Know A Rubber & Tyre Leader - David Shaw

 

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David Shaw, is a tall leader and a global expert on the international tire and rubber industry. In this interview with RMW, he answers a wide topic on trends, growth drivers, innovation, sustainability, tire design, machinery improvements,etc

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Know A Rubber & Tyre http://rubbermachineryworld.com LEADER In 10 on i t s e Qu s INTERVIEW WITH CEO - Tire Industry Research DAVID SHAW 11 Tyre Building Innovations in 15 Developments Machinery 21 Tyres Sustainable 24 India or China? 30 Machinery Advice

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| Interviewer’s Note | “A leader is one who knows the way, goes the way and shows the way” - John C. Maxwell This quote aptly summarizes David Shaw. True leaders are few and probably the main reason (when we find one!), we look towards them for inspiration and guidance regularly. David Shaw (or Dave to his friends and well-wishers), is a tall leader and a global expert on the international tire and rubber industry. I consider it a privilege to know him and present his thoughts to you in this special edition. Dave has studied tire manufacturing, raw materials, processes and technologies and how they vary around the world. This deep technical knowledge, built up over 25 years combined with a thorough understanding of branding, pricing and distribution channels, gives him a unique advantage to analyse regional and global strategies in car, light truck, heavy truck & speciality tires. With exceptional knowledge, clarity, relevance and insight, Dave offer both overviews and detailed analyses of companies, markets, sectors, segments and regions as a strategy consultant. Once you finish reading his passionate interview, you will agree when I say that I felt sad, we could ask him only 10 questions under our format. But hey! you can always reach Dave on his site www.TireIndustryResearch.com. I hope you find this interview insightful and informative. As always, I welcome your feedback on rubbermachineryworld@gmail.com. Best Regards Prasanth Warrier True leaders are few and probably the main reason (when we find one!), we look towards them for inspiration and guidance regularly. 3 rubbermachineri rubbermachineryworld +Rubbermachineryworld1 grp/home?gid=8252803 rubbermachineri Know A Leader - Rubber Machinery World | DEC 2015

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| LEADER - INTERVIEW | 4 “Soon after 1989, it became clear to me that the rubber industry was one that I enjoyed and wanted to be a part of” Know A Leader - Rubber Machinery World | DEC 2015

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| LEADER - INTERVIEW | PRASANTH WARRIER (PW): Hello David. First of all thank you for accepting an interview with Rubber Machinery World (RMW) and sharing your thoughts. DAVID SHAW (DS): Hi Prasanth. First, may I congratulate you on your initiatives in the rubber machinery business. I have been following your progress and wish you the very best of success in this new venture. Also, I feel honoured that you have invited me to participate in this enterprise. PW: Thanks Dave. The pleasure and privilege is mine. PW: From Engineering Design Education Officer to a global expert on the tyre and rubber industry is an amazing transition. Looking back, was this a goal-oriented shift for you or an outcome of opportunities that presented itself at various moments of your career? Would you highlight the keys for your success? DS: Very soon after I joined ERJ (European Rubber Journal) back in 1989, it became clear to me that the rubber industry was one that I enjoyed and wanted to be a part of. This industry is full of experts who have been in the business for many years and have an intimate understanding of the behaviour of rubber, steel cord and other ingredients. In addition, it is a relatively small industry to the point where, after a few years, you begin meeting the same people at events from Hanover to Shanghai and South Carolina to New Delhi. Four years ago ERJ came under new management. After some soul-searching, I decided to leave and to set up on my own. In that time, I have learned that the industry is transforming due to geographic changes and technological changes and that there is a new type of person coming into this industry who has great expertise in sales or marketing, but needs rapid access to knowledge and insights about the rubber and tyre sector. Part of what I do is to help those people with some analyses of different aspects of this complicated industry. 5 When I set up my company, I saw a great need in the industry for detailed insight into a series of key issues. Those were, in order of priority, sustainability issues and China. I set out to write the definitive reports analysing those issues – and a few others. Those first two reports are now available through my website at www.TireIndustryResearch.com PW: As the editor of a leading journal, I believe you have met 'who's who' in the industry over 25+ years. What were the interesting experiences that deeply influenced your thinking on tyre industry? DS: You are right – it has been a fascinating ride. I have been fortunate indeed to meet Know A Leader - Rubber Machinery World | DEC 2015

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| LEADER - INTERVIEW | with hundreds of very senior people in this industry and ask them difficult questions. Perhaps even more surprising is that these wonderful people have found the time to respond to those questions in thoughtful and considerate ways. In exchange, I hope that I can bring new insights. Through conversations with many people from different companies and different parts of the industry, I hope that I can explore the nature of this integrated business all the way from raw materials production to branding, marketing and distribution. For example, the way a tyre is made and the machinery used to make it allows new marketing messages. Equally, the way a tyre is marketed has an impact on manufacturing processes. An example: in tyres the use of 3-dimensional sipes delivers benefits in terms of life, long-term performance characteristics and handling, but that is only made possible by new manufacturing techniques such as 3-D printing for moulds and new analytical techniques such as modelling of the strength of rubber to minimise tearing during de-moulding. “Internal mixer changes from a non-reactive mechanical mixer into a reaction vessel which has to deal with exothermic reactions; increased corrosion and other challenges.” Another example is the increasing use of silica and silanes in tread compounds. From a marketing perspective, this delivers better fuel economy and wet grip. But in the manufacturing environment it forces a change in the role of the internal mixer. The mixer changes from a nonreactive mechanical mixer into a reaction vessel which has to deal with exothermic reactions; increased corrosion and other challenges. You see all kinds of claims made by marketing teams, and these often reflect new technologies used in the manufacturing environment. Conversely, requirements from customers also drive changes in the manufacturing department. Examples might include the drive to better repeatability or the requirement for short change-over times. Know A Leader - Rubber Machinery World | DEC 2015 6 “For example, the way a tyre is made and the machinery used to make it allows new marketing messages.”

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| LEADER - INTERVIEW | “Productivity, repeatability and process- flexibility have all improved tremendously in the last couple of decades.” PW: One school of thought endorsed by another expert is that there have been very few changes in tyre industry in the last 100 years. Your views? DS: I saw your interview with Jacob Peled. I like Jacob very much. He has been a good friend and teacher to me and has been in the business longer than I have, so I have great respect for his views. He is right to say that there has been limited progress in the fundamental design of much equipment in the tyre and rubber industry, but I think his analysis can be expanded. We have seen huge improvements in the detailed design. Productivity, repeatability and process-flexibility have all improved tremendously in the last couple of decades, albeit in a series of incremental improvements. The introduction of consumer labelling for tyres a few years ago in Japan, Korea and the EU led to a near-revolution in the tyre manufacturing side in which machinery makers were asked to deliver equipment that can make semi-finished components and finished tyres with tight Cpk and Cpp values. 9 Tyre building has changed massively – not only with the introduction of radial designs in the 1940s, but over the last couple of decades the need for more automation and faster size changes has led to a transformation in the design of TBM equipment and especially building drums. Although mixers still use the same principles as original designs of Thomas Hancock, the power of the rotors, the heat transfer capacity and the variety of rotor designs for high shear, intensive mixing and other processes show tremendous creativity and development. It so happens that I believe the internal mixer is close to the end of its development Know A Leader - Rubber Machinery World | DEC 2015

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AMCL MACHINERY LIMITED SERVICE TO THE NATION FOR FOUR DECADES Product Range • Rubber Mixer – 76" liter and 270 liter. • Mixing Mills – 16", 22", 26" and special sizes • Hot feed extruders – 6" and 8" • Rubber Calenders – 2/3 rolls. • Bias Tyre Building machine – RB1/RB3 • Automatic LCV Tyre Building Machine – RB1619 • Automatic Truck Tyre Building Machine-RB2022 • Mechanical Tyre Curing Presses – Scooter to Truck size • Bladder Curing Presses • Tube Splicers For all your enquiries please contact: AMCL MACHINERY LIMITED Works: Plot No.A1/1, MIDC, Butirobi-441122, Nagpur Mumbai office: 202, Ackruti Centre Point, MIDC Central Road, Andheri (East), Mumbai-400 093. Contact person: Mr. S.H. Mehta Mobile No. +91-9004697430. Email: shmehta@amcl.in Website: www.amcl.in

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| LEADER - INTERVIEW | “During the 1990s we saw a series of innovations in tyre building starting with Michelin's C3M, followed by Pirelli's MIRS, Bridgestone's BIRD and other.” cycle. I think that in the near future we will see some very significant developments in mixing technology which can overcome some of the limitations of internal mixers when it comes to high-volume, highly dispersive mixing of silica in solution SBR and high molecular-weight Nd-BR compounds. When I first started in this business in the 1980s the industry was reactive, moribund and extremely slow to adopt change. During the 1990s we saw a series of innovations in tyre building starting with Michelin's C3M, followed by Pirelli's MIRS, Bridgestone's BIRD and other innovations. These were driven by a requirement to make short runs of tyres as tyre sizes proliferated. Instead of making a production run of 100,000 units, the typical run fell to below 1000 units. Taking a halfday to switch sizes was no longer economic, so machinery makers sought to make equipment which could change from a 14-inch size to a 17-inch size with no downtime. 11 PW: Tyre design is a fascinating topic though few people really understand the differences in design between brands. How has the tyre designs really changed during the last 30 years as you witnessed it? What were the key factors driving this change? DS: In my opinion tyres today are barely recognisable as cousins of their predecessors from just a few decades ago. Of course, they Most of those new production techniques – remain black and round, but the similarities C3M and the rest – were ultimately too slow or too unreliable for continuous commercial end there. Know A Leader - Rubber Machinery World | DEC 2015

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| LEADER - INTERVIEW | Image of VMI MAXX and EXIUM Tire Building Machines use. Some of them are still are used for small volume or speciality products. Meanwhile the same drivers led more traditional machinery suppliers to develop more automated, more flexible equipment such as the Exxium from VMI's MAXX portfolio. Into the 2000s and we are seeing a total revolution in materials technology. It started with solution-SBRs and the new ability to add functional groups. The revolution continued with high molecular-weight butadiene rubbers which are difficult to mix and process, but offer better rolling resistance than earlier polymers. That revolution continues with nano-scale fillers and their requirement for highly dispersive mixing. Another driver is to use sustainable materials in tyre manufacture. These new materials include cornstarch, orange oil, low-PAH process oils; new resins, guayule-sourced natural rubber and many, many more. In the reinforcement segment we are now seeing hybrid cords mixing aramid with nylon, but also other combinations to deliver combinations of strength and shock absorption. Steel cord has moved from high “Another driver is to use sustainable materials in tyre manufacture.” tensile to ultra-tensile with a consequent reduction in mass of steel and reduction in complexity of wires, but also thinner, stronger wires mean less rubber is needed to coat them. Many of these innovations are driven by a deep need to improve the fundamental physics of filled rubber vulcanisates. A simple e-SBR/carbon black compound has three properties linked together in an eternal triangle: - Rolling resistance (fuel economy) - Wear life (longevity) - Wet grip (safety) For any individual product the balance between the three properties can be tweaked. Americans like longer life, but care less about wet grip or fuel economy, whereas Europeans tend to favour safety over longevity. However, an improvement in one area always means a compromise in one or both of the other parameters. Know A Leader - Rubber Machinery World | DEC 2015 12

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| LEADER - INTERVIEW | 14 “I also expect that compounds have to be processed with much more care in order to avoid disruption to the filler structures and structure of the inter-penetrating polymer networks. As a result we will see fewer aggressive processing techniques and an increase in low-shear; low-intervention processes.” The key driver in tyres is to expand this triangle to permit all three properties to be improved at the same time. This is the thinking behind the silica-silane revolution started in 1992 with Michelin's Green X tyre. One trend in the future will be to improve dispersion. This will reduce the number of stress concentrations due to filler agglomerations. Other trends will be to develop still further the polymer molecules and to increase the specific surface area of filler particles. This means that the compounds will be more scientifically designed and produced. I also expect that once compounds of this nature have been developed, they will have to be processed with much more care in order to avoid disruption to the filler structures and structure of the inter-penetrating polymer networks. As a result we will see fewer aggressive processing techniques and an increase in low-shear; low-intervention processes. Know A Leader - Rubber Machinery World | DEC 2015

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| LEADER - INTERVIEW | PW: What new ideas are energizing the tyre industry globally? How much of it is related to machinery developments or improvements ? DS: I have hinted above that I think the internal mixer is approaching the end of its product development cycle. Wear rates on tyres are closely linked to the uniformity of the compound on a 10nm – 100nm scale. That's the size of agglomerations of carbon black and silica particles. More discontinuities in that size range lead to greater stress concentrations and consequently increased wear under dynamic loading as seen in hard cornering or heavy braking. Current internal mixers are close to their limit when compounders want good dispersion on these scales, especially when mixing silica which likes to self-agglomerate. I think we will see some very significant changes to the mixing process during 2016. If the industry adopts these new changes – and I am convinced that they will – then the design of compounds and the care of compounds will become a new field for machinery makers. I can envisage whole new classes of machinery which are less aggressive towards the compound. This in turn should lead to lower energy costs and improved product performance. Second, the machinery suppliers have traditionally looked only at initial capital investments by tyre makers with on-going maintenance contracts where they can sell them. They have restricted themselves to the machinery. I suspect that one or two of them will venture into the raw materials supply area. Already we have seen Mesnac investigating some material properties. Today this is largely driven by a need to better understand how these materials can be processed. 15 “Current internal mixers are close to their limit when compounders want good dispersion on these scales, especially when mixing silica which likes to self-agglomerate.” Know A Leader - Rubber Machinery World | DEC 2015

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