Writing Persuasively (Sample)

 

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Writing Persuasively provides a systematic, step-by-step program for developing students’ ability to write expository essays.

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Writing Persuasively Dr Lillian Fawcett Ph.D., B.Ed., B.A. Psychology (Honours) Sample This book belongs to ____________________________

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CONTENTS PAGE Introduction …………...……………………….……….…….……….…... 2 Part One……………………………….………………………….…...…. • Oral Language Development..…………………………….………….... • Think Fast …………………………………………………………...… • Two Sides …………………………………………………………...… • Weigh it Up ………………………………………………………….... • Pros and Cons …………………………………………………………. Part Two……………………………….……………………….……...…. • Persuasive Writing Formula.…………………………………...…….... • Brainstorm …………..……………………………………….....…..…. • Step 1: Plan…………..……………………………………….......……. • Step 2: Introduction……………………………………………....……. • Step 3: Topic Sentences…………………………………………....…... • Step 4: Explain .…………....…………………………………...…..…. • Step 5: Example………………………………..………………..…..…. • Step 6: Link Back ……………………………………………..…….… • Step 7: Conclusion .…………………………..….….…………..…..…. • Emotions ………………………………………………………………. Part Three……………………………….…………...…….…….………. • Persuasive Writing Techniques …………..………………………….... • Audience & Personal Pronouns ………………………….…..……...… • Powerful Verbs …………………………………………….…...……... • Emotional Adjectives …..……………………………..….…………… • Rule of Three.……………………..….……………………………...… • Rhetorical Questions..…………….….………………………………… • Figurative Language..…………………………….….………………… • Facts & Experts ………………………………………..…………….… • Exaggeration …………………………………..….…………………… • Repetition…………………………..…….……………………..……… • Paint a Picture ………………………………………….……………… • Useful Phrases ………………………………………………………… • Editing Checklist…..…………………...…...………………...……….. • More Ideas …………………………………………………….………. Part Four……………………………………………………...…….……. • Research Reports…………………………………………..…………... • Example ………..……………………….…………………………...… • Topic 1…………………………………………………………………. • Topic 2……………………………………………………………….… • Topic 3 ……………………………………………………………….... • Topic 4…................................................………….………………...…. • Topic 5.…..……………..………………...……………………………. • Essay Topics………………..……………………………...…………... 3 4 5 9 13 14 15 16 17 25 26 28 31 32 34 36 37 39 40 41 42 48 52 56 60 64 68 72 76 80 81 82 83 84 85 93 95 97 99 101 103 Sample Writing Persuasively p. 1

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INTRODUCTION Persuasive writing involves convincing others to agree with a particular stance by accepting the arguments and conclusions presented. Many students find it difficult to write in a cohesive, interesting and fluent style. Writing Persuasively provides a systematic, step-by-step program for developing students’ ability to write expository essays. Writing Persuasively is divided into four parts. The first part provides activities for developing students’ oral expression and their ability to think quickly. Good language skills underpin good writing skills. The second part teaches students the formula underlying persuasive writing. The third section is designed to take students’ writing to the next level by helping them develop the techniques associated with effective writing. The final section teaches students how to incorporate research into their response. Students are usually expected to produce written work under quite short time constraints. An important aspect of producing this work is to quickly generate ideas. For some students this skill needs to be practised orally as often as possible in order for them to be able to rapidly generate ideas in an assessment situation. Part One of Writing Persuasively provides a number of ideas for helping develop this skill. Students often require numerous opportunities to focus on and practise specific aspects of writing in order to become proficient writers. Part Two of Writing Persuasively introduces students to the different steps in the ‘writing formula’, one at a time. Student are then given the opportunity to focus on and practise each step individually for the remainder of the week. It is strongly recommended that time is set aside each day for students to complete this activity. Like any skill, the development of writing skills requires regular, focused practice. Learning and applying the ‘writing formula’ is just the first step in developing writing proficiency. To be effective writers, students also need to learn and apply techniques which engage and influence their reader. Part Three of Writing Persuasively helps students develop this skill, while Part Four teaches students to research and then apply the Writing Persuasively formula to specific topics. The final step of any writing is editing your work. The editing process should not just consist of identifying errors in punctuation, spelling and grammar. It is equally important that time is spent discussing how individual sentences could be improved with the addition of adjectives, adverbs, descriptive phrases and/or rearranging word order to provide variation and interest. Research shows that students are most likely to improve their writing skills if they practise writing. The challenge is to encourage reluctant writers to engage in the writing process. Look for opportunities to write for a real reason (e.g., write a letter to the editor of a newspaper on an issue that is relevant to the student, write to a teacher, city councillor or a politician requesting a particular action, write a speech to be considered for selection to a particular position, etc.). Writing Persuasively p. 2 Sample

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PART ONE Sample Writing Persuasively p. 3

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ORAL LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT The goal of writing instruction is to improve students’ ability to produce cohesive and coherent written discourse. However, effective writing has been shown to be dependent upon verbal working memory. In addition, this goal presupposes that students have the language resources to support the written expression of their ideas. Oral language acquisition is a naturally occurring process for most children. However, for many children the ability to speak with fluency and clarity is a skill which requires specific instruction and practise. To speak with fluency and clarity, students need to be able to organise their thinking and express their ideas in a logical sequence, using grammatically correct sentences which incorporate a wide range of vocabulary. These oral language skills provide the foundation for logical and clear written expression. Oral language and written language are inextricably linked. If you do not have the ability to express your ideas orally, you will not be able to express your ideas in writing. Similarly, if grammatical errors occur in speech they are going to be reproduced in the written form. In fact, research indicates that students who have developed refined oral language skills are better able to produce high levels of written discourse and are more likely to achieve academic success. More specifically, the research indicates a significant positive correlation between oral and written word usage, word quantity, and sophistication of grammar. Sample Oral Language Activities The following activities provide some ideas for giving students oral language practice. They may occur in pairs or group settings. It is important that all students are given the opportunity to participate in a supportive, encouraging environment. Try to integrate these oral language activities into different parts of the day. For parents this could be when you are driving along, at the dinner table or as a part of the bedtime routine. It is important to note that students are not expected to generate ideas independently. Rather it should be seen as a collaborative effort with links made to previous activities so students can begin to see the similarities between previously generated ideas and how these ideas could be applied or modified for the current activity. Writing Persuasively p. 4

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What could you do with a shoe? (Pot plant, fill with concrete and use as a door stop…..) Sample What about a cup, a rubbish bin, a bowl, a saucepan, a box? Encourage students to think how these items are similar and therefore can be used for some of the ideas generated in the first exercise and how they are different which opens up new usage ideas. Writing Persuasively p. 5

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Sample PART TWO Writing Persuasively p. 15

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PERSUASIVE WRITING FORMULA Choose your stance and plan your argument: Agree Yes Reason 1 Reason 2 Reason 3 No Reason 4 Disagree No Reason 1 Reason 2 Reason 3 Yes Reason 4 1. Introduction (RESP) i) Respond to the question ii) Expand on your response (provide a definition, history, current situation or interesting facts/statistics) iii) Stance (state if you agree or disagree) iv) Plan of essay (reasons 1, 2, 3, and 4) 2. Body paragraph 1 (TEEL) i) Topic sentence (reword the statement plus your first reason). ii) Explanations (1-3 sentences to support your reason – why, when, where, etc.). iii) Example (own experience, another person’s experience or something you have seen or read) – include time and/or place (yesterday, last year, every week, at school, in Australia, etc.). iv) Link back (make a link between your example and your topic sentence to show how it supports your stance). 3. Body paragraph 2 4. Body paragraph 3 5. Body paragraph 4 6. Conclusion (ARE) i) Answer the question again (point 3 from introduction). ii) Restate the main points (point 4 from introduction, but not the opposite stance). iii) End with an interesting sentence (emotional – how you feel, intellectual – a fact, intertextual – something you have seen or read or a rhetorical question). Writing Persuasively p. 16 Sample

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For each of the topics below, generate as many reasons as you can that support and oppose the statement. Aim to complete 4 topics each night for a week. Remember: Students are not expected to do these activities independently. Rather, it should be a collaborative effort so as many reasons as possible can be generated. Sheep are better pets than dogs. Supporting Reasons ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ Opposing Reasons __________________________________________ __________________________________________ __________________________________________ __________________________________________ __________________________________________ __________________________________________ Sample My school is the best in the world. Supporting Reasons ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ Opposing Reasons __________________________________________ __________________________________________ __________________________________________ __________________________________________ __________________________________________ __________________________________________ Writing Persuasively p. 17

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• Choose your six favourite topics from pages 17 to 24.  Turn to page 103. Cut out the six topics you chose.  In an exercise book glue the first topic on top of the first page.  Turn over 3 pages and glue the second topic onto the top of page 5.  Miss another 4 pages and glue the third topic onto the top of page 9.  Continue this pattern until all topics have been glued into the exercise book. • Now go back to the first topic and find your supporting and opposing reasons. • Decide if you are going to support (indicate with a tick) or oppose (indicate with a cross) the topic. • If you are going to support the topic, under the glued in statement, write down the three best supporting reasons and one opposing reason (and vice versa if you are going to oppose the topic). Reasons for supporting your stance: 1. 2. 3. Reason for opposing your stance: 4. Sample • The reason for including one opposing stance is to show that you have taken opposing reasons into consideration. Note: It is important to remind students that the stance they take doesn’t have to be the one that they really truly believe. Rather, they should choose the stance for which they can easily think of reasons that will support a particular stance. Writing Persuasively p. 25

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• Remember, before you write your introduction, you need to know your stance and plan your argument. • For each step, you will find an example based on the topic below. Sample topic: Children should not be allowed to watch television. Stance: Agree Yes reasons 1. Bad for health 2. Waste of time 3. Bad influence No reason 4. Learn information • The introduction should consist of 4 parts (RESP). • Part 1: Respond to the question.  Identify the key word or idea.  Write a sentence about the key word or idea that does NOT contain any information as to whether you agree or disagree. Sample Key word: Television Sample sentence: Many households have two or more televisions. • Part 2: Expand on your response.  This might include providing a definition, historical background, the current situation or an interesting fact or statistic. Sample sentence: On average, children watch 35 hours of television each week. Writing Persuasively p. 26

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• Body paragraphs are used to develop your argument. • Each body paragraph should begin with a ‘topic sentence’. • A topic sentence consists of the statement you are discussing plus one of your reasons. Sample Topic: Children should not be allowed to watch television. Stance: Agree Yes Reasons 1. Bad for health 2. Waste of time 3. Bad influence Sample No Reason 4. Learn information Body paragraph 1 sample topic sentence: Children should not be allowed to watch television because it is bad for their health. Body paragraph 2 topic sentence: Children should not be allowed to watch television because it is a waste of time. Body paragraph 3 topic sentence: Children should not be allowed to watch television because it is a bad influence. Writing Persuasively p. 28

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• Next you need to explain and expand on your topic sentence. • Ask yourself these questions:  What did I mean?  Why is that true or not true?  When did this happen? • Each day, write the explanation under your 4 topic sentences for one of your topics. • By the end of the week, you should have the explanation sentences for each body paragraph for each of your 6 chosen topics. • Examples: Body paragraph 1 topic sentence: Children should not be allowed to watch television because it is bad for their health. Explain: The more television you watch the more likely you are to die earlier because you don’t get enough exercise, you are more likely to eat unhealthy food and you don’t socialise with friends. Body paragraph 2 topic sentence reworded: Watching television is a waste of time so children should be banned from this activity. Explain: Children who don’t watch television do lots of different types of activities and learn many more skills. Body paragraph 3 topic sentence reworded: Television can be a bad influence, so children shouldn’t watch it. Explain: There are many programs in which people get killed, you hear people swearing or people are nasty to each other. Body paragraph 4 topic sentence: However, if children did watch television they could learn new things. Explain: There are some programs which are educational or give you information about what is happening in the world. Writing Persuasively p. 31 Sample

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Sample PART THREE Writing Persuasively p. 39

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