Quaderno LB_March2015-eng

 

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Quaderno del Laboratorio Biomasse, versione inglese

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Biomass Lab Analysis, quality monitoring, research and development activities Biomass Lab —- Biomass Lab Notebook —March 2015 UNIVERSITÀ POLITECNICA DELLE MARCHE Department D3A Via Brecce Bianche 60131 – Ancona – ITALY Tel: (+39) 071 220 4167 - 4297 Fax: (+39) 071 220 4167 Email: info@biomasslab.it Web: www.biomasslab.it/eng/

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Biomass Lab – Department D3A - Università Politecnica delle Marche Page 2

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Via Brecce Bianche – 60131 Ancona – ITALY - Tel/Fax: (+39) 071 220 4167 Web: www.biomasslab.it/eng/; email: info@biomasslab.it The Biomass Lab The Biomass Lab of Department D3A, Università Politecnica delle Marche in Ancona is a unit of research, service and release of scientific information on the field of solid and liquid biomasses for energy and industrial use. The work unit is made up of a group of young researchers and technicians and has facilities, equipment and instruments to address the main topics of research and development involving materials, processes and systems on the biomass field. The focus of our efforts is the lab itself combined with the ten-year experience of the staff gained within the initiatives and services with our customers and partners and national and international research projects. All the proposals contained in this brochure are designed thinking about the needs and problems of the sector and are conceived to facilitate the access to services and research to the widest number of operators. Prof. Giuseppe Toscano Biomass Lab Manager Page 3

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Biomass Lab – Department D3A - Università Politecnica delle Marche Page 4

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Via Brecce Bianche – 60131 Ancona – ITALY - Tel/Fax: (+39) 071 220 4167 Web: www.biomasslab.it/eng/; email: info@biomasslab.it Summary Analytical activities on solid biomass Analysis of pellet quality Analysis of liquid biomass Analysis of the ashes quality Combustion test and emissions analysis Biomass monitoring in plant 6 8 9 10 11 12 Setting up of biomass lab in plant Pellet and densified engineering Vegetable oil extraction tests Biomass upgrade by torrefaction and hydrothermal treatment Sustainability assessment of biofuels Development of new methods of biomass analysis Performance testing of innovative instruments for the biomass rapid analysis 14 16 17 18 20 22 23 Page 5

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Biomass Lab – Department D3A - Università Politecnica delle Marche Analytical activities on solid biomass The lab The Biomass Lab has instruments and systems for the characterization of solid and liquid biomasses for energy and industrial use. The analyses are conducted in accordance with the latest national and European standards of the energy sector. Reference standards The Biomass Lab checks regularly the update of the international standards on the biomass quality following the activities of the groups ISO / TC 238 - Solid biofuels and CEN / TC 335 - Biomass standards through the Italian Heat Technology Committee. To correctly evaluate the solid biomasses the Biomass Lab has already implemented the package of standards UNI EN ISO 17225. For the liquid biomass the reference is UNI / TS 11163: 2009. Analyses on solid biomass The analyses of the different chemical and physical parameters of a biomass allow to know its technical, energetic and environmental performance. In the following table the main characterization analyses conducted by the lab on solid biomass are listed. Thanks to the experience of the working group, the lab is able to support users in selecting the type of analysis to be performed and the right analytical approach to be followed depending on the different needs and contexts. In order to verify the quality of their analysis protocols and reliability of the results the Biomass Lab undergo verification tests organized by specialized institutions within specific round robin tests. Page 6

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Via Brecce Bianche – 60131 Ancona – ITALY - Tel/Fax: (+39) 071 220 4167 Web: www.biomasslab.it/eng/; email: info@biomasslab.it Analyses ANALYSES Solid biomass sampling Sample preparation Moisture content METHODOLOGY UNI EN 14778 UNI EN 14780 UNI EN 14774 UNI EN 14775 UNI EN 14918 UNI EN 14918 UNI EN 15104 UNI EN 15289 UNI EN 15105 UNI EN 15297 The results of the analyses The analytical process is completed in the production of a report containing the results of the analyses. The report contains information of the sample, the laboratory standards and, if it is considered necessary, the notes of the operators. The Biomass Lab is also available to evaluate the results of the analyses and to discuss possible actions to be taken. Ash content Gross calorific value Net calorific value Carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen content Sulphur and chlorine content Water soluble chloride and potassium Minor elements Major elements Bulk density Particle size distribution Content of volatile matter Ash melting behaviour Mechanical durability (pellet) Diameter and length (pellet) Fine particles (pellet) Particles bulk density (pellet) UNI EN 15290 UNI EN 15103 UNI EN 15149-2 UNI EN 15148 UNI CEN/TS 15370 UNI EN 15210-1 UNI EN 16127 UNI EN 15210-1 UNI EN 15150 How to request the analysis and send the sample To request a quote or information on other parameters write at info@biomasslab.it or call the numbers (+39) 071-2204167 or 071-2204297. In addition to the quote the Biomass Lab will provide information on the delivery method, the amount of sample to be sent and the time to return results. Page 7

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Biomass Lab – Department D3A - Università Politecnica delle Marche Analysis of pellet quality Biofuels of standard quality In recent years the use of pellet and densified biofuel has shown an increase. The success is due to the quality standards, relatively high for this category of products. On the basis of different criteria UNI EN ISO 17225-2 and 6 define the quality classes of pellets and densified. The Biomass Lab could return a complete characterization of these products and is able to verify compliance with the quality classes provided by law. Analyses ANALYSES Sample preparation Diameter and length (pellet) Bulk density METHODOLOGY UNI EN 14780 UNI EN 16127 UNI EN 15103 UNI EN 14774-1 UNI EN 14775 UNI EN 15210-1 UNI EN 14918 UNI EN 15104 UNI EN 15289 UNI EN 15297 UNI CEN/TS 15370 In the adjacent table the set of criteria important to complete the analytical framework required by the standards on pellet and determine the quality class are listed. However, it is also possible to opt for a partial characterization of the product, selecting only the parameters that are absolutely necessary to control the essential aspects of quality. Moisture content Ash content Mechanical durability Calorific value Nitrogen content Sulphur and chlorine content Minor elements Ash melting behaviour Aim The aim is to enable the manufacturer or retailer, to provide guarantees about the energy performance, the heating behaviour and the environmental aspects of the product. Page 8

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Via Brecce Bianche – 60131 Ancona – ITALY - Tel/Fax: (+39) 071 220 4167 Web: www.biomasslab.it/eng/; email: info@biomasslab.it Analysis of liquid biomass Oil and natural fats The main liquid biomass are vegetable oils. They can be removed mechanically and/or chemically from oil crops seeds or can derive from other production processes (catering wastes or residues of the food industry). The main standard for the energy use of oils and fats is UNI /TS 11163: 2009. The Biomass Lab is able to characterize the liquid biomass and to verify the compliance with the quality standards of the energy conversion plants. Analyses ANALYSES Ash content Gross calorific value Calorific value Carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen Sample preparation Fats composition analysis Content of volatile matter Thermogravimetric analysis Density Viscosity (between 20°C and 90°C) Acidity Iodine value Water content Phosphorus Sodium and Potassium METHODOLOGY ISO 6884 UNI EN ISO 6245 ASTM D240 ASTM D240 CEN/TS 15104 ISO 5509 ISO 5508 UNI EN ISO 662 UNI EN ISO 665 Method in TGA – DTA ISO 6883 UNI EN ISO 3675 UNI EN ISO 3104 UNI EN ISO 660 UNI EN ISO 3961 UNI EN ISO 12937 UNI EN ISO 8534 ISO 10540-3 UNI EN 14108 UNI EN 14109 Page 9 The list of the available analyses is shown in the adjacent table. Aim The aim is to provide a comprehensive quality framework, useful both to verify compliance with the specifications written in energy recovery systems which are intended and to have guarantees about the energy performance and the environmental aspects.

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Biomass Lab – Department D3A - Università Politecnica delle Marche Analysis of the ashes quality The ash issue The presence of inorganic ashes in biofuels represents a very critical aspect for all energetic conversion technologies. Besides being a combustion residue which needs to be constantly removed, the ashes are responsible for technical (fouling, slagging, corrosion, fly ashes) and environmental problems (fine particles). These critical issues are strictly linked to the chemical composition of the ashes, which is also responsible for their thermal behaviour (fusion and volatilization temperatures). Analyses ANALYSES Sample preparation Ash content Ash melting behaviour Mineral fraction Water soluble chloride, sodium and potassium content METHODOLOGY UNI EN 14780 UNI EN 14775 UNI CEN/TS 15370 UNI EN 15297 UNI EN 15105 Chemical-physical characterization of the ashes The Biomass Lab can analyse both the ash content and the quality of a biomass. In fact the lab is equipped with instruments for chemical characterization and thermal behaviour of the ash. To perform this determination the Biomass Lab uses analytical methodologies according to the current technical standards (see table). Page 10

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Via Brecce Bianche – 60131 Ancona – ITALY - Tel/Fax: (+39) 071 220 4167 Web: www.biomasslab.it/eng/; email: info@biomasslab.it Combustion test and emissions analysis Biomass domestic heating The combustion of woody biomasses for domestic heating (wood log, chips and pellet) represents 14.5% of the total thermal energy produced in Italy (ISTAT 2014) and is obtained almost in low heat power domestic devices (<35 kWt) such as fireplaces, stoves and boilers. Even though the biomasses are viewed with particular interest due to their renewability (directive 2009/28/CE) and cheapness compared with fossil fuels, the high emission of toxic compounds (e.g. fine PM, PAHs, CO, VOC) associated to biomass combustion restricts their diffusion. This issue is mainly associated with medium-low heat power appliances where the combustion process is not well controlled and flue gas treatment devices are no present. Combustion test and emissions measurement The Biomass Lab is equipped with portable instruments for the emissions measurement (solids and gases) released by biomass combustion devices, allowing to perform in-situ emission sampling on existing plants. Moreover, the lab has a test bench for flue measurement, consisting of:   a pellet stove (ca. 12 kWt) used to perform combustion tests on pelletized material a total flow dilution tunnel employed to measure the total particulate, including the condensable fraction (as required by Ministerial Thermic Decree December 28th, 2012), and the emissions in non-steady state combustions. Page 11

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Biomass Lab – Department D3A - Università Politecnica delle Marche Biomass monitoring in plant Biomass monitoring The monitoring of a biofuel production process or energy production process is dealt with a periodic sampling of the biomass using methods defined by appropriate normative. The analytical characterisation in laboratory of all the samples allows to create a temporal database of those chemical and physical parameters related to the biomass quality. The use of statistical tools such as control charts permits to verify whether the quality parameters fall within intervals of acceptability which are defined by the normative or by the producer itself. The use of control charts allows also to predict in advance a possible over limit and to take prevention actions. Steps of the “monitoring plan” Finding plant information Selection of parameters to be analysed Sampling method Laboratory analyses Creation of control charts Page 12

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Via Brecce Bianche – 60131 Ancona – ITALY - Tel/Fax: (+39) 071 220 4167 Web: www.biomasslab.it/eng/; email: info@biomasslab.it Solutions The Biomass Lab proposes to:     create specific monitoring plans to reach the targets of the quality control with low analytical costs take representative biomass samples to be analysed or to train the operators in the plant analyse the samples for the selected parameters in accordance with current normative create specific control charts in order to monitor the process Key targets for the plant The results of the monitoring plan allow to:     keep the energy conversion process in efficiency and/or to assure the biomass quality thanks to a preventive and planned control of the raw materials quality control and classify the suppliers on the basis of the biomass quality delivered to the plant identify the biomasses that demonstrate to be more critical for a use in plant demonstrate how to pursue targets about process quality or biomass quality. Page 13

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Biomass Lab – Department D3A - Università Politecnica delle Marche Setting up of biomass lab in plant Why to install a biomass lab in plant?      Fast results of the analyses Cost reduction of the analyses Best monitoring of biomass quality More effective environmental monitoring and possibility to carry out selfcertification protocols Arrangement for high level control system promoting the technical support of a specialized lab Lab in plant  Best decision-making capacity in the field of biomass supply Biomass Lab The four step of Biomass Lab intervention 1) Visiting plant: context analysis, definition of objectives 2) Planning: identifying possible technical solutions 3) Implementation: selection of systems and equipment and configuration of the lab 4) Training: training of technical staff Page 14

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Via Brecce Bianche – 60131 Ancona – ITALY - Tel/Fax: (+39) 071 220 4167 Web: www.biomasslab.it/eng/; email: info@biomasslab.it Analyses ANALYSES Moisture Particle size distribution Bulk density Ash content INSTRUMENTS Ventilated oven and balance Sieves, vibrating screen and balance Cylindrical bin and balance Muffle and precision balance Pellet durability machine, sieve, balance The main analyses to implement in plant Durability (pellet) The lab in plant is set up to analyse only some of the analytical parameters of the solid biomass, the ones most useful to provide a synthetic overview of the biomass quality. The table shows some important parameters that can be easily determined by a lab in plant. The results of the analyses represent the most important information of the biomass quality and allow to evaluate the product from a technical and economical point of view. Example of lab in plant and possible synergy with the Biomass Lab Biomass sample Lab in plant Analysis of the biomass as received, evaluation and data storage. Analyses of the parameters not considered in those performed in the laboratory in plant. Option: possibility to send a small quantity of sample to Biomass Lab. Page 15

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