6th Grade SOL Study Helper

 

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u.s history to 1865 study guide history and social science standards of learning curriculum framework 2008 new reformatted version created by solpass www.solpass.org st an dar d usi 2a co nt ine n t s o ce ans the student will use maps globes photographs pictures or tables to a locate the seven continents and five oceans continents are large land masses surrounded by water what a r e the sev en con tin ents what a r e the f iv e o cea n s oceans · atlantic ocean · pacific ocean · arctic ocean · indian ocean · southern ocean note europe is considered a continent even though it is not entirely surrounded by water the land mass is frequently called eurasia continents · · · · · · · north america south america africa asia australia antarctica europe s ta ndardusi 2b geographicre gi onsb locate and describe the location of the geographic regions of north america coastal plain appalachian mountains canadian shield interior lowlands great plains rocky mountains basin and range and coastal range geographic regions have distinctive characteristics whe re th e geo g ra phic r egio nsofno rt h ame ric a lo c a ted a nd wh at a re a re thei r phys i ca l cha ra cte r ist i cs coastal plain ­ ­ located along the atlantic ocean and gulf of mexico broad lowlands providing many excellent harbors located west of the coastal plain extending from eastern canada to western alabama includes the piedmont old eroded mountains oldest mountain range in north america canadian shield ­ ­ wrapped around the hudson bay in a horseshoe shape hills worn by erosion and hundreds of lakes carved by glaciers located west of the appalachian mountains and east of the great plains rolling flatlands with many rivers broad river valleys and grassy hills appalachian highlands ­ interior lowlands ­ ­ ­

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great plains ­ ­ located west of the interior lowlands and east of the rocky mountains flat lands that gradually increase in elevation westward grasslands basin and range ­ ­ located west of the rocky mountains and east of the sierra nevadas and the cascades varying elevations containing isolated mountain ranges and death valley the lowest point in north america located along the pacific coast stretching from california to canada rugged mountains and fertile valleys coastal range rocky mountains ­ ­ ­ located west of the great plains and east of the basin and range rugged mountains stretching from alaska almost to mexico high elevations contains the continental divide which determines the directional flow of rivers ­ ­ s ta ndardusi 2c wat erfe at ur es c locate and identify the water features important to the early history of the united states great lakes mississippi river missouri river ohio river columbia river colorado river rio grande st lawrence river atlantic ocean pacific ocean and gulf of mexico the united states has access to numerous and varied bodies of water bodies of water support interaction among regions form borders and create links to other areas what a r e the m ajo r bod ies of wate r in the u nite d s ta t es · · · the ohio river was the gateway to the west inland port cities grew in the midwest along the great lakes the mississippi and missouri rivers were used to transport farm and industrial products they were links to united states ports and other parts of the world the columbia river was explored by lewis and clark the colorado river was explored by the spanish the rio grande forms the border with mexico the pacific ocean was an early exploration destination the gulf of mexico provided the french and spanish with exploration routes to mexico and other parts of america the st lawrence river forms part of the northeastern border with canada and connects the great lakes to the atlantic ocean major bodies of water · · · · oceans atlantic pacific rivers mississippi missouri ohio columbia colorado rio grande st lawrence river lakes great lakes gulf gulf of mexico what aresome wa y s bo die s o f wate r in the u nite d s ta t es ha ve suppo rt ed int er ac ti on a mong reg io ns an d c reated l i nk s to o the r are as · · · · · trade transportation exploration and settlement · the atlantic pacific and gulf coasts of the united states have provided access to other parts of the world the atlantic ocean served as the highway for explorers early settlers and later immigrants · ·

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s ta ndardusi 2d geographicfe at uresd recognize key geographic features on maps diagrams and/or photographs · · · · wh at a re some i mpo rt a nt cate go r ies o f geo gr aph i c feat ur es geographic features are related to patterns of trade the locations of cities and towns the westward frontier movement agricultural and fishing industries it is important to recognize key geographic features on maps diagrams and/or photographs landforms and water features set the stage for and influence the course of events in united states history wh at d o the se im por ta nt geog ra ph ic fe atu res l oo k l ik e w h en they app ea r on ma ps g lob es an d dia gr ams and inpi ctu re s and photo gr aphs wh y a re geo gr aph i c f ea ture s imp or tant i n un ite d s ta tes hist or y key geographic features · ­ ­ ­ ­ · ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ water-related lakes rivers tributaries gulfs and bays land-related mountains hills plains plateaus islands peninsulas

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u.s history to 1865 study guide history and social science standards of learning curriculum framework 2008 new reformatted version created by solpass www.solpass.org s ta ndardusi 3a arch ae ol og y the student will demonstrate knowledge of how early cultures developed in north america by a describing how archaeologists have recovered material evidence of ancient settlements including cactus hill in virginia archaeology is the recovery of material evidence remaining from the past archaeological discoveries of early indian settlements have been made in southeastern virginia why isar chae ol og yimpo rta nt archaeologists study human behavior and cultures of the past through the recovery and analysis of artifacts scientists are not in agreement about when and how people first arrived in the western hemisphere whe re is o ne o f t he o ld est ar cheo l og ic al s ites in th e un ited s tate s lo c ated cactus hill is located on the nottoway river in southeastern virginia evidence that humans lived at cactus hill as early as 18,000 years ago makes it one of the oldest archaeological sites in north america s ta ndardusi 3b am e rican i ndia n pe op lesb locate where the american indians lived with emphasis on the arctic inuit northwest kwakiutl plains lakota southwest pueblo and eastern woodlands iroquois prior to the arrival of europeans american indians were dispersed across the different environments in north america in whic h a rea s d id th e a mer i can ind ia ns l ive american indians lived in all areas of north america · inuit inhabited present-day alaska and northern canada they lived in arctic areas where the temperature is below freezing much of the year kwakiutl homeland includes the pacific northwest coast characterized by a rainy mild climate lakota people inhabited the interior of the united states called the great plains which is characterized by dry grasslands pueblo tribes inhabited the southwest in presentday new mexico and arizona where they lived in desert areas and areas bordering cliffs and mountains · · · 1

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· iroquois homeland includes northeast north america called the eastern woodlands which is heavily forested whe re do a me ri ca n i nd i ans l ive today skins and plants they constructed shelters from resources found in their environment e.g sod stones animal skins wood types of resources · · · natural resources things that come directly from nature human resources people working to produce goods and services capital resources goods produced and used to make other goods and services ho w did ame r ic an indi a ns u se natu ra l hu man and ca pit al reso ur ces members of these tribes live in their homelands and in many other areas of north america today s ta ndardusi 3c in di an s ­ e n vi ro n m en t r es o u rc es c describe how the american indians used the resources in their environment natural resources the fish american indians caught wild animals they hunted and crops they grew were examples of natural resources geography and climate affected how the various american indian groups met their basic needs resources influenced what was produced and how it was produced how did geo gr aph y a nd cl i mate a f fec t the wa yame ric a n indi an grou ps m et thei r ba sic n eeds in the past american indians fished hunted and grew crops for food they made clothing from animal human resources people who fished made clothing and hunted animals were examples of human resources capital resources the canoes bows and spears american indians made were examples of capital resources 2

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u.s history to 1865 study guide history and social science standards of learning curriculum framework 2008 new reformatted version created by solpass www.solpass.org · · · why did e u ropean co unt ri es com pete fo r po we rinno rth ame ric a motivations for the explorations economic gold natural resources and trade religious spread christianity competitions for empire and belief in superiority of own culture what we re the obst ac le s fac edby the exp lo re r s s ta ndardusi 4a euro p e an exp l orat ion the student will demonstrate knowledge of european explorations in north america and west africa by a describing the motivations for obstacles to and accomplishments of the spanish french portuguese and english explorations obstacles to the explorations · · · · poor maps and navigational tools disease and starvation fear of the unknown lack of adequate supplies what we re the ac com p li shmen ts o f the e xp lo rat i ons accomplishments of the explorations · exchanged goods and ideas improved navigational tools and ships claimed territories see countries below · · major european countries were in competition to extend their power into north america and claim the land as their own what r egion sofn or th ame ric a we re exp l or ed a nd s ett l ed b y f ranc e e ngla nd an d s p ain regions of north america explored by spain france and england · spain francisco coronado claimed the southwest of the present-day united states for spain france samuel de champlain established the french settlement of québec robert la salle claimed the mississippi river valley for france england john cabot explored eastern canada · · what re gio n s we re exp l o red by po rt uga l regions explored by portugal · the portuguese made voyages of discovery along the coast of west africa.

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s ta ndardusi 4b co nf l ict over land b describe cultural and economic interactions between europeans and american indians that led to cooperation and conflict with emphasis on the american indian concept of land s ta ndardusi 4c g hana mali songhai c identify the location and describing the characteristics of west african societies ghana mali and songhai and their interactions with traders the interactions between american indians and europeans sometimes led to cooperation and other times resulted in conflict how did the am er i can ind ia ns a nd eu ro pean s int er act with eac h o the r ghana mali and songhai each dominated west africa in sequence from 300 to 1600 a.d cultural interaction · ­ ­ ­ · ­ ­ · ­ ­ ­ · ­ ­ spanish conquered and enslaved american indians brought christianity to the new world brought european diseases to american indians french established trading posts spread christian religion english established settlements and claimed ownership of land learned farming techniques from american indians traded with american indians american indians taught farming techniques to european settlers believed that land was to be used and shared but not owned europeans brought weapons and metal farm tools trade crops land competition for trade differences in cultures diseases african people and african goods played an important role in european interest in world resources what wa s the im por tan ce of gha na mal i an d s onghai whe n d id the emp i res o f ghan a mal i and s ongh ai exi st in af r ic a ghana mali and songhai dominated west africa one after another from 300 to 1600 a.d whe re we re the em pi re s of ghan a mali a nd songh ai loc a ted ghana mali and songhai were located in the western region of africa south of the sahara desert near the niger river how did we st a f ric an e mpi re s imp ac t eu rop ean tr ade ghana mali and songhai became powerful by controlling trade in west africa the portuguese carried goods from europe to west african empires trading metals cloth and other manufactured goods for gold areas of cooperation in economic interactions · · · · · · · areas of conflict

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u.s history to 1865 study guide history and social science standards of learning curriculum framework 2008 new reformatted version created by solpass www.solpass.org s ta ndardusi 5b new e n g lan d m i d-at l an t i c south ern co lo n i es b life in the new england mid-atlantic and southern colonies with emphasis on how people interacted with their environment to produce goods and services including examples of specialization and interdependence s ta ndardusi 5a r e as o ns fo r c o lo n i zat i o n the student will demonstrate knowledge of the factors that shaped colonial america by a describing the religious and economic events and conditions that led to the colonization of america colonies in north america were established for religious and economic reasons why did e u ro pean s esta bl ish co lon ie s in n o rth am e ri c a colonies and the reasons they were established · · roanoke island lost colony was established as an economic venture jamestown settlement the first permanent english settlement in north america 1607 was an economic venture by the virginia company plymouth colony was settled by separatists from the church of england who wanted to avoid religious persecution massachusetts bay colony was settled by the puritans to avoid religious persecution pennsylvania was settled by the quakers who wanted freedom to practice their faith without interference georgia was settled by people who had been in debtors prisons in england they hoped to experience economic freedom and start a new life in the new world · · · life in the colonies was shaped by the geographical features of the settlements economic specialization and interdependence existed among the colonies in the production of goods and services terms to know · resources natural capital or human · · specialization focusing on one or a few products interdependence two or more people depending on each other for goods and services · specialization caused the colonies to be interdependent see chart on second page 1

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h ow didclimate geographic features and other available r e s ou rcesdistinguishthethreeregi on sfromeach ot h e r geography and colonies climate appalachian mountains boston harbor hilly terrain rocky soil jagged coastline moderate summers cold winters h ow didpe op leusethenaturalresou rc e s of theirregi on t o earn a living resources natural resources e.g timber fish deep harbors human resources e.g skilled craftsmen shopkeepers shipbuilders capital resources e.g tools buildings whatarethebenefits of spec ia l iz a t io nandt ra d e specialization fishing shipbuilding naval supplies metal tools and equipment examples of interdependence the new england colonies depended on the southern colonies for crops such as tobacco rice cotton and indigo and for forest products such as lumber tar and pitch they depended on the mid-atlantic colonies for livestock and grains the mid-atlantic colonies traded with the southern and new england colonies to get the products they did not produce livestock grains fish the mid-atlantic colonies depended on the southern colonies for tobacco rice cotton indigo and forest products they traded with the new england colonies for metal tools and equipment the southern colonies depended on the new england colonies for manufactured goods including metal tools and equipment they depended on the mid-atlantic colonies for grains and other agricultural products not plentiful in the south h ow didpo li ticalandsoc ia llifeev ol ve social/political villages and churches were centers of life religious reformers and separatists civic life town meetings new england midatlantic appalachian mountains coastal lowlands harbors and bays mild winters and moderate climate wide and deep rivers natural resources e.g rich farmlands rivers human resources e.g unskilled and skilled workers fishermen capital resources e.g tools buildings villages and cities varied and diverse lifestyles diverse religions civic life market towns southern appalachian mountains piedmont atlantic coastal plain good harbors and rivers humid climate with mild winters and hot summers natural resources e.g fertile farmlands rivers harbors human resources e.g farmers enslaved african americans capital resources e.g tools buildings tobacco rice cotton indigo forest products lumber tar pitch plantations slavery mansions indentured servants fewer cities fewer schools church of england civic life counties farmers s ta ndardusi 5c col o nial l if e c colonial life in america from the perspectives of large landowners farmers artisans women free african americans indentured servants and enslaved african americans · · worked the land according to the region relied on family members for labor worked as craftsmen in towns and on plantations lived in small villages and cities worked as caretakers house-workers and homemakers were not allowed to vote had few opportunities for getting an education were able to own land had economic freedom and could work for pay and decide how to spend their money were not allowed to vote were men and women who did not have money for passage to the colonies and who agreed to work without pay for the person who paid for their passage artisans · · women · · · · · · · he colonies were made up of different groups of people whose lives varied greatly depending on their social position how did peo pl e s li ves v ar y amo ng dif fe re nt so c ia l g ro u ps inco lon ial ame ric a free african americans large landowners · · · · 2 lived predominately in the south relied on indentured servants and/or enslaved african americans for labor were educated in some cases had rich social culture indentured servants

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· · were free at the end of their contract were captured in their native africa and sold to slave traders then were shipped to the colonies where they were sold into slavery were owned as property for life without any rights were often born into slavery children of enslaved african americans were born into slavery enslaved african americans how did g reat b r itai n i mpose polit ic a l and ec onom ic c ontr o l ove r the c olo nie s economic relationships · · · great britain imposed strict control over trade great britain taxed the colonies after the french and indian war the colonies traded raw materials for goods made in great britain colonists had to obey british laws which were enforced by governors colonial governors were appointed by the king or by the proprietor a colonial legislature made laws for each colony but was monitored by the colonial governor · · s ta ndardusi 5d rel at ions bet w e en co loni es gr e at bri t ai n d political and economic relationships between the colonies and great britain political relationships · · great britain established and attempted to maintain control over the colonies england became great britain in the early 1700s 3

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u.s history to 1865 study guide history and social science standards of learning curriculum framework 2008 new reformatted version created by solpass www.solpass.org s ta ndardusi 6b re vol ut ion polit ical i de as b identify how political ideas shaped the revolutionary movement in america and led to the declaration of independence s ta ndardusi 6a dis s atis f ac tio n w ith g re at brit a in the student will demonstrate knowledge of the causes and results of the american revolution by a identifying the issues of dissatisfaction that led to the american revolution new political ideas led to a desire for independence and a democratic government in the american colonies the declaration of independence proclaimed independence from great britain it stated that people have natural inherent rights to life liberty and the pursuit of happiness what idea s a nd or ph i lo soph ies about go ve rnme nt we re exp re sse d in the de cl ar at ion of in de pen de nc e key philosophies in the declaration of independence were based upon ideas first expressed by european philosophers as great britain expanded control over the american colonies many colonists became dissatisfied and rebellious what ste ps did g r eat b r itai n take to in cr ease c ont ro l o ve r it s c o lo nie s great britain s reasons for controlling the colonies · · great britain desired to remain a world power in the american colonies great britain s desire to remain a world power resulted in a conflict with the french known as the french and indian war great britain imposed taxes such as the stamp act to raise necessary revenue to pay the cost of the french and indian war to help finance the french and indian war to help finance the maintenance of british troops in the colonies why did m an ycolo ni st s bec o me diss at is f ied w ith g rea t b rita in s c ontr o l o ve r th e c o lo nie s key philosophies in the declaration of independence · people have certain unalienable rights rights that cannot be taken away to life liberty the pursuit of happiness people establish government to protect those rights government derives power from the people people have a right and a duty to change a government that violates their rights · · · · great britain s reasons for taxation · · s ta ndardusi 6c revolution events peop le c describe key events and the roles of key individuals in the american revolution with emphasis on george washington benjamin franklin thomas jefferson and patrick henry sources of colonial dissatisfaction · · · · · the colonies had no representation in parliament some colonists resented the power of the colonial governors great britain wanted strict control over colonial legislatures the colonies opposed the british taxes the proclamation of l763 which followed the french and indian war restricted the western movement of settlers many individuals played important roles in shaping events of the american revolution who we re some o f the k ey ind i vi dua ls in the r evo l uti ona ry w ar and what ro le s d id th ey play 1

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key individuals · · · · · · king george iii british king during the revolutionary era lord cornwallis british general who surrendered at yorktown john adams championed the cause of independence george washington commander of the continental army thomas jefferson major author of the declaration of independence patrick henry outspoken member of the house of burgesses inspired colonial patriotism with his give me liberty or give me death speech benjamin franklin prominent member of the continental congress helped frame the declaration of independence helped gain french support for american independence phillis wheatley enslaved african american who wrote poems and plays supporting american independence and who eventually gained her freedom paul revere patriot who made a daring ride to warn colonists of british arrival what we re so meof th e key eve nts that occur red du ri ng the revo lu ti ona ry wa r pe r i od · other important individuals · · key events · · boston massacre colonists in boston were shot after taunting british soldiers boston tea party samuel adams and paul revere led patriots in throwing tea into boston harbor to protest tea taxes first continental congress delegates from all colonies except georgia met to discuss problems with great britain and to promote independence battles at lexington and concord the first armed conflicts of the revolutionary war approval of the declaration of independence the colonies declared independence from great britain july 4 1776 battle of saratoga this american victory was the turning point in the war surrender at yorktown this was the colonial victory over forces of lord cornwallis that marked the end of the revolutionary war signing of the treaty of paris great britain w in this treaty · · · · · · 2

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s ta ndardusi 6d col o nial adva nt ag e s d reasons why the colonies were able to defeat great britain defense of the colonists own land strong beliefs and capable leadership contributed to the american victory in the revolutionary war what adv ant ages help e d the ame ric ancolo ni st s wi n t he revo lut io na r y w ar colonial advantages · · · some colonists defense of their own land principles and beliefs additional support from france strong leadership 3

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u.s history to 1865 study guide history and social science standards of learning curriculum framework 2008 new reformatted version created by solpass www.solpass.org the constitution of the united states of america established a federal system of government based on power being shared between the national and state governments what e vent s led to the develo pmen t of th e c onst it ut ion o f t he un ite d s tate s wh at p eop le hel ped dev elop the con sti tut ion o f th e uni ted s tate s s ta ndardusi 7a art icl e s of conf e de rat ion the student will demonstrate knowledge of the challenges faced by the new nation by a identifying the weaknesses of the government established by the articles of confederation confederation to constitution · weaknesses in the articles of confederation led to the effort to draft a new constitution the constitutional convention · state delegates met in philadelphia and decided not to revise the articles of confederation but to write a new constitution · · george washington was elected president of the constitutional convention delegates debated over how much power should be given to the new national government and how large and small states should be represented in the new government the structure of the new national government included three separate branches of government ­ ­ ­ · legislative executive judicial the great compromise decided how many votes each state would have in the senate and the house of representatives the constitution was signed at the end of the convention a minimum of nine of the thirteen states had to vote in favor of the constitution before it could become law based on the virginia declaration of rights george mason and the virginia statute for religious freedom thomas jefferson these first ten amendments to the constitution provide a written guarantee of individual rights e.g freedom of speech freedom of religion the articles of confederation was a constitution written during the american revolution to establish the powers of the new national government what we re the b as ic weak ness es o f the a rt ic les o f con fed er at ion · articles of confederation · · · · · provided for a weak national government gave congress no power to tax or regulate commerce among the states provided for no common currency gave each state one vote regardless of size provided for no executive or judicial branches · · ratification of the constitution s ta ndardusi 7b cons t it ut ion b describe the historical development of the constitution of the united states · the bill of rights the development of the constitution of the united states was significant to the foundation of the american republic 1 ·

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s ta ndardusi 7c firstfivepres id entsc describe the major accomplishments of the first five presidents of the united states congress and the first five presidents made decisions establishing a strong government that helped the nation grow in size and power what m ajo r n atio nal is s ues and event s d id t he fi rst f i ve pres i dent s fac e all of the first five presidents were virginians except john adams accomplishments during the first five presidencies · ­ ­ ­ george washington federal court system was established the bill of rights was added to the constitution of the united states of america plans were created for development of the national capital in washington d.c benjamin banneker an african american astronomer and surveyor helped complete the design for the city thomas jefferson ­ ­ he bought louisiana from france louisiana purchase lewis and clark explored new land west of the mississippi river · ­ james madison the war of l812 caused european nations to gain respect for the united states · ­ · john adams a two-party system emerged during his administration · ­ james monroe he introduced the monroe doctrine warning european nations not to interfere in the western hemisphere 2

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