The Single-Cup Format 2015

 

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The Single-Cup Report is an intensive exploration of coffee drinkers' adoption and acceptance of the revolutionary brewing format.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS 1 Founded in 1911, The National Coffee Association was one of the first trade associations organized in the United States. National Coffee Association membership is comprised of producers, importers, roasters, wholesalers/distributors, retailers and allied trade. The National Coffee Association is the most experienced, broadly-based and reliable advocate for the coffee industry, drawing on over 100 years of experience to address the multiple interests and concerns of our members. The mission of The National Coffee Association is to be the foremost trade association representing the entire coffee industry in the United States. We are committed to the growth and well-being of the industry through our roles as: • A proactive advocate for the industry, acting as the industry’s recognized spokesperson and voice for promoting consumption. • An educator for our members and consumers who lead the industry in facilitating research, and gathering and disseminating relevant research data. • A forum for interaction that addresses key issues confronting the domestic and international industry. BACKGROUND . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 STUDY HIGHLIGHTS PLACE OF PREPARATION AND BREWER USE SINGLE-CUP AWARENESS AND ACQUISITION SINGLE-CUP BREWER GIFTING AND USAGE BARRIERS AND DRIVERS OF COFFEE CONSUMPTION EFFECT OF SINGLE-CUP BREWERS ON THE COFFEE CATEGORY 10 18 26 34 47 58 Copyright 2015 by The National Coffee Association of U.S.A. Inc. No part of this publication may be reproduced, re-recorded or published in any form including print, photocopy, microfilm, electronic or electromagnetic record without written permission from The National Coffee Association, 45 Broadway Suite 1140, New York, NY 10006.

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2 © 2015 National Coffee Association USA National Coffee Drinking Trends Study

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BACKGROUND 3 Since 1950, the National Coffee Association of U.S.A. has commissioned an annual survey of Americans regarding their consumption of coffee and, since 1993, their habits and practices related to espresso-based beverages, including cappuccino, espresso, latte, iced/coffee blended with ice, café mocha and macchiato. The study provides the longest available statistical series on consumer drinking patterns related to coffee and other beverages. In the earliest years, the study was sponsored by the Pan American Coffee Bureau and then the International Coffee Organization. Since 1991, the study has been financed and conducted by the National Coffee Association of U.S.A. Recent Enhancements The tracking of habits and practices as they relate to the consumption of cappuccino, espresso, latte and iced/coffee blended with ice began in 1993, café mocha was added in 1999, macchiato was added in 2009 and caffè Americano was added in 2014. In the past, these coffee types had been presented separately from what was historically defined as coffee: regular, soluble (instant) and decaffeinated coffee. This separation was maintained to ensure comparable historical trends. Given the increase in consumption of these coffee types, however, their data has been, since 1999, aggregated with the traditionally defined coffee consumption data in defining the total U.S. market and in tracking the consumption of total coffee. Statistics breaking out these newer additions to the market are also presented separately and titled accordingly. As a result, since 1999, the total coffee market includes all coffee types: regular, instant and decaffeinated coffee and Gourmet Coffee Beverages, which includes espresso-based products such as cappuccino, espresso, latte, café mocha, macchiato, caffè Americano and iced/coffee blended with ice products and gourmet (premium whole bean or ground) coffee. Beginning in 2006, profiling non-drinkers of coffee was added to the study. In 2010, several changes were made to the way in which coffee types are profiled: • Previously, Gourmet coffee was treated as a format (equivalent to Regular coffee or Cappuccino, for example). Since 2010, Gourmet is treated as an option for every brewed coffee format. As a result, the questionnaire now asks if each cup of brewed coffee was or was not Gourmet (defined as brewed from premium whole bean or ground varieties). • Previously, iced coffee was also treated as a format. Now, iced is treated as an option for every coffee format (e.g., a consumer can have an Iced regular coffee, Iced Cappuccino, Iced Latte, etc.). As a result, the questionnaire now asks if each cup of coffee was hot or iced. In 2011, several questions were added that have been retained: • Questions were added around amount of coffee wasted when preparing coffee at-home. • Questions were also added around preparation of single-cup — both brewed single-cup and instant stick pack. • Questions were added to profile how coffee use evolves as consumers age and change life stages. © 2015 National Coffee Association USA National Coffee Drinking Trends Study

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BACKGROUND 4 Classification Updates 2010-2015 Previously, coffee was classified as “instant” or “brewed.” This list was expanded in 2015 to include nine preparation options, in 2014 to include 10 preparation options, and in 2015 to include 12 preparation options. Nine of these preparation options are classified as “brewed” during the results analysis, two are classified as “instant” and one as “ready-to-drink.” Classified as Brewed • Drip coffee maker • Espresso machine • French press/plunger • Moka stove top (octagonal Italian style brewer) • Percolator • A machine that uses a pre-measured, sealed disk or capsule of coffee to make a single cup • Coffee strainer • Pour over (e.g., Chemex) (added in 2014) • Cold brewing (leaving coffee in cold water for a longer period of time) (added in 2015) Classified as Instant • Instant coffee (adding hot water to coffee granules, powder or syrup in a cup) • Coffee concentrate (that you buy in a bottle and add water to) (added in 2015) Classified as Ready-to-Drink • Purchased ready-to-drink in a bottle or can In 2012, there were a few additional questionnaire changes: • Café con leche was added as a distinct coffee type. • Coffee strainer was added as a coffee preparation method. • Alcohol, water and condensed milk were included as something that could be added to prepared coffee. • “Small corner store” and “given as a gift or sent to me” were added as purchase options for coffee prepared at-home. • A section on workplace coffee was added. • The section on understanding the effect of the economy on coffee consumption was changed. In 2013, a few changes were made: • Other natural sweeteners (e.g., stevia, honey, etc.) was added as something © 2015 National Coffee Association USA National Coffee Drinking Trends Study that might be added to coffee. • An espresso-sized cup was added as a cup size. • Questions were brought back on coffee certifications and coffee equities. • A statement was added about single-cup brewers, “This brewer is able to make a wide variety of coffee flavors or roasts.” • For single-cup brewers, attitudinal statements with wording referring to “coffee packets” were changed to “coffee disks/capsules.” In 2014, there were some questionnaire changes: • Pour over (e.g., Chemex) was added as a preparation method. • A question about coffee roast (e.g., Light, Medium, Dark) was added.

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BACKGROUND 5 • For instant coffee, respondents were asked about how the water used for the coffee was heated. • Milk alternatives (e.g., soy milk), evaporated milk and espresso shot were added as something that might be added to coffee. • The type of liquid and powdered creamers (e.g., dairy, non-dairy, flavored, unflavored) was probed. • If coffee was bought at a quick serve restaurant (QSR), café, donut shop, convenience store or gas station, consumers were asked if they purchased it at a drive-through. • Whole bean or ground coffee was asked if coffee was prepared at-home. • Wasteful packaging/not environmentally friendly was added to list of disadvantages of using stick packs. • Quality of taste (e.g., tastes very good, somewhat good, etc.) was asked for coffee producing countries. • Utz Certified was added to the list of coffee certifications. • “Worth paying a little more for” was added to the list of certification program meanings and “Better price for coffee” was removed from the list. • Questions were added asking about different reasons and situations for drinking coffee. • Single-cup brewer owners are now asked which brewing method they used most often prior to owning the single-cup brewer. • Caffè Americano, Lemonade and Soup were added to the list of beverages consumers could make with their single-cup brewer. • In the list of single-cup attitudes, this statement was added, “A single-cup brewer is a good way to make tea and other beverages.” In 2015, there were some questionnaire changes: • Lemonade was added to the beverages that consumers could drink past-day. • Cold brewing was added as a preparation method. • Coffee concentrate was added as a preparation method. • Coffee roast (light, medium, dark) was asked of all coffee. Previously it was asked for brewed coffee only. • Condensed milk (as a coffee additive) was changed to Sweetened condensed milk. • Whole bean coffee that you ground at home, "Whole bean coffee that you ground in the store," "Already ground in the store," and "Already ground before you bought it," were options consumers could select for ground coffee purchased for at-home use. • “Most coffee is grown in an environmentally sustainable way,” was added as a statement in the coffee equity section where consumers were asked agreement/disagreement. • "When working or studying at a coffee shop,” was added to the list of situations when consumers drink coffee. • Respondents were allowed to enter 'other' reasons for limiting the amount of coffee they drink. • The question around ownership of single-cup brewers was asked on its own. Prior to this, the option "Already have this brewer in my home" was embedded in a question around purchase intent." • Chai latte was added to the list of beverages that consumers could make with their single-cup brewer. • Cold brewing and Coffee concentrate were added to the list of brewing methods that single-cup owners could have used prior to using their single-cup machine. • Purchase intent of a single-cup machine was also asked among those who currently have one. Data collection continues to evolve to reflect the changing reality of the marketplace: • Interviewing for the NCDT was initially conducted face-to-face. • The study transitioned to a telephone methodology in 1979. • Starting in 2010, the study migrated to online data collection (a selfcompleted online survey). This was preceded by two years (2008 and 2009) in which the same questionnaire was administered on the telephone and online. • In 2012, the study remained online but the sample profile changed; in previous years, quotas were used to ensure that the study mirrored the U.S. population in terms of age, gender and region. Ethnicity quotas were not used. In 2012, quotas for Hispanic-American and AfricanAmerican ethnicity were introduced for the first time. The study was also offered in Spanish, which allowed for the inclusion of less acculturated Hispanic-Americans, and the additional breakdown of results by level of acculturation. • In 2013, the sample profile was structured to include a representative sample of the U.S. population with quotas for Hispanic-Americans and African-Americans without oversampling for these groups. The survey also continued to be offered in Spanish. © 2015 National Coffee Association USA National Coffee Drinking Trends Study

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RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 6 Single-Cup Brewer Ownership Caveat In 2015, the way the question regarding single-cup brewer ownership was asked to respondents was modified, which may impair direct comparisons to 2014. Comparisons in this report between single-cup owners and non-single-cup owners in 2014 versus 2015 should be made with due caution. 2014: In the next six months, how likely are you to buy this type of single-cup brewer for use in your home? • • • • • • Definitely buy Probably buy Might or might not buy Probably not buy Definitely not buy Already have this brewer in my home population of the U.S. (235,016,000 aged 18 years or older). The methodology for the online survey was: • Nationally representative sample of 2,771 people aged 18 years and older. • Respondents randomly selected from online panels. • Interlocking quotas were used for age, gender, region, Hispanic-American ethnicity and African-American ethnicity. • Within the Hispanic-American sample, quotas were established for languages spoken at-home (English dominant, bilingual and Spanish dominant). This was used as a proxy for acculturation. • For the fourth time, the survey was available in English and Spanish. • All respondents drank a beverage other than tap water past-day. Drinking coffee is not a requirement to participate in the research. • Data collection: mid-to-late January, 2015, with daily quotas to ensure a balanced mix of days of the week. This is earlier than in previous years, when field dates tended to be late-January to late-February. Classified as single-cup brewer owner 2015: Do you currently have a single-cup brewer in your home? x Yes No Data Collection The 2015 National Coffee Drinking Trends study was conducted among both males and females, 18 years of age or older, who consumed a beverage other than tap water the day prior to being interviewed. The samples are representative of the Ethnic Sample and Weighting In order to obtain a solid read of coffee consumption and attitudes among the HispanicAmerican population, a total of n=465 Hispanic-American consumers were interviewed in the 2015 NCDT. The final dataset was weighted based on age, gender, region and ethnicity to match the U.S. population based on the 2010 U.S. census. Because the sample profile was structured to mirror the population on these attributes, the weighting did not significantly affect the sample distribution. © 2015 National Coffee Association USA National Coffee Drinking Trends Study Base Un-weighted Total Ethnicity Total Non-Hispanic Total Hispanic-American Caucasian-American African-American Asian and Other Hispanic Country of Heritage Puerto Rican Mexican Cuban Dominican Some other Hispanic or Spanish-speaking ethnicity Hispanic Acculturation English Dominant Bilingual Spanish Dominant 2,771 Percent Un-weighted 100 Base Weighted 2,762 Percent Weighted 100 2,301 470 1,851 358 175 60 225 39 22 139 133 152 180 83 17 67 13 6 2 8 1 1 5 5 5 6 2,299 463 1,847 357 176 56 225 39 22 136 128 149 180 83 17 67 13 6 2 8 1 1 5 5 5 6

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RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 7 Methodology Summary Online data collection January 9 – January 26, 2015 n=2,771 respondents Respondents were screened to meet the following criteria: • Aged 18+. • All respondents drank a beverage other than tap water past-day (drinking coffee is not a requirement to participate in the research). • The weighted sample profile reflects the American population 18+, with interlocking quotas for age, gender, region and ethnicity. • Also, there were daily quotas to ensure a balanced sample by day of week. © 2015 National Coffee Association USA National Coffee Drinking Trends Study

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RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 8 Dayparts Each respondent was interviewed regarding the beverages that they consumed “yesterday”— i.e., the day before being contacted. Specifically, consumption information was collected for each of six time periods: Breakfast – defined to respondents as “the first meal after rising, even if you only had fruit juice or coffee” Morning – defined as “between breakfast and lunch” Lunch Afternoon – defined as “between lunch and dinner” Dinner Evening – defined as “after dinner” If coffee was consumed during one or more of these time periods, details of coffee consumption practices for each time period were collected. In addition to this time-period-specific information, coffee drinkers were asked in detail about more general coffee consumption practices, as well as attitudes and perceptions with respect to coffee beverages. Regions The region breaks used in this report are based on the U.S. Census Regions and Divisions. © 2015 National Coffee Association USA National Coffee Drinking Trends Study

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RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 9 Nomenclature Total Coffee: includes all coffee types. Traditional Coffee – Not Gourmet (TC-NG): Traditional Coffee (Traditional Coffee, drunk hot or iced) that is not brewed from premium whole bean or ground varieties. Instant Coffee: instant coffee from a can or jar (adding hot water to coffee granules or syrup in a cup) or instant coffee from single pre-measured stick pack (adding hot water to coffee granules in a cup). Decaffeinated Coffee: a cup of coffee that was decaffeinated or a combination of decaffeinated and caffeinated. Gourmet Coffee Beverages (GCB): Traditional Coffee – Gourmet, espresso-based beverages and frozen blended coffee. • Traditional Coffee – Gourmet (TC-G): Traditional Coffee drunk hot or iced that is brewed from premium whole bean or ground varieties. • Espresso-based beverages (EBB): includes cappuccino, espresso, latte, café mocha, macchiato and caffè Americano. • Frozen Blended Coffee: includes Iced and Frozen blended coffee. Café con leche can be included in: Traditional Coffee – Gourmet or Traditional Coffee – Not Gourmet. The distinction is based on the respondent believing that the Café con leche was or was not gourmet coffee — that is, brewed from premium whole bean or ground varieties. “Daily” or “Past-Day” penetration refers to respondents who drank coffee or Gourmet Coffee Beverages the day before they were interviewed. These respondents may not necessarily consume coffee or Gourmet Coffee Beverages every day. Caveat Data collected using different methodologies should be compared with caution, as the data collection methodology itself can affect the results. The 2012 NCDT data collection methodology is different vs. previous NCDT research because: previous ethnicity imbalances have been corrected; the survey is now offered in Spanish; and there are quotas within the Hispanic-American sample for language use at-home. As such, any changes in reported coffee behavior in 2012 vs. previous years may stem from the different sample profile and not from changes in the market. For this reason, refrain from making direct comparisons between 2012 data and data from previous years. Comparisons can however be made between 2012–2015 data. Defining Gourmet Coffee In the National Coffee Drinking Trends study, espresso-based beverages (espresso, cappuccino, latte, etc.) are considered gourmet. This occurs whether or not the espresso-based beverage was prepared with espresso. When the consumer drinks traditional coffee, the study asks if that coffee was gourmet (brewed from premium whole bean or ground varieties). This allows us to break traditional coffee into Traditional Coffee – Not Gourmet and Traditional Coffee – Gourmet. Because of this approach, there is an element of perception in gourmet coffee. Significance Testing Data in this report have been tested for statistical significance. Numbers that are significantly higher (at the 95% confidence level) are indicated with a blue “up” arrow. Numbers that are significantly lower (at the 95% confidence level) are indicated with a blue “down” arrow. When numbers are tested across columns in a table, the following system is used: Column A Row 1 Row 2 Row 3 70 55 32 Column B 42 30 27 Column C 41 41 37 B The 70% in Column A is significantly higher than both Column B and Column C The 30% in Column B is significantly lower than both Column A and Column C The 37% in Column C is significantly higher than only Column B © 2015 National Coffee Association USA National Coffee Drinking Trends Study

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Does coffee impact your business? Whether you grow, import, roast, or track coffee, the NCA has the knowledge, influence, and resources to help you protect your bottom line and sharpen your competitive edge. As a member, you access the NCA's unique range of services, including: • advocacy in Washington • scientific findings from around the world • market research on U.S. consumption habits • news on what's cooking throughout the industry and vertical markets, and • the shared knowledge of coffee executives and professionals you'll get to meet. Find out more about the benefits of NCA membership at www.ncausa.org/membership.

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