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history and social science standards of learning curriculum framework 2008 new reformatted version created by solpass www.solpass.org american constitutional government is founded on concepts articulated in earlier documents including those listed above influence of earlier documents on the constitution of the united states of america · the charters of the virginia company of london guaranteed the rights of englishmen to the colonists · the virginia declaration of rights served as a model for the bill of rights of the constitution of the united states of america · the declaration of civics and economics ce.2a-d study guide standard ce.2a fundamental principles foundations of american constitutional governmenta ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ fundamental principles consent of the governed limited government rule of law democracy representative government independence ­ ­ stated grievances against the king of great britain declared the colonies independence from great britain affirmed certain unalienable rights life liberty and the pursuit of happiness established the idea that all people are equal under the law established the first form of national government for the independent states maintained that major powers resided with individual states created weak central government e.g no power to tax or enforce laws led to the writing of the constitution of the united states of america fundamental political principles define and shape american constitutional government what are the fundamental political principles that have shaped government in the united states · · ­ consent of the governed the people are the source of any and all governmental power · the articles of confederation ­ limited government government is not all-powerful and may do only those things the people have given it the power to do · · · rule of law the government and those who govern are bound by the law as are those who are governed ­ ­ democracy in a democratic system of government the people rule representative government in a representative system of government the people elect public officeholders to make laws and conduct government on the people s behalf · the virginia statute for religious freedom stated freedom of religious beliefs and opinions standard ce.2b earlier documents foundations of american constitutional governmentb significance of earlier documents ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ charters of the virginia company of london virginia declaration of rights declaration of independence articles of confederation virginia statute for religious freedom the constitution of the united states including the bill of rights the constitution of the united states of america including the bill of rights · established the structure of the united states government guaranteed equality under the law with majority rule and the rights of the minority protected affirmed individual worth and dignity of all people protected the fundamental freedoms of religion speech press assembly and petition · · ·

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standard ce.2c preamble to the constitution foundations of american constitutional governmentc purposes for the constitution of the united states as stated in its preamble the preamble of a constitution sets forth the goals and purposes to be served by the government standard ce.2d amending the constitution foundations of american constitutional governmentd procedures for amending the constitution of virginia and the constitution of the united states the constitutions of virginia and the united states can be amended through processes outlined in the constitutions the virginia constitution has been rewritten several times how can the constitution of the united states be amended what are the purposes identified in the preamble the preamble expresses the reasons the constitution was written purposes of united states government to form a more perfect union to establish justice to ensure domestic tranquility to provide for the common defense to promote the general welfare to secure the blessings of liberty constitution of the united states the amendment process is complex to date there are 27 amendments to the constitution of the united states amendment process ­ proposal action by congress or convention ­ ratification by the states how can the constitution of virginia be amended constitution of virginia amendment process ­ proposal action by general assembly or convention ­ ratification by voters of virginia the preamble begins we the people thereby establishing that the power of government comes from the people.

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history and social science standards of learning curriculum framework 2008 new reformatted version created by solpass www.solpass.org civics and economics ce.3 ce.4 study guide standard ce.3a becoming a citizen the processes by which an individual becomes a citizen of the united states a citizen is an individual with certain rights and duties under a government and who by birth or by choice owes allegiance to that government how does an individual become a citizen the fourteenth amendment to the constitution of the united states of america defines citizenship as follows all persons born or naturalized in the united states and subject to the jurisdiction thereof are citizens of the united states and the state wherein they reside means of obtaining citizenship by birth by naturalization what fundamental rights and liberties are guaranteed in the first and fourteenth amendments to the constitution of the united states of america first amendment freedoms religion government may not establish an official religion endorse an official religion or unduly interfere with the free exercise of religion speech individuals are free to express their opinions and beliefs press the press has the right to gather and publish information including that which criticizes the government assembly individuals may peacefully gather petition individuals have the right to make their views known to public officials extends the due process protection to actions of the states fourteenth amendment standard ce.3c duties of citizenship the duties of citizenship including obeying the laws paying taxes defending the nation and serving in court for government to be effective citizens must fulfill their civic duties what civic duties are expected of all citizens duties of citizens laws pay taxes obey serve in the armed forces if called serve on a jury or as a witness in court when summoned immigration and naturalization particularly in the twentieth century have led to an increasingly diverse society to become a citizen through naturalization a person must demonstrate knowledge of american history and principles and the ability to read speak and write words in ordinary usage in the english language standard ce.3b citizenship s rights duties first amendment freedoms of religion speech press assembly and petition and the rights guaranteed by due process and equal protection of the laws the constitution of the united states of america establishes and protects the citizens fundamental rights and liberties few rights if any are considered absolute citizens who choose not to fulfill these civic duties face legal consequences.

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standard ce.3d responsibilities of citizenship the responsibilities of citizenship including ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ registering and voting communicating with government officials participating in political campaigns keeping informed about current issue respecting differing opinions in a diverse society standard ce.4a-g good citizenship thoughtful and effective participation in civic life depends upon the exercise of good citizenship how do individuals demonstrate thoughtful and effective participation in civic life personal traits of good citizens trustworthiness and honesty courtesy and respect for the rights of others responsibility accountability and self-reliance respect for the law patriotism participation in the school and/or local community participation in elections as an informed voter effective participation in civic life can include formulating questions analyzing information from a variety of sources expressing a position devising and implementing a plan practicing thoughtful decision making in personal financial and civic matters e.g voting civic issues a basic responsibility of citizenship is to contribute to the common good what are the ways individuals demonstrate responsible citizenship civic responsibilities are fulfilled by choice they are voluntary responsibilities of citizens register and vote hold elective office communicate with government officials to influence government actions serve in voluntary appointed government positions participate in political campaigns keep informed regarding current issues respect others right to an equal voice in government standard ce.3e community needs civic and social duties address community needs and serve the public good a democratic society requires the active participation of its citizens in what ways do citizens participate in community service ways for citizens to participate in community service volunteer to support democratic institutions e.g league of women voters express concern about the welfare of the community as a whole e.g as related to environment public health and safety education help to make the community a good place to work and live e.g by becoming involved with public service organizations tutoring volunteering in nursing homes

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history and social science standards of learning curriculum framework 2008 new reformatted version created by solpass www.solpass.org third parties introduce new ideas and/or press for a particular issue often revolve around a political personality e.g theodore roosevelt civics and economics standard ce.5c role of media in campaigns ce.5 study guide standard ce.5a political parties the functions of political parties political parties play a key role in government and provide opportunities for citizens to participate in the political process what roles do political parties play in the american political process functions of political parties recruiting and nominating candidates educating the electorate about campaign issues helping candidates win elections monitoring actions of officeholders campaigns for elective office with emphasis on the role of the media voters evaluate information presented in political campaigns to make reasoned choices among candidates the media play an important role in the political process how do citizens make informed choices in elections strategies for evaluating campaign speeches literature and advertisements for accuracy · separating fact from opinion · · · detecting bias evaluating sources identifying propaganda standard ce.5b two-party system similarities and differences of political parties a two-party system characterizes the american political process although third parties rarely win elections they can play an important role in public politics how are the two major political parties similar and how do they differ similarities between parties organize to win elections influence public policies reflect both liberal and conservative views define themselves in a way that wins majority support by appealing to the political center how does the media play a role in the political process mass media roles in elections · identifying candidates · · · emphasizing selected issues writing editorials creating political cartoons publishing op-ed pieces broadcasting different points of view differences between parties stated in party platforms and reflected in campaigning how do third parties differ from the two major parties?

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standard ce.5d campaign costs the student will demonstrate knowledge of the political process at the local state and national levels of government by d examining the role of campaign contributions and costs running for political office is expensive how has the high cost of getting elected changed campaigning for public office rising campaign costs require candidates to conduct extensive fundraising activities limit opportunities to run for public office give an advantage to wealthy individuals who run for office encourage the development of political action committees pacs give issue-oriented special interest groups increased influence standard ce.5e voter registration the student will demonstrate knowledge of the political process at the local state and national levels of government by e describing voter registration and participation voting is a basic responsibility of citizenship voter registration is required before a citizen may vote the number of citizens who register and vote is related to how important election issues are to citizens what are the qualifications for voter registration in virginia only citizens who register may participate in primary and general elections qualifications to register to vote in virginia · citizen of the united states · · resident of virginia and precinct at least 18 years of age by day of general election how to register to vote in virginia · in person at the registrar s office at the division of motor vehicles or at other designated sites · by mail-in application campaign finance reform rising campaign costs have led to efforts to reform campaign finance laws limits have been placed on the amount individuals may contribute to political candidates and campaigns voter registration is closed 22 days before elections what factors influence voter registration and turnout factors in predicting which citizens will vote · education · · age income reasons why citizens fail to vote · lack of interest · failure to register the percentage of voters who participate in presidential elections is usually greater than the percentage of voters who participate in state and local elections every vote is important.

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standard ce.5f electoral college the role of the electoral college in the election of the president and vice president the electoral college process is used to select the president and vice president of the united states how does the electoral college select the president and vice president of the united states electoral college process · a slate of electors for each state is chosen by popular vote · · most states have a winner-take-all system the electors meet to vote for president and vice president standard ce.5g participation in elections participate in simulated local state and/or national elections all citizens can learn the importance of the individual s participation in the political process either through direct involvement in campaigns or through simulations how can students under 18 participate in the democratic process student participation in the democratic process can include · participating in campaigns · participating in classroom and online simulations the winner-take-all system leads to the targeting of densely populated states for campaigning although candidates must pay attention to less populated states whose electoral votes may make the difference in tight elections the number of electors of each state is based on the size of the state s congressional representation which is based on the state s population the requirement for a majority vote to win in the electoral college favors a two-party system.

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history and social science standards of learning curriculum framework 2008 new reformatted version created by solpass www.solpass.org · · · prepares the annual budget for congressional action appoints cabinet officers ambassadors and federal judges administers the federal bureaucracy civics and economics ce.6 study guide the judicial branch · consists of the federal courts including the supreme court the highest court in the land · · the supreme court exercises the power of judicial review the federal courts try cases involving federal law and questions involving interpretation of the constitution of the united states standard ce.6a national government structure the structure and powers of the national government the constitution of the united states defines the structure and powers of the national government the powers held by government are divided between the national government in washington d.c and the governments of the 50 states what is the structure of the national government as set out in the united states constitution what are the powers of the national government legislative executive and judicial powers of the national government are distributed among three distinct and independent branches of government the legislative branch · consists of the congress a bicameral legislature consisting of the house of representatives 435 members based upon populations of the states and the senate 100 members two per state · · · · · · makes the laws of the nation approves the annual budget confirms presidential appointments raises revenue through taxes and other levies regulates interstate and foreign trade declares war standard ce.6b separation of powers the principle of separation of powers and the operation of checks and balances the powers of the national government are separated among three branches of the government in ways that limit any one branch from abusing its power how do the separation of powers and the system of checks and balances protect against an abuse of power by any one branch of the national government separation of powers the constitution of the united states in articles i ii and iii defines the powers of the legislative executive and judicial branches of the national government the executive branch · headed by the president of the united states the chief executive officer of the nation · executes the laws of the land checks and balances each of the three branches of the national government limits the exercise of power by the other two branches the legislative branch

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· the congress checks the president when legislators ­ ­ override presidential vetoes impeach and convict a president confirm or refuse to confirm federal judges/justices impeach and convict judges/justices elected officials in congress write laws and take action in response to problems or issues individuals and interest groups help shape legislation the formal powers of congress are limited by the constitution of the united states how can citizens learn the importance of the individual s participation in the policymaking process citizens including students learn the importance of the legislative process through direct involvement and/or simulations · the congress checks the courts when legislators ­ ­ the executive branch · the president checks congress when the president ­ ­ ­ ­ · proposes legislation prepares an annual budget for congress to approve call special sessions of congress vetoes legislation congress has passed standard ce.6d executive branch the roles and powers of the executive branch national level the executive branch plays a key role in the policymaking process presidential power is broad in both domestic and foreign affairs but there are limits on what the president can and cannot do what are the roles and powers of the executive branch of the national government ways the executive branch influences policymaking · proposing legislation in an annual speech to congress state of the union address · · · appealing directly to the people approving or vetoing legislation appointing officials who carry out the laws the president checks the courts when the president appoints judges/justices the judicial branch · the courts check congress when judges/justices declare acts of congress to be unconstitutional · the courts check the president when judges/justices declare executive actions to be unconstitutional standard ce.6c lawmaking process the lawmaking process national level officials who are elected to serve in the national legislature make laws all citizens can learn the importance of the individual s participation in the policymaking process through direct participation and simulations which branch of the national government has the power to pass laws national laws are made by congress legislative powers · expressed specifically listed in the constitution of the united states · implied used to carry out expressed powers how does congress make laws the lawmaking process in congress · introducing a bill by a senator or representative · · · · working in committees debating the bill on the floor of each house voting on the bill in each house sending the bill to the president to sign into law · · · cabinet departments agencies and regulatory groups interpret and execute the laws what are the roles and powers of the president the president exercises power as · · · · chief of state ceremonial head of the government chief executive head of the executive branch of government chief legislator proposer of the legislative agenda commander-in-chief head of the nation s armed forces chief diplomat architect of american foreign policy chief of party leader of the political party that controls the executive branch chief citizen representative of all of the people presidential power has grown in the years since the constitution was ratified.

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history and social science standards of learning curriculum framework 2008 new reformatted version created by solpass www.solpass.org standard ce.7b federalism the relationship of state governments to the national government in the federal system the constitution of the united states of america establishes the principle of federalism which is the division of power between the states and the national government the expansion of the national government s powers into areas traditionally reserved to the states has altered the relationship of states to the national government how does the constitution of the united states of america outline the division and sharing of powers between the national and state governments the constitution of the united states of america establishes a federal form of government in which the national government is supreme the powers not given to the national government by the constitution of the united states of america are reserved to the states the constitution of the united states of america denies certain powers to both the national and state governments primary responsibilities of each level of government · national conducts foreign policy regulates commerce and provides for the common defense · state promotes public health safety and welfare civics and economics ce.7 study guide standard ce.7a state government the structure and powers of the state government the form of government of the commonwealth of virginia is established by the virginia constitution legislative executive and judicial powers are separated at the state level of government what is the structure of virginia s state government what are some of the powers of the three branches of state government the virginia constitution distributes power among the legislative executive and judicial branches of the state government the legislative branch is the general assembly a bicameral legislature the house of delegates and the virginia senate that meets annually for a fixed number of days the executive power is exercised by the governor who is elected for a four-year term of office the governor appoints members of the cabinet who oversee specific functions of government the lieutenant governor and the attorney general are executive branch officers who are elected for a four-year term of office the judicial power is exercised by a court system that consists of four levels of courts · supreme court · · · court of appeals circuit courts district courts including small claims courts and juvenile and domestic relations courts tensions exist when federal mandates require state actions without adequate funding.

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history and social science standards of learning curriculum framework 2008 new reformatted version created by solpass www.solpass.org which powers do local government exercise virginia local governments exercise defined and limited powers including the power to · enforce state and local laws · · · · · · promote public health protect public safety educate children protect the environment regulate land use levy and collect taxes civics and economics ce.8 study guide standard ce.8a local government the structure and powers of the local government the units of local governments in virginia are political subdivisions created by the general assembly what are the units of local government in virginia the units of local government in virginia are counties towns and cities local governments exercise legislative executive and judicial powers each virginia county has an elected board of supervisors which exercises legislative powers enacting ordinances local laws and adopting an annual budget each virginia county and city has an elected or appointed school board which oversees the operation of the k­12 public schools in the county or city each virginia incorporated town has an elected town council which exercises legislative powers enacting ordinances and adopting an annual budget a mayor is elected either by the voters or the town council members each virginia city has an elected city council which exercises legislative powers enacting ordinances and adopting an annual budget a mayor is elected either by the voters or the city council members in virginia counties towns and cities a manager may be hired by the elected legislative branch to oversee the operations of the local government in every virginia locality state courts resolve judicial disputes judges of the circuit courts district courts juvenile and domestic relations courts and small claims courts hear cases in each locality which officials are locally elected the virginia constitution requires that voters in every locality elect a sheriff a clerk of the circuit court a commissioner of revenue and a treasurer standard ce.8b local vs state government the relationship of local government to the state government the authority of local governments in virginia is derived from the state what is the relationship between the state government and local governments in virginia all powers of local governments in virginia are given to them by the constitution of virginia and acts of the general assembly not all counties and cities are given the same powers cities have charters listing their powers standard ce.8c local lawmaking process the local lawmaking process counties cities and towns adopt and enforce ordinances to provide services for their residents all citizens can learn the importance of the individual s participation in the policymaking process through direct participation and simulations how do localities enact ordinances an elected board of supervisors is the local legislative body in counties and is responsible for passing laws ordinances for the county an elected council is the local legislative body in independent cities and incorporated towns individuals can have the greatest influence on the decisions made by local government officials 1

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standard ce.7c state lawmaking process the state lawmaking process members of the virginia general assembly are elected to make state laws all citizens can learn the importance of the individual s participation in the policymaking process through direct participation and simulations which branch of the virginia state government has the power to pass laws how does the virginia general assembly make laws the lawmaking process in the virginia general assembly · introducing a bill · · · · working in committees debating the bill on the floor of each house voting on the bill in each house sending the bill to the governor to sign into law standard ce.7d state executive branch the roles and powers of the state executive branch and regulatory boards the executive branch of the virginia state government enforces the laws and plays a key role in the policymaking process what are the roles and powers of the executive branch at the state level the governor of virginia exercises the formal powers granted by the virginia constitution in carrying out both the formal and informal powers of the office the governor fills several roles including · chief of state · chief legislator · chief administrator · party chief · commander-in-chief cabinet secretaries and departments agencies commissions and regulatory boards · administer laws · · · enforce laws regulate aspects of business and the economy provide services elected officials in the virginia general assembly write laws and take action in response to problems or issues individuals and interest groups help shape legislation the primary issues in the legislative process at the state level · education to promote an informed and engaged citizenry i.e establish minimum standards for local schools · · · · public health to promote and protect the health of its citizens i.e fund health benefits environment to protect natural resources i.e improve water quality in the chesapeake bay state budget to approve a biennial two year budget prepared by the governor revenue to levy and collect taxes

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history and social science standards of learning curriculum framework 2008 new reformatted version created by solpass www.solpass.org standard ce.10b judicial review the exercise of judicial review the power of judicial review is an important check on the legislative and executive branches of government what is judicial review the supreme courts of the united states and virginia determine the constitutionality of laws and acts of the executive branch of government this power is called judicial review civics and economics ce.10 study guide standard ce.10a judicial system organization the organization of the united states judicial system as consisting of state and federal courts with original and appellate jurisdiction the judicial function is exercised in a dual court system which consists of state courts and federal courts how are federal courts organized and what jurisdiction does each exercise the united states has a court system whose organization and jurisdiction are derived from the constitution of the united states and federal laws · u.s supreme court justices no jury appellate jurisdiction limited original jurisdiction · · marbury v madison established the principle of judicial review at the national level the constitution of the united states of america is the supreme law of the land state laws must conform to the virginia and united states constitutions standard ce.10c civil criminal cases civil and criminal cases courts resolve two kinds of legal conflicts civil and u.s court of appeals judges no jury appellate jurisdiction u.s district court judge with or without jury original jurisdiction criminal how are criminal and civil cases similar and different criminal case · in a criminal case a court determines whether a person accused of breaking the law is guilty or not guilty of a misdemeanor or a felony procedure for criminal cases · a person accused of a crime may be arrested if the police have probable cause · the accused may be committed to jail or released on how are state courts organized and what jurisdiction does each exercise virginia like each of the other 49 states has its own separate court system whose organization and jurisdiction are derived from virginia s constitution and state laws · virginia supreme court justices no jury appellate jurisdiction limited original jurisdiction · court of appeals of virginia judges no jury appellate jurisdiction to review decisions of circuit courts bail · the case proceeds to an arraignment where probable cause is reviewed an attorney may be appointed for the defendant and a plea is entered · a court date is set and a trial is conducted · circuit court judge with or without jury original jurisdiction for felony criminal cases and for certain civil cases appellate jurisdiction from district courts · general district court and juvenile and domestic relations court judge no jury original jurisdiction for misdemeanors in civil cases generally involving lower dollar amounts and original jurisdiction in juvenile and family cases

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· a guilty verdict may be appealed civil case · in a civil case a court settles a disagreement between two parties to recover damages or receive compensation procedure for civil cases · the plaintiff files a complaint to recover damages or receive compensation · · cases can be heard by a judge or a jury cases can be appealed standard ce.10d due process due process protections seek to ensure justice the right to due process of law is outlined in the 5th and 14th amendments to the constitution of the united states of america how do the due process protections ensure justice terms to know · due process of law the constitutional protection against unfair governmental actions and laws due process protections · the 5th amendment prohibits the national government from acting in an unfair manner · the 14th amendment prohibits state and local governments from acting in an unfair manner the supreme court has extended the guarantees of the bill of rights based upon the due process clause.

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history and social science standards of learning curriculum framework 2008 new reformatted version created by solpass www.solpass.org supply and demand interaction of supply and demand determines price civics and economics ce.11 study guide standard ce.11a market terms scarcity resources choice opportunity cost price incentives supply and demand production and consumption people make choices about how to use limited resources decide the ownership of resources and structure markets for the distribution of goods and services how do people deal with scarcity resources choice opportunity cost price incentives supply and demand production and consumption scarcity is the inability to satisfy all wants at the same time all resources and goods are limited this requires that choices be made demand is the amount of a good or service that consumers are willing and able to buy at a certain price supply is the amount of a good or service that producers are willing and able to sell at a certain price production is the combining of human natural capital and entrepreneurship resources to make goods or provide services resources available and consumer preferences determine what is produced consumption is the using of goods and services consumer preferences and price determine what is purchased and consumed standard ce.11b economic systems traditional free market command and mixed economies every country must develop an economic system to determine how to use its limited productive resources the key factor in determining the type of economy a country has is the extent of government involvement what are the basic economic questions all societies must answer how does each type of economy answer the three basic questions the three basic questions of economics · what will be produced · · who will produce it for whom will it be produced resources are factors of production that are used in the production of goods and services types of resources are natural human capital and entrepreneurship choice is selection of an item or action from a set of possible alternatives individuals must choose or make decisions about desired goods and services because these goods and services are limited opportunity cost is what is given up when a choice is made i.e the highest valued alternative is forgone individuals must consider the value of what is given up when making a choice price is the amount of money exchanged for a good or service interaction of supply and demand determines price price determines who acquires goods and services incentives are things that incite or motivate incentives are used to change economic behavior each type of economy answers the three basic questions differently what are the basic characteristics of traditional free market command and mixed economies characteristics of major economic systems · no country relies exclusively on markets to deal with the economic problem of scarcity traditional economy · economic decisions are based on custom and historical precedent.

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