7th Grade SOL Study Helper

 

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u.s history 1865 to the present study guide history and social science standards of learning curriculum framework 2008 new reformatted version created by solpass www.solpass.org s ta ndardus ii 2a ­ w es t w ar d mo ve m en t af t e r 1 8 6 5 the student will use maps globes photographs pictures or tables for a explaining how physical features and climate influenced the movement of people westward technological advances allowed people to live in more challenging environments how did people s perceptions and use of the great plains change after the civil war physical features and climate of the great plains · flatlands that rise gradually from east to west land eroded by wind and water low rainfall frequent dust storms · · · because of new technologies people saw the great plains not as a treeless wasteland but as a vast area to be settled how did people adapt to life in challenging environments inventions and adaptations · · · · · · · · barbed wire steel plows dry farming sod houses beef cattle raising wheat farming windmills railroads 1

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s tandardusii 2 b ­ r e s ou rces transpo rt ationandindustryafter 1 8 6 5 b relationships among natural resources transportation and industrial development after 1865 advances in transportation linked resources products and markets manufacturing areas were clustered near centers of population how did advances in transportation link resources products and markets transportation resources · · · moving natural resources e.g copper lead to eastern factories moving iron ore deposits to sites of steel mills e.g pittsburgh transporting finished products to national markets what are some examples of manufacturing areas that were located near centers of population examples of manufacturing areas · · · textile industry new england automobile industry detroit steel industry pittsburgh s ta ndardusii 2c ­ 5 0 s t at e s im p o r tant ci tiesc locate the 50 states and the cities most significant to the historical development of the united states a state is an example of a political region states may be grouped as part of different regions depending upon the criteria used cities serve as centers of trade and have political economic and/or cultural significance what is one way of grouping the 50 states states grouped by region · northeast maine vermont new hampshire connecticut massachusetts rhode island new york new jersey pennsylvania · southeast maryland delaware west virginia virginia kentucky tennessee north carolina south carolina georgia florida alabama 2

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mississippi louisiana arkansas · · · · · midwest ohio indiana illinois michigan wisconsin minnesota iowa missouri kansas nebraska south dakota north dakota southwest texas oklahoma new mexico arizona rocky mountains colorado utah nevada montana wyoming idaho pacific washington oregon california noncontiguous alaska hawaii what are some examples of cities that historically have had political economic and/or cultural significance to the development of the united states cities · ­ ­ ­ ­ · ­ ­ ­ · ­ ­ ­ · ­ ­ · ­ ­ · ­ ­ ­ · ­ ­ northeast new york boston pittsburgh philadelphia southeast washington d.c atlanta new orleans midwest chicago st louis detroit southwest san antonio santa fe western rocky mountains denver salt lake city pacific san francisco los angeles seattle noncontiguous juneau honolulu 3

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u.s history 1865 to the present usii.3 study guide history and social science standards of learning curriculum framework 2008 new reformatted version created by solpass www.solpass.org s ta ndardus ii 3a 1 3 t h 14t h 1 5t hame nd m e nt s the student will demonstrate knowledge of the effects of reconstruction on american life by a the impact of the 13th 14th and 15th amendments to the constitution of the united states the 13th 14th and 15th amendments to the constitution of the united states of america address the issues of slavery and guarantee equal protection under the law for all citizens what are the basic provisions of the 13th 14th and 15th amendments to the constitution of the united states basic provisions of the amendments · · the 13th amendment bans slavery in the united states and all of its territories the 14th amendment grants citizenship to all persons born in the united states and guarantees them equal protection under the law the 15th amendment ensures all citizens the right to vote regardless of race color or previous condition of servitude · these three amendments guarantee equal protection under the law for all citizens s ta ndardus ii 3 b re c o ns t ruct io n b the impact of reconstruction policies on the south and north the reconstruction policies were harsh and created problems in the south reconstruction attempted to give meaning to the freedom that former enslaved african americans had achieved what were the reconstruction policies for the south · southerners resented northern carpetbaggers who took advantage of the south during reconstruction · southern states adopted black codes to limit the economic and physical freedom of former slaves reconstruction policies and problems · · · southern military leaders could not hold office african americans could hold public office african americans gained equal rights as a result of the civil rights act of 1866 which also authorized the use of federal troops for its enforcement northern soldiers supervised the south the freedmen s bureau was established to aid former enslaved african americans in the south · · end of reconstruction · reconstruction ended in 1877 as a result of a compromise over the outcome of the election of 1876 federal troops were removed from the south rights that african americans had gained were lost through jim crow laws · · 1

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s ta ndardus ii 3c ­ li n coln le e do u gla ss c describing the legacies of abraham lincoln robert e lee and frederick douglass the actions of abraham lincoln robert e lee and frederick douglass created lasting impacts what were the lasting impacts of the actions of abraham lincoln robert e lee and frederick douglass frederick douglass · fought for adoption of constitutional amendments that guaranteed voting rights was a powerful voice for human rights and civil liberties for all · abraham lincoln · · reconstruction plan calling for reconciliation preservation of the union was more important than punishing the south urged southerners to reconcile with northerners at the end of the war and reunite as americans when some wanted to continue to fight became president of washington college which is now known as washington and lee university robert e lee · · 2

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u.s history 1865 to the present study guide history and social science standards of learning curriculum framework 2008 new reformatted version created by solpass www.solpass.org s ta ndardus ii 4a ­ w es tw ar dexp an s io n the student will demonstrate knowledge of how life changed after the civil war by a identifying the reasons for westward expansion including its impact on american indians new opportunities and technological advances led to westward migration following the civil war why did westward expansion occur after the civil war reasons for increase westward expansion · · · opportunities for land ownership technological advances including the transcontinental railroad possibility of obtaining wealth created by the discovery of gold and silver desire for adventure desire for a new beginning for former enslaved african americans · · how did the lives of american indians change with western expansion impact on american indians · opposition by american indians to westward expansion battle of little bighorn sitting bull geronimo forced relocation from traditional lands to reservations chief joseph nez percé reduced population through warfare and disease battle of wounded knee assimilation attempts and lifestyle changes e.g reduction of buffalo population reduced their homelands through treaties that were broken · · · · 1

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s ta ndardus ii 4 b ­ im migration gr owthofciti es b the reasons for the increase in immigration growth of cities and challenges arising from this expansion population changes growth of cities and new inventions produced interaction and often conflict between different cultural groups population changes growth of cities and new inventions produced problems in urban areas why did immigration increase what challenges faced americans as a result of these social and technological changes rapid industrialization and urbanization led to overcrowded immigrant neighborhoods and tenements efforts to solve immigration problems reasons for the increase in immigration · · · · hope for better opportunities desire for religious freedom escape from oppressive governments desire for adventure · · settlement houses such as hull house founded by jane addams political machines that gained power by attending to the needs of new immigrants e.g jobs housing chinese irish tenements and ghettos political corruption political machines discrimination against immigrants · · · · challenges faced by cities why did cities grow and develop reasons why cities grew and developed · · · specialized industries including steel pittsburgh and meat packing chicago immigration to america from other countries movement of americans from rural to urban areas for job opportunities 2

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s ta ndardus ii 4c se gre gat ion c racial segregation the rise of jim crow and other constraints faced by african americans and other groups in the postreconstruction south discrimination against african americans continued after reconstruction jim crow laws institutionalized a system of legal segregation african americans differed in their responses to discrimination and jim crow what is racial segregation how were african americans discriminated against jim crow laws · passed to discriminate against african americans · made discrimination practices legal in many communities and states · were characterized by unequal opportunities in housing work education and government how did african americans respond to discrimination and jim crow racial segregation · · based upon race directed primarily against african americans but other groups also were kept segregated american indians were not considered citizens until 1924 african american responses · booker t washington believed equality could be achieved through vocational education accepted social segregation · w.e.b dubois believed in full political civil and social rights for african americans · s ta ndardus ii 4d ­ i nve nt io ns b ig b us ine s s i ndus tryd the impact of new inventions the rise of big business the growth of industry and life on american farms between the civil war and world war i the united states was transformed from an agricultural to an industrial nation inventions had both positive and negative effects on society what inventions created great change and industrial growth in the united states what created the rise in big business reasons for the rise and prosperity of big business · national markets created by transportation advances · captains of industry john d rockefeller oil andrew carnegie steel cornelius vanderbilt shipping and railroads · advertising · lower-cost production what factors caused the growth of industry inventions that contributed to great change and industrial growth · electric lighting and mechanical uses of electricity thomas edison telephone service alexander graham bell · 3

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factors that resulted in growth of industry · · · · · · access to raw materials and energy availability of work force due to immigration inventions financial resources railroads oil · steel how did industrialization and the rise in big business influence life on american farms postwar changes in farm and city life · · · mechanization e.g the reaper reduced farm labor needs and increased production industrial development in cities created increased labor needs industrialization provided new access to consumer goods e.g mail order examples of big business s ta ndardus ii 4e ­ pr ogress iv e mo v e me nt e the impact of the progressive movement on child labor working conditions the rise of organized labor women s suffrage and the temperance movement the effects of industrialization led to the rise of organized labor and important workplace reforms how did the reforms of the progressive movement change the united states how did workers respond to the negative effects of industrialization negative effects of industrialization · · · · · child labor low wages long hours unsafe working conditions rise of organized labor formation of unions growth of american federation of labor strikes aftermath of homestead strike women s suffrage · · ­ increased educational opportunities attained voting rights women gained the right to vote with passage of the 19th amendment to the constitution of the united states of america susan b anthony and elizabeth cady stanton worked for women s suffrage composed of groups opposed to the making and consuming of alcohol supported the 18th amendment to the constitution of the united states prohibiting the manufacture sale and transport of alcoholic beverages ­ temperance movement · · progressive movement workplace reforms · · · 4 improved safety conditions reduced work hours placed restrictions on child labor

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u.s history 1865 to the present study guide history and social science standards of learning curriculum framework 2008 new reformatted version created by solpass www.solpass.org s ta ndardus ii 5a sp a nis h am e ri ca n war the student will demonstrate knowledge of the changing role of the united states from the late nineteenth century through world war i by a explaining the reasons for and results of the spanish american war the united states emerged as a world power as a result of victory over spain in the spanish american war economic interests and public opinion often influence united states involvement in international affairs what were the reasons for the spanish american war reasons for the spanish american war · · protection of american business interests in cuba american support of cuban rebels to gain independence from spain rising tensions between spain and the united states as a result of the sinking of the uss maine in havana harbor exaggerated news reports of events yellow journalism · what were the results of the spanish american war results of the spanish american war · · · the united states emerged as a world power cuba gained independence from spain the united states gained possession of the philippines guam and puerto rico · standardusii 5 b ­ theodorerooseveltforeignpol ic y b theodore roosevelt s impact on the foreign policy of the united states roosevelt expanded the monroe doctrine as a way to prevent european involvement in the affairs of latin american countries what were theodore roosevelt s foreign polices what was theodore roosevelt s impact on the foreign policy of the united states the roosevelt corollary to the monroe doctrine · · · asserted the united states right to interfere in the economic matters of other nations in the americas claimed the united states right to exercise international police power advocated big stick diplomacy building the panama canal 1

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u.s history 1865 to the present study guide history and social science standards of learning curriculum framework 2008 new reformatted version created by solpass www.solpass.org s ta ndardus ii 6a ­ ris i ng st andar dofl iving the student will demonstrate knowledge of the social economic and technological changes of the early twentieth century by a explaining how developments in factory and labor productivity transportation including the use of the automobile communication and rural electrification changed american life and standard of living technology extended progress into all areas of american life including neglected rural areas how was social and economic life in the early twentieth century different from that in the late nineteenth century what factors increased factory and labor productivity use of the assembly line · · henry ford automobile rise of mechanization results of improved transportation brought about by affordable automobiles · · · · · greater mobility creation of jobs growth of transportation-related industries road construction oil steel automobile movement to suburban areas the wright brothers invention of the airplane communication changes · · · · · · · increased availability of telephones development of the radio and broadcast industry development of the movies labor-saving products e.g washing machines electric stoves water pumps electric lighting entertainment e.g radio improved communications ways electrification changed american life s ta ndardus ii 6 b ­ social an deconomicc han g es b the social and economic changes that took place including prohibition and the great migration north and west reforms in the early twentieth century could not legislate how all people behaved economic conditions and violence led to the migration of people what was prohibition and how effective was it 1

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prohibition was imposed by a constitutional amendment that made it illegal to manufacture transport and sell alcoholic beverages amendment what were the economic changes during the early twentieth century why did african americans migrate to northern cities results of prohibition · speakeasies were created as places for people to drink alcoholic beverages bootleggers made and smuggled alcohol illegally and promoted organized crime repealed by the 21st great migration north and west · jobs for african americans in the south were scarce and low paying · african americans faced discrimination and violence in the south · african americans moved to cities in the north and midwest in search of better employment opportunities · african americans also faced discrimination and violence in the north and midwest · · s ta ndardus ii 6c ­ art l it e rat ure in t he 1920 s 3 0 s c art literature and music from the 1920s and 1930s with emphasis on langston hughes duke ellington georgia o keeffe and the harlem renaissance the 1920s and 1930s were important decades for american art literature and music the leaders of the harlem renaissance drew upon the heritage of african american culture to establish themselves as powerful forces for cultural change who were the leaders in art literature and music during the 1920s and 1930s what were the contributions of these leaders · music aaron copland and george gershwin composers who wrote uniquely american music how did the harlem renaissance influence american life harlem renaissance african american artists writers and musicians based in harlem revealed the freshness and variety of african american culture · art jacob lawrence a painter who chronicled the experiences of the great migration through art literature langston hughes a poet who combined the experiences of african and american cultural roots music duke ellington and louis armstrong jazz musicians bessie smith a blues singer cultural climate of the 1920s and 1930s · · art georgia o keeffe an artist known for urban scenes and later paintings of the southwest literature f scott fitzgerald a novelist who wrote about the jazz age of the 1920s john steinbeck a novelist who portrayed the strength of poor migrant workers during the 1930s · · the popularity of these artists spread beyond harlem to the rest of society 2

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s tandardusii 6 d ­ thegreatdepress io n d the causes of the great depression its impact on americans and the major features of franklin d roosevelt s new deal the optimism of the 1920s concealed problems in the american economic system and attitudes about the role of government in controlling the economy the great depression had a widespread and severe impact on american life franklin roosevelt s new deal used government programs to help the nation recover from the depression what were the causes of the great depression · high tariffs discouraged international trade how were the lives of americans affected by the great depression impact on americans · · · · a large number of banks and other businesses failed one-fourth of workers were without jobs large numbers of people were hungry and homeless farmers incomes fell to low levels causes of the great depression · people overspeculated on stocks using borrowed money that they could not repay when stock prices crashed the federal reserve failed to prevent the collapse of the banking system what were the major features of the new deal major features of the new deal · social security · federal work programs · environmental improvement programs · farm assistance programs · increased rights for labor · 3

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s ta ndardus ii 5c wwic the reasons for the united states involvement in world war i and its international leadership role at the conclusion of the war the united states involvement in world war i ended a long tradition of avoiding involvement in european conflicts and set the stage for the united states to emerge as a global superpower later in the twentieth century there were disagreements about the extent to which the united states should participate in world affairs what were the reasons for the united states becoming involved in world war i who were the allies reasons for united states involvement in world war i · · inability to remain neutral german submarine warfare sinking of the lusitania united states economic and political ties to great britain the zimmermann telegram major allied powers · british empire · france · russia · serbia · belgium · united states who were the central powers · · central powers · german empire · austro-hungarian empire · bulgaria · ottoman empire in what ways did the united states provide international leadership at the conclusion of the war united states leadership as the war ended · at the end of world war i president woodrow wilson prepared a peace plan known as the fourteen points that called for the formation of the league of nations a peacekeeping organization the united states decided not to join the league of nations because the united states senate failed to ratify the treaty of versailles · 2

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u.s history 1865 to the present study guide history and social science standards of learning curriculum framework 2008 new reformatted version created by solpass www.solpass.org s ta ndardus ii 7a the student will demonstrate knowledge of the major causes and effects of american involvement in world war ii by a identifying the causes and events that led to american involvement in the war including the attack on pearl harbor political and economic conditions in europe following world war i led to the rise of fascism and to world war ii the rise of fascism threatened peace in europe and asia as conflict grew in europe and asia american foreign policy evolved from neutrality to direct involvement how did post-world war i europe set the stage for world war ii churchill great britain and joseph stalin soviet union how did american policy toward events in europe and asia change over time causes of world war ii · ­ ­ ­ ­ political instability and economic devastation in europe resulting from world war i worldwide depression high war debt owed by germany high inflation massive unemployment gradual change in american policy from neutrality to direct involvement · · · · isolationism great depression legacy of world war i economic aid to allies direct involvement in the war rising tension developed between the united states how did the rise of fascism affect world events following world war i · ­ rise of fascism fascism is political philosophy in which total power is given to a dictator and individual freedoms are denied and nationalism and often racism are emphasized fascist dictators included adolf hitler germany benito mussolini italy and hideki tojo japan these dictators led the countries that became known as the axis powers democratic nations the united states great britain canada were known as the allies the soviet union joined the allies after being invaded by germany allied leaders included franklin d roosevelt and later harry s truman united states winston war in the pacific ­ ­ the allies · · · · and japan because of japanese aggression in east asia on december 7 1941 japan attacked the united states at pearl harbor without warning the united states declared war on japan germany declared war on the united states · 1

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