtheme.  For   instance,  Day  1  was  Continents  Day  and   each  grade  was  designated  a  different   continent.     Students  and  teachers  were   judged  daily  on  creativity,  spirit,  and   participation  of  their  respective  classes.   A  selected  panel  of  judges  also  chose  1st,   2nd,  and  3rd  place  best-­‐dressed  students   and  teachers  each  day.   Activities  aimed  to  unite   classes  were  also   conducted  and  included   making  a  plaque,   designating  a  class   mascot,  and  reciting  a   cheer;  as  well  as  a  game   of  dodge  ball.   Spirit  points  go  beyond  just  Spirit  Week   and  were  awarded  for  p articipation  in  the   Annual  Movie  Premiere  and  will  be   earned  by  the  winners  of  Field  Day.   Day  1:  Continents  Day   Day  2:  Childhood  T.V.  S hows   Day  3:  Movie  Day   Day  4:  Color  Day   As  Vice  President  of  the  Student  Council  I   speak  on  behalf  of  my  board  when  I  say  we  are   proud  of  the  participation  and  enthusiasm  from   the  school  and  hope  future  boards  make  a   tradition  out  of  Spirit  Week.     Results  (so  far):     1st  place  –  11th  grade     2nd  place  –  12th  grade   3rd  place  –  8th  grade     However,  anything  can  happen  between  now   and  M ay!   10    


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December Issue 2015 WORLD NEWS U.S Shootings people and 21 injured within a 4-day period.   e fe M n   ik   al By: Robi Frederick A total of 462 people have been killed this year in mass shootings, making the US become the country with the most mass shootings in a year. This pattern of violence has been very prevalent in the past years of the United States. However it has significantly heightened in these past two weeks, resulting in the deaths of 17 Ri zw an  Fa T h as ro ok   Ro be rt   Le wi s  D e ar   San Bernardino Shooting Planned Parenthood Shooting When: November 27, 2015 Where: Colorado Springs, CO in a Planned Parenthood clinic Casualties: 3 killed, 4 wounded Who: Robert Lewis Dear Motive: Planned Parenthood has been criticized by antiabortion groups for the organization’s use of fetal organs for research. However, the particular motives of Lewis Dear are still to be examined as law enforcement officials are still gathering evidence. As of right now, the only words Lewis Dear mentioned at the shooting were “baby parts”.     When: December 2, 2015 Where: San Bernardino, CA during a Christmas party for employees of the San Bernardino public health department Causalities: 14 killed, 17 injured Who: Tashfeen Malik and Syed Rizwan Farook (married couple) Motive: Since attack happened fairly recently, FBI is still determining whether the shooting was caused by a workplace dispute, an act of terrorism, or both. Evidence of extreme planning was found, but there is only little evidence that the shooting was inspired by ISIL. ISIL has stated that the couple is a supporter of the group, as well as Tashfeen Malik (the female shooter) made a public declaration of loyalty to ISIS on Facebook while the attack happened. However, that does not mean that they were officially members of the terrorist organization. The FBI is focused on the motives of the two killers, rather than their “support” to ISIL. 11  


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December Issue 2015 WORLD NEWS MIDDLE EASTERN WOMEN By: Abby McCarley TO WESTERNIZE OR NOT TO WESTERNIZE Although the concept of feminism originated in the early 18th century, feminism movements came about in the 19th century. Feminism began in the West and spread around the world, including in the Middle East. Feminism is the belief that men and women should hav e equal rights and opportunities. But the areas most focused on of feminism changes throughout different areas of the word. In the United States, feminism focuses more on equal pay, rape awareness, and so on. But in c ountries in the Middle East, feminism focuses on nearly all women’s rights. The rights of women in the Middle East are very limited, some countries more limited than others. Saudi Arabia is the most conservative country in the Middle East, giving it the most limits on women. It is the only country in the world where women are not allow ed to drive. In 2011, there was a Women’s-Rightto-Drive Campaign where women began driving as a form of protest. Some of these women posted videos on social media of them driving, and some without wearing the hijab, or the traditional veil for women in Islamic societies. Some of these women were arrested, yet today women are still not allowed the right to drive. “It is the only country in the world where women are not allowed to drive.”     While the Middle East certainly struggles with women’s rights, there are hopes for advances in the future. Women are fighting for their rights, even though at times it may come with a c ost. The Middle East may seem far from Saint John’s, but its conflict has affected people within our walls, including Isabelle Termaat, as mentioned in our October issue, and her sisters, Colette and Sophie Termaat. 12  


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December Issue 2015 WORLD NEWS Although feminism in the Middle East differs from feminism in the West, we should continue to strive to understand and uncover Middle Eastern women’s opinions on this conflict; Are they content with their current rights, or do they want to westernize their rights?     In   Saudi   Arabian   universities,   women   are   not  allowed  to  leave  the   campus   during   study   hours   without   a   male   guardian.  This  has  led  to   situations   such   as:   a   woman   in   labor,   who   was  not  allowed  to  leave   the  campus  because  she   did   not   have   a   male   guardian,   ended   up   giving   birth   in   the   university.   Another   situation:   a   student   needed   paramedics   but   the   ones   who   came   were   women   and   were   not   allowed   in   the   university.   As   a   result,   the  student  died.   According   to   Demographics   and   Health   Reports,   100%   of   Egyptian   woman   face   sexual   harassment.   For   instance,  an  Egyptian   woman   went   to   the   supermarket   and   was   not   wearing   her   veil.   A   teenage   boy   verbally   harassed   her   while   touching   himself   inappropriately,   and   despite  her  hopes  of   other   men   helping   her,   they   claimed   she  “brought  it  upon   herself”   for   not   wearing  the  veil.   There   are   more   liberal   countries   in   the   Middle   East,   yet   they   are   still   far   from   the   level   of   liberalism   in   the   United   States   and   other   countries.   In   Egypt,   which   is   considered   a   more   liberal   country   of   the   Middle   East,   some   women   do   pursue   degrees   in   subjects   such   as   law   and   medicine.   Sadly,   once   women   receive   these   degrees,   they   are   often   pressured   to   get   married,   settle   down,   and   become   a   housewife.   Many   women   do  not  obtain  jobs  in  Egypt;   therefore   women   only   make  up  24.2%  of  the  total   labor  force  in  Egypt.   13  


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December Issue 2015 SENIOR CORNER Don ’t Fear the Earlys By: Ivia Bou In October, there were many creatures creeping up in the shadows. There were witches plotting the demise of children, zombies in the search of brains, and the boogeyman waiting beneath our beds. There were many creatures to fear, but the greatest horror of all: Early Applications SCREAM! College is a step into the terrifying unknown, a step that begins with filling out applications. Every college application policy is unique, which means that it’ important to look into each college and their due dates and policies. There are different types of applications. Generally, there are four types: Regular admission: the due date for these applications is January 1st. This means that Seniors have their whole first semester to polish their Common App. Rolling admissions: this type of admission allows Seniors to apply during anytime of the admission period. Early decision: legally binding; if you’re accepted to the college you apply early decision, then that’s it, you can’t apply to any other. The due date for this type of application is generally late October-early November. Early admission: non-binding early application. Alanna Farrell’s early decision was due on November 2nd. As a very active student, there were moments of high stress for Alanna. Even though she started working on her Common App early, she left the essay and supplements to last minute. She remarks: “I was really stressed out. I think I had a panic attack every time I had free time because I wanted to put it off but I knew this was putting my future on the line.” Nonetheless, she later comments that she’s very happy with her Common App essay and supplements. When asked what advice Alanna Farrell would give to the Juniors, she said, “Don’t hesitate to really show off what you’ve done. I think some people tried to be really specific in the time they took in their activities, but there a lot more leeway. Don’t underrepresent yourself; go a little over, it’s okay.” Here’s some advice: Senior year is stressful, and the best way to deal with it is by being responsible. Start early to apply early – don’t leave supplements and SAT scores to the last minute if you’re applying early to a school. Save yourself from frightful nights and chilling nightmares! UPDATE: Alanna was accepted Early Decision to Johns Hopkins University Class of 2020! Applying early-anything to any college is stressful. It requires efficient time-management and dedication to spend some late nights working on applications. Senior Alanna Farrell shares her thoughts on this: “The most stressful part was the Common App essay and supplements. Colleges emphasize how crucial they are for admission.”   14  


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December Issue 2015 FEATURE   0016: LICENSED TO DRIVE By: Andrés Estrella 16 candles, 1 license. At 13 you are a teen, at 16 you turn a wheel. Getting a driver's license requires several steps, including filling out and submitting documents as well as taking tests. W ith the Learner’s Permit you are allowed to drive, as long as a fully-lic ensed adult is in the c ar with you.   A Learner’s Permit is valid for up to 5 years, but if you want an ac tual lic ense, you are allowed to take the D river’s Test 6 months after the learner’s permit was issued. To be able to take the D river’s Test you need to have either a pre-lic ensing c ourse or a driver educ ation c ourse.   Pre-Licensing course adds up to 5 hours and offers training in: A. The DMV point system B. Rules of the Road C. Car-restraint systems and the laws of physics D. The Defensive Driving techniques E. The effects of attitude, emotion and skills on driver safety F. Drug and alcohol impairment. An approved driver’s education course consists of: 24 hours of classroom training, and 24 hours of behindthe-wheel instruction.   To be able to take the Driver’s Test your parents must sign a “Certification of Supervised Driving”, which means that you must accumulate 50 hours of supervised driving (15 hours at night, and 10 hours in heavy traffic).   15  



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