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A guide to develop and implement Heritage plans

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Designing and implementing Heritage Development Plans in districts and communities Designing and implementing Heritage Development Plans in districts and communities An illustrated guide for Development Workers, Civil Society Organisations and Cultural Institutions “Culture is at the beginning and at the end of development” (Léopold Sédar Senghor) 1 An illustrated guide for Development Workers, Civil Society Organisations and Cultural Institutions 2015

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Designing and implementing Heritage Development Plans in districts and communities An illustrated guide for Development Workers, Civil Society Organisations and Cultural Institutions 2

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Designing and implementing Heritage Development Plans in districts and communities Designing and implementing Heritage Development Plans in districts and communities An illustrated guide for Development Workers, Civil Society Organisations and Cultural Institutions “Culture is at the beginning and at the end of development” (Léopold Sédar Senghor) 2015 3 An illustrated guide for Development Workers, Civil Society Organisations and Cultural Institutions

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Designing and implementing Heritage Development Plans in districts and communities An illustrated guide for Development Workers, Civil Society Organisations and Cultural Institutions 4

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Designing and implementing Heritage Development Plans in districts and communities Table of Contents FOREWORD...........................................................................................................................7 PREFACE................................................................................................................................8 PART ONE: INTRODUCTION.........................................................................................11 1. About this Guide..........................................................................................................12 1.1 Background........................................................................................................................................ 12 1.2 Objectives, intended users and structure...................................................................................... 12 1.3 The Cross-Cultural Foundation of Uganda.................................................................................... 13 2. Cultural Rights and Culture in Development .......................................................14 2.1 What are cultural rights?.................................................................................................................. 14 2.2 Cultural heritage and its importance ............................................................................................ 15 2.3 Understanding ‘Culture in Development’...................................................................................... 17 2.4. Policies related to ‘Culture in Development’................................................................................. 20 PART TWO: DESIGNING A HERITAGE DEVELOPMENT PLAN IN DISTRICTS AND COMMUNITIES................................................................................23 3. Planning and Research .............................................................................................24 3.1 What is a Heritage Development Plan?......................................................................................... 24 3.2 Who are local culture stakeholders and supporters?.................................................................. 24 3.3. Mapping cultural heritage resources and respect of cultural rights......................................... 26 3.4 Dealing with cultural controversies .............................................................................................. 28 3.5 A SWOT-C analysis on heritage conservation and promotion .................................................. 31 4. The Design Process ...................................................................................................33 4.1. Implementing the National Culture Policy.................................................................................... 33 4.2. Local Government and civil society working together ................................................................ 34 4.3. Linking cultural rights and related needs to the local development agenda........................... 35 4.4. Reflecting heritage in the Local Government planning processes............................................ 37 4.5. Planning the development of a heritage site................................................................................ 38 4.6. Preparing a Heritage Development plan and budget.................................................................. 41 5 An illustrated guide for Development Workers, Civil Society Organisations and Cultural Institutions

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Designing and implementing Heritage Development Plans in districts and communities PART THREE: IMPLEMENTING A HERITAGE DEVELOPMENT PLAN IN DISTRICTS AND COMMUNITIES...............................................................45 5. Getting started on a heritage development plan..................................................46 5.1 Setting up a Management Committee........................................................................................... 46 5.2 Financing a heritage development plan........................................................................................ 47 5.3. Involving the community, youth and women in heritage management ................................... 50 5.4 Documenting, communicating and engaging the media........................................................... 51 6. Monitoring and Sustaining a Heritage Development Plan...............................55 6.1. Participatory monitoring and evaluation........................................................................................ 55 6.2. Developing heritage monitoring indicators.................................................................................. 56 6.3. Monitoring and evaluating the process......................................................................................... 56 6.4. Sustaining our initiative................................................................................................................... 57 PART FOUR: RESOURCE MATERIALS.......................................................................59 7 Legislation relevant to culture and culture in development..............................60 8. Key websites ...............................................................................................................65 An illustrated guide for Development Workers, Civil Society Organisations and Cultural Institutions 6

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Designing and implementing Heritage Development Plans in districts and communities FOREWORD The concept of culture is one on which people take very divergent positions. Culture may be cherished by many and derided by others with equal measure. In spite of this, there is agreement that culture is a product of humankind and that it is passed on from generation to generation for eternity, in the form of tangible or intangible heritage. On the place of culture in human development there seems to be no agreement, yet. Conventional economists and planners sometimes portray culture as an impediment to development. This attitude is however beginning to thaw as the role of culture (and all its facets) in development is being gradually recognised and acknowledged. The United Nations Conference on Trade and Development in the Creative Economy Report (2008) argued that culture “… can foster income generation, job creation and export earnings while promoting social inclusion, cultural diversity and human development.” To turn this recognition to action, there is a need to create awareness among policy makers, planners and investors to the fact that the neglect of culture in the development process over the years has indeed undermined development. There is therefore a need to deliberately incorporate cultural heritage into the planning process from community to national levels, as well as in institutions, not only for its economic benefits but also for its intrinsic value. Cultural heritage must therefore be embedded in all development plans at all levels. Furthermore, there is a need to enhance cooperation between government, the private sector, development agencies, civil society and communities to improve the perceptions and management of cultural heritage. The publication of this Guide by CCFU fills the gap by providing a tool to meet that need. The Guide will help stakeholders, theoreticians and practitioners in cultural heritage raise the stakes of cultural heritage in the development process. It is a valuable resource for ensuring a systematic approach and providing practical guidance on developing, implementing and monitoring heritage development plans in districts and in communities. This is particularly important for Uganda, given the wealth of cultural diversity in the country as well as Government commitment to culture in the Vision 2040. The Guide will also test the application in Uganda of the various national and international legal and policy documents and instruments related to culture and heritage. I urge policy makers, development workers, culture-focused civil society organisations, traditional institutions, faith-based organisations and other stakeholders in culture and development to use the Guide to facilitate the preservation and promotion of cultural heritage as well as to ensure culturally sensitive sustainable development. Augustine Omare-Okurut Secretary-General, Uganda National Commission for UNESCO 7 An illustrated guide for Development Workers, Civil Society Organisations and Cultural Institutions

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Designing and implementing Heritage Development Plans in districts and communities PREFACE Many Ugandans will agree that our cultural heritage is an important source of identity, unity and sense of belonging, and that it provides a potentially powerful force for mobilisation to face our development challenges. The responsibility to preserve and promote our heritage however often lies in the hands of a few – out of privilege, duty or at best, a deep sense of value attached to culture. This is in a context where our Constitution recognises the value of culture and provides for its preservation and promotion and where the implementation of culture-related matters is decentralised. Such matters are therefore in the hands of both national and district policy makers and other stakeholders. At both levels there are however competing development priorities which often do not allow for sufficient resources to be invested in culture. As a result, limited experience has been built in our districts on how to identify, develop and promote cultural heritage resources. Since its inception in 2006, the Cross-Cultural Foundation of Uganda (CCFU) has been engaged in various programmes to illustrate the value of culture in development. Having worked with diverse stakeholders, CCFU recognised a genuine desire to promote and preserve cultural heritage across the country. We came across individuals and organisations that had started initiatives to preserve and promote their cultural heritage for posterity, often with a specific focus on the youth. This revealed both the wealth of the cultural heritage - represented by our diverse indigenous groups - , and the resilience, passion and sheer determination to enjoy, express and access culture that these initiatives demonstrated. Also evident however was a lack of clarity on how to develop the existing heritage resources into viable ventures for posterity and sustainable economic development. The absence of well-defined heritage plans whose outcomes could be linked to national development often also led to a perception that cultural heritage is of little relevance and economic value. Informed by these findings, CCFU has since 2012 managed a programme on ‘Enhancing Cultural Rights through Heritage Promotion’ through which diverse stakeholders in specific locations are facilitated to develop action plans to identify, develop, preserve and promote their cultural resources. Among other objectives, the programme aims at demonstrating the successful implementation of the Uganda National Cultural Policy in selected districts, as well as protecting and recognising the cultural assets of indigenous or ethnic minorities. District heritage plans have thus been developed and implemented in Rakai, Moyo, Adjumani, and Kibaale districts, with the participation of youth, women and men. Supported by a modest grant, stakeholders have worked An illustrated guide for Development Workers, Civil Society Organisations and Cultural Institutions 8

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Designing and implementing Heritage Development Plans in districts and communities together for three years to design, implement and monitor plans that contributed to the preservation and promotion 6 tangible heritage sites 3 intangible cultural heritage resources. Amongst the Ik, the Benet and the Bamba, Babwisi and Bavonoma indigenous minorities, a similar approach was adopted, including measures to publicise their languages and to establish community museums. Advocating for a favourable policy environment within which stakeholders are free to access, enjoy and express their cultural heritage was also a key objective and outcome of the programme. This initiative has been welcomed as an ‘eye-opener’ by our district partners, awakening a sense of cultural awareness and appreciation, and a realisation of the wealth of cultural heritage available in the different locations. It has also led to a realisation that cultural rights are violated when access to heritage and sacred sites (especially within forest reserves and privately owned property) is restricted, or when dominant forms of cultural expression threaten the use of indigenous minority languages and marginalise people on the basis of their cultural identity. Nevertheless, the programme has drawn the commitment and contributions of diverse stakeholders to a common goal to preserve and promote their heritage, in all its diversity. This guide draws on processes, tools and techniques used to implement this programme. We also introduce the concepts of ‘cultural rights’ and ‘culture in development’; provide guidance on designing, implementing, sustaining and monitoring a heritage development plan and provide selected resource materials on legislation and other relevant topics. Developing heritage development plans does not come without challenges. In the course of our work in many parts of Uganda, we were confronted with cultural practices and principles that contradict aspects of human rights and in some cases were perceived as oppressive, especially to women. We have therefore highlighted here some of the common cultural controversies that may be experienced in the process of developing and implementing heritage development plans and have suggested ways through which these may be addressed. It is our hope that this guide will prove to be a valuable resource for the custodians of our national cultural heritage in the public and private sectors, for learners and teachers, and for the present and future generations. Emily Drani, Executive Director, The Cross-Cultural Foundation of Uganda 9 An illustrated guide for Development Workers, Civil Society Organisations and Cultural Institutions

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Designing and implementing Heritage Development Plans in districts and communities An illustrated guide for Development Workers, Civil Society Organisations and Cultural Institutions 10

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Designing and implementing Heritage Development Plans in districts and communities PART ONE INTRODUCTION 11 An illustrated guide for Development Workers, Civil Society Organisations and Cultural Institutions

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Designing and implementing Heritage Development Plans in districts and communities 1. About this Guide 1.1 Background This guide is the result of experiences in developing and implementing three district heritage protection and development plans in Rakai, Moyo-Adjumani and Kibaale over a three year period, as part of CCFU’s programme to ‘Enhance Cultural rights through Heritage Promotion’. In each of these districts, capacity building events were held for key cultural resource persons (men and women, young and not-soyoung) representing cultural institutions, local government, religious institutions, culture-focused non-governmental organisations and community-based organisations, and other resourceful individuals. This allowed a common understanding of cultural heritage to emerge and heritage resources to be mapped and their status discussed. A Heritage Development Plan was then collectively developed and a Management Committee with representatives from key institutions established to oversee its implementation. A small grant was provided and the implementation of the Plan was jointly monitored by the Committee and CCFU. These experiences provided practical examples, and tested the use of tools and methodology for developing and implementing heritage plans in districts and communities, thus showing how, in a practical way, the National Cultural Policy can be implemented in other districts and communities. 1.2 Objectives, intended users and structure This guide has been prepared to help stakeholders in districts and communities to develop and implement heritage development plans. It may also provide an accessible instrument for other interested parties who wish to preserve their culture through a heritage development plan in their locality. This document is therefore intended for Development Workers (including Community Development Officers at district and sub-county levels, Cultural Officers), culture-focused civil society organisations, traditional institutions and other stakeholders who wish to preserve cultural heritage. The guide is divided into four main parts. In addition to this introductory text, Part 1 outlines definitions, key concepts and the relevant policy context. A brief introduction to the Cross-Cultural Foundation of Uganda is also provided. Part Two provides guidance on the design of a heritage plan, while Part 3 focuses on implementation, support and monitoring. Processes, methodology and strategies are also described, using examples from the CCFU programme. Part 4 provides a list of resource materials related to the recommended processes and to a general understanding of cultural heritage. This document has been produced with the generous financial support of Bread for the World/ Protestant Development Services. 12 An illustrated guide for Development Workers, Civil Society Organisations and Cultural Institutions

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Designing and implementing Heritage Development Plans in districts and communities 1.3 The Cross-Cultural Foundation of Uganda CCFU is a nationally registered non-governmental organisation established in 2005. It is governed by a Board of Trustees that includes representatives from the Ministry of Tourism, Wildlife and Antiquities, the Uganda National Commission of UNESCO, a traditional cultural institution and civil society organisations. CCFU’s mission is ‘to promote the recognition of culture as vital for human development that responds to our national identity and diversity’. The Foundation was established with the conviction that culture is not sufficiently taken into account to guide our nation’s development. As a result, many development initiatives are not sustained because they tend to depend on thinking and resources that come from outside Uganda. The Foundation therefore recognises that, while some aspects of culture are no longer relevant to our current context, there are positive and varied aspects that should be better used to inform our development as communities and as a nation. Guided by its mission, the Foundation has three interlinked programmes: ‘Culture in Development’, ‘Promoting Cultural Heritage’ and ‘Enhancing Cultural Rights’. Under these programmes, CCFU carries out research and documentation on the role of culture in development, implements a heritage education programme in close to 70 secondary schools across the country, supports 25 community museums as centres of cultural heritage, and promotes pluralism and an appreciation of cultural diversity in Uganda in collaboration with universities and other civil society organisations. CCFU works in partnership with various development partners at district, national and international levels to promote an appreciation of cultural heritage and the need for its preservation. CCFU is accredited under the UNESCO Convention for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage and is a member of the International National Trusts Organisation (INTO). For more information, please visit www.crossculturalfoundation.or.ug 13 An illustrated guide for Development Workers, Civil Society Organisations and Cultural Institutions

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Designing and implementing Heritage Development Plans in districts and communities 2. Cultural Rights and Culture in Development 2.1 What are cultural rights? The objective of this guide is to illustrate how heritage resources and cultural rights can be protected and promoted in a structured way. It may therefore be useful, as a starting point, to clarify what is meant by ‘cultural rights’. Cultural rights are often poorly understood – contrary to other rights that are protected under international law. One reason for this is that attention has only recently been given to economic, social and cultural rights, compared to, say, the rights of women or the Universal Declaration of Human Rights that dates back to 1948. Another reason is that culture – and therefore cultural rights - are not easy to define (Box 1). Another difficulty is that we are born as ‘cultural individuals’: we are raised from birth within a cultural context. Unless we are exposed in some significant way to other cultures as well, we rarely develop an awareness of many of the distinctive characteristics of our own culture, such as our ways of greeting, or our food. They are, for us, simply “givens.” So, to think about cultural rights, we need to treat consciously something that is often largely taken for granted by most of us. A further problem arises when culture is linked to practices, values and beliefs we strongly cherish. This can lead to conflicts, for instance when there seems to be a clash Box 1 – Culture is not easy to define Note the diversity of definitions: • “A ‘whole way of life’ because it informs the underlying belief systems, worldviews (…) that shape international relations as well as human interaction with the environment” (Nurse, 2006) • Fine arts and science • “The customary beliefs, social forms, and material traits of a racial, religious, or social group” (Webster dictionary) • “A constantly changing set of values, identities, traditions and aspirations that govern the way we identify ourselves and relate as individuals, communities and nations.” (CCFU, 2009) between human rights and cultural practices. Women’s rights provide a good example of this: men might dispute women’s rights to self-determination and property ownership, citing “tradition” or “culture”. Cultural rights are thus sometimes in tension with other rights but, because culture informs all aspects of our identity and our lives, they are also closely connected with other types of rights and indeed provide a starting point to understand the local perceptions of “rights”. In spite of these difficulties, there is an increasing appreciation throughout the world that cultural rights are important. It is now generally agreed that cultural rights concern language; cultural and artistic production; participation in cultural life; cultural heritage; An illustrated guide for Development Workers, Civil Society Organisations and Cultural Institutions 14

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Designing and implementing Heritage Development Plans in districts and communities intellectual property rights; and minorities’ access to culture, among others. One definition of cultural rights is as follows: “Cultural rights are human rights that aim at assuring the enjoyment of culture and its components in conditions of equality, human dignity and non-discrimination” (Geneva International Centre for Justice). Cultural rights may also be defined as the rights to access, express and enjoy one’s culture without interference from the State or other stakeholder:  The right to access and promote one’s culture includes the production of goods and services; the right to exercise one’s cultural practices; to access education and freely impart information on one’s cultural heritage for both present and future generations; and the right to access sites and spaces of cultural and historical significance.  The right to express one’s culture refers to the freedom to express one’s cultural identity (alone or in community with oth- ers) and to communicate how one wishes to be recognised so as to know and to have one’s culture respected. This includes the human and cultural meaning that an individual or group attach to their existence and to their environment. It refers to common cultural points of reference which an individual or group identity with and wish to preserve and develop. The freedom to express oneself in public or in private in a language(s) of one’s choice is an important aspect of cultural rights.  Thus cultural rights refer to the holistic enjoyment of - and participation in - cultural life of one’s choice. 2.2 Cultural heritage and its importance This guide focuses on identifying cultural heritage and exercising cultural rights by implementing heritage development plans. So what do we understand by cultural heritage? It could be defined as “an expression of the ways of living developed by a community and Access to one’s heritage is an important human right – students at Mother Theresa School in Adjumani have formed a Heritage Club, as have many others throughout Uganda. 15 An illustrated guide for Development Workers, Civil Society Organisations and Cultural Institutions

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