Physics Form 5

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ministry of education malaysia integrated curriculum for secondary schools curriculum specifications physics form 5 curriculum development centre ministry of education malaysia 2006

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first edition 2006 © ministry of education malaysia all rights reserved no part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means electronic or mechanical including photocopying recording or by any information or storage retrieval system without permission in writing from the director of the curriculum development centre ministry of education malaysia level 4-8 block e9 government complex parcel e 62604 putrajaya perpustakaan negara malaysia data pengkatalogan-dalam-penerbitan malaysia pusat perkembangan kurikulum physics form 5 integrated kurikulum for secondary school curriculum specification pusat perkembangan kurikulum isbn

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table of contents page the national philosophy the national philosophy of education national science education philosophy preface introduction aims and objectives scientific skills thinking skills scientific attitudes and noble values teaching and learning strategies content organisation waves electricity electromagnetism electronics radioactivity acknowledgements panel of writers v vii ix xi 1 2 3 4 10 11 14 16 24 29 35 39 43 45

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the national philosophy our nation malaysia is dedicated to achieving a greater unity of all her peoples to maintaining a democratic way of life to creating a just society in which the wealth of the nation shall be equitably shared to ensuring a liberal approach to her rich and diverse cultural traditions to building a progressive society which shall be oriented towards modern science and technology we her peoples pledge our united efforts to attain these ends guided by the following principles belief in god loyalty to king and country supremacy of the constitution rule of law good behaviour and morality v

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national philosophy of education education in malaysia is an on-going effort towards further developing the potential of individuals in a holistic and integrated manner so as to produce individuals who are intellectually spiritually emotionally and physically balanced and harmonious based on a firm belief in and devotion to god such an effort is designed to produce malaysian citizens who are knowledgeable and competent who possess high moral standards and who are responsible and capable of achieving a high level of personal well-being as well as being able to contribute to the betterment of the family society and the nation at large vii

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national science education philosophy in consonance with the national education philosophy science education in malaysia nurtures a science and technology culture by focusing on the development of individuals who are competitive dynamic robust and resilient and able to master scientific knowledge and technological competency ix

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preface the aspiration o f the nation to become an industrialised society depends on science and technology it is envisaged that success in providing quality science education to malaysians from an early age will serve to spearhead the nation into becoming a knowledge society and a competitive player in the global arena towards this end the malaysian education system is giving greater emphasis to science and mathematics education the physics curriculum has been designed not only to provide opportunities for students to acquir e science knowledge and skills develop thinking skills and thinking strategies and to apply this knowledge and skills in everyday life but also to inculcate in them noble values and the spirit of patriotism it is hoped that the educational process en r oute to achieving these aims would produce well-balanced citizens capable of contributing to the harmony and prosperity of the nation and its people the physics curriculum aims at producing active learners to this end students are given ample opportun ities to engage in scientific investigations through hands -on activities and experimentations the inquiry approach incorporating thinking skills thinking strategies and thoughtful learning should be emphasised throughout the teaching -learning process the content and contexts suggested are chosen based on their relevance and appeal to students so that their interest in the subject is enhanced in a recent development the government has made a decision to introduce english as the medium of i nstruction in the teaching and learning of science and mathematics this measure will enable students to keep abreast of developments in science and technology in contemporary society by enhancing their capability and know-how to tap the diverse sources of information on science written in the english language at the same time this move would also provide opportunities for students to use the english language and hence increase their proficiency in the language thus in implementing the science curricul um attention is given to developing students ability to use english for study and communication especially in the early years of learning the development of this curriculum and the preparation of the corresponding curriculum specifications have been the work of many individuals over a period of time to all those who have contributed in one way or another to this effort may i on behalf of the ministry of education express my sincere gratitude and thanks for the time and labour expended mahzan bin bakar smp amp director curriculum development centre ministry of education malaysia xi

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introduction as articulated in the national education policy education in malaysia is an on -going effort towards developing the potential of individuals in a holistic and integrated manner to produce individuals who are intellectually spiritually emotionally and physically balanced and harmonious the primary and secondary school science curriculum is developed with the aim of producing such individuals as a nation that is progressing towards a developed nation status malaysia needs to create a society that is scientifically oriented progressive knowledgeable having a high capacity for change forward -looking innovative and a contributor to scientif ic and technological developments in the future in line with this there is a need to produce citizens who are creative critical inquisitive open-minded and competent in science and technology the malaysian science curriculum comprises three core science subjects and four elective science subjects the core subjects are science at primary school level science at lower secondary level and science at upper secondary level elective science subjects are offered at the upper secondary level and consist of biology chemistry physics and additional science the core science subjects for the primary and lower secondary levels are designed to provide students with basic science knowledge prepare students to be literate in science and enable students to continue their science education at the upper secondary level core science at the upper secondary level is designed to produce students who are literate in science innovative and able to apply scientific knowledge in decision making and problem solving in everyday life the elective science subjects prepare students who are more scientifically inclined to pursue the study of science at post secondary level this group of students would take up careers in the field of science and technology and play a leading role in this field for national development for every science subject the curriculum for the year is articulated in two documents the syllabus and the curriculum specifications the syllabus presents the aims objectives and the outline of the curriculum content for a period of 2 years for elective science subjects and 5 years for core science subjects the curriculum specifications provide the details of the curriculum which includes the aims and objectives of the curriculum brief descriptions on thinking skills and thinking strategies scientific skills scientific attitudes and noble values teaching and learning strategies and curriculum content the curriculum content provides the learning objectives suggested learning activities the intended learning outcomes and vocabulary 1

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aims the aims of the physics curriculum for secondary school are to provide students with the knowledge and skills in science and technology and enable them to solve problems and make decisions in every day life based on scientific attitudes and noble values students who have followed the physics curriculum will have a basic foundation in physics to enable them to pursue formal and informal further education in science and technology the curriculum also aims to develop a dynamic and progressive society with a science and technology culture that values nature and works towards the preservation and conservation of the environment 5 face challenges in the scientific and technological world and be willing to contribute towards the development of science and technology evaluate science and technology related information wisely and effectively practise and internalise scientific attitudes and good moral values appreciate the contributions of science and technology towards national development and the well -being of mankind 6 7 8 9 objectives the physics curriculum for secondary school enables stud ents to 1 acquire knowledge in physics and technology in the context of natural phenomena and everyday life experiences understand developments in the field of physics and technology acquire scientific and thinking skills apply knowledge and skills in a creative and critical manner to solve problems and make decisions realise that scientific discoveries are the result of human endeavour to the best of his or her intellectual and mental capabilities to understand natural phenomena for the betterment of mankind be aware of the need to love and care for the environment and play an active role in its preservation and conservation 10 2 3 4 2

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scientific skills science emphasises inquiry and problem solving in inquiry and problem solving processes scientific and thinking skills are utilised scientific skills are important in any scientific investigation such as conducting experiments and carrying out projects scientific skills encompass science process skills and manipulative skills science process skills science process skills enab le students to formulate their questions and find out the answers systematically inferring using past experiences or previously collected data to draw conclusions and explain events predicting stating the outcome of a future event based on prior knowledge gained through experiences or collected data communicating descriptions of the science process skills are as follows using words or graphic symbols such as tables graphs figures or models to describe an action object or event observing using the sense of hearing touch smell taste and sight to collect information about an object or a phenomenon using spacetime relationship describing changes in parameter with time examples of parameters are location direction shape size volume weight and mass classifying using observations to group objects or events according to similarities or differences interpreting data giving rational explanations about an object event or pattern derived from collected data measuring and using numbers making quantitative observations using numbers and tools with standardised unit s measuring makes observation more accurate 3

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defining operationally defining concepts by describing what must be done and what should be observed manipulative skills manipulative skills in scientific investigation are psycho motor skills that enable students to use and handle science apparatus and laboratory substances correctly handle specimens correctly and carefully draw specimens apparatus and laboratory substances accurately clean science apparatus correctly and store science apparatus and laboratory substances correctly and safely controlling variables identifying the fixed variables manipulated variable and responding variable in an investigation the manipulated variable is changed to observe its relationship with the responding variable at the same time the fixed variab les are kept constant thinking skills hypothesising making a general statement about the relationship between a manipulated variable and a responding variable in order to explain an event or observation this statement can be tested to determine its validity thinking is a mental process that requires an individual to integrate knowledge skills and attitude in an effort to understand the environment one of the objectives of the national education system is to enhance the thinking ability of students this objective can be achieved through a curriculum that emphasises thoughtful learning teaching and learning that emphasises thinking skills is a foundation for though tful learning thoughtful learning is achieved if students are actively involved in the teaching and learning process activities should be organised to provide opportunities for students to apply thinking skills in conceptualisation problem solving and decision-making experimenting planning and conducting activities to test a certain hypothesis these activities include collecting analysing and interpreting data and making conclusions 4

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