Multisensory Reading Level 4 (Sample)

 

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Cracking the ABC Reading program

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Reading Level 4 Multisensory Dr Lillian Fawcett CRACKING THE

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Multisensory Reading – Level 4 Dr Lillian Fawcett Ph.D., B.Ed., B.A. Psychology (Honours) Illustrator: Kate Mullen kate.alida@hotmail.com This book belongs to ____________________________

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CONTENTS PAGE Introduction……………………………………………….…………. Instructions………………………………………………...…..…….. • General Knowledge………………….…………………..……... • Grapheme and Vocabulary Development……..………….……. • Comprehension……………………………………………….... • Oral Reading………………….………………………….…….. • Syllabification………………….……………………….….…... • Interactive Pictures………………….………….………..……... Unit 1: Alphabet - Short and Long Vowel Sounds……….…………. Unit 2: /ay/, /er/, /ar/, /oa/……………….………………..…………. Unit 3: /ee/, /oy/, /or/, /ow/………………...……………………..…. Unit 4: /oo/, /ie/, /ue/, /f/………………...………………………..…. Unit 5: /s/, /j/, /sh/, i+vowel………..……………………………..…. Unit 6: /eer/, /air/, w+, ch .………………………..……………...…. Unit 7: e, i, o, u………………………..………………..……...……. Unit 8: a, y, ey, ed……………………………………………..……. Unit 9: ie, ei, i-e………………………………………………..……. 2 3 4 6 8 12 14 16 18 28 38 48 58 68 78 88 98 Unit 10: gh, su, ci, gue/que…………...…..………….……….……… 108 Unit 11: Silent Letters……………..……………….……………….. 118 Unit 12: ou, our, ea, ear ………...…………………...……………… 128 Unit 13: oe, oo, Splitting Vowels. …………………………………… 138 Unit 14: Adding ‘r’ and Adding ‘e’ ….…………………………….. Grapheme Revision……………………………………………….... 148 169 Unit 15: Tricky Words ……………………………………………… 158 Code Cracker………………………………………………………… 183 Answers …………………………………………………………...… 189 References …………………………………………………………... 201 Multisensory Reading Level 4 p. 1

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Introduction The written form of a language is a code. Each language has its own set of phonemes (sounds) and the symbols used to represent these phonemes (graphemes) are the written code of that language. Therefore, once the relationship between symbols and sounds are learned (i.e., the code is broken) any text can be decoded (read) or encoded (written down). In English, it is generally agreed that that there are approximately 44 different phonemes, although there are some variations due to accent and articulation. These 44 phonemes are represented by the 26 letters of the alphabet either individually or in combination. However, problems arise in English because numerous letters or letter can be used to represent one phoneme (e.g., or-fork, au-sauce, aw-paw) and the same grapheme may represent more than one phoneme (e.g., ow-cow, show, bowl). A Brief History The different graphic representations for a phoneme arise from the fact that English has developed from the integration and influence of several languages. The base or root words have arisen over time and can be divided into distinct phases. In 55BC the Romans conquered England and during their 400 year occupancy many Latin words (and consequently French and Greek words which had been absorbed into Latin) were incorporated into the English language (e.g., wall, castle, servant). The next invaders, the Anglo-Saxons, are said to have had the greatest influence on English language and culture. They inhabited England between the 5th and 9th centuries and most base or root words in English are from this period (e.g., lady, lord, song). The spread of Christianity from 596 resulted in the introduction of more Latin words to explain religious and philosophical ideas (e.g., bible, chapter). Between 700 and 900AD Danish Vikings invaded and later settled in England bringing with them Old Norse words which had their origins in German (e.g., sun, skin, want). In 1066, William the Conqueror from Normandy (now a region of modern day France) defeated King Harold of England at the Battle of Hastings and French became the language of the ruling classes (e.g., mutton, peasant, gentry). With the invention of the printing press, in the 15th century, attempts were made to standardise the spelling and pronunciation of words throughout England and this resulted in many of the irregularities found in the spelling of English words. Exploration led to the discovery of new countries, new foods and new words (e.g., tobacco, kayak, and kangaroo). Similarly, the Industrial Revolution in the 18th century and ongoing discoveries and inventions all led to the development and inclusion of new words. These words were either adopted from other languages or described the invention (e.g., tele (from afar) + phone (sound) = telephone). The intermingling of languages and cultures has resulted in many synonyms (e.g., sad, upset, unhappy, miserable) and a range of ways of representing the same phoneme. The challenge for students is to break this complex code. The Stages of Literacy Development According to Frith’s Literacy Acquisition Model (as cited in Heath, Hoben & Tan, 2008), we first begin to read and spell using logographic strategies whereby we focus on the visual appearance of words and remember words as single units. The problem with this as a long-term strategy is you can only read and spell words that you have seen and remembered. The next stage in literacy development is the alphabet phase. This has two components. The first is having good phonological awareness. This involves identifying, manipulating and thinking about the sounds in speech. Students proficient in this area can break words into syllables (e.g., den-tist) and individual phonemes (e.g., d-e-n-t-i-s-t) and blend them back into words. They can delete phonemes (e.g., take the /l/ out of ‘clap’ to make ‘cap’) and can substitute one phoneme for another (e.g., change the /a/ in ‘cat’ to /o/ to make ‘cot’). The research consistently shows a Multisensory Reading Level 4 p. 2

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positive link between good phonological awareness and reading and spelling competency (e.g., McNamara, Scissons & Gutknecth, 2011). The second component is learning the alphabet code. This requires learning to match graphemes with specific phonemes. Students with this knowledge are able to decode words they have not seen before and to more accurately and automatically encode and decode a large number of words. Mastery of this stage is readily tested by having students read nonsense words (e.g., trinneeth). The research consistently shows that direct, specific instruction in phonics is not only the most effective way of improving the reading and spelling skills of students having literacy difficulties, but also leads to changes in brain functioning (e.g., Eden et al., 2004, Odegard et al., 2008). However, competence in the third orthographic phase is necessary for true literacy (see research by Holmes & Quinn, 2008). Students competent in the last stage of literacy acquisition (the orthographic phase) are able to use their knowledge of spelling rules, syllabification strategies, affixes, and root words in the encoding and decoding process. At this stage, students realise that the meaning of a word, rather than simply a direct sound-symbol relationship, can provide key information as to the graphemes to choose for the correct spelling or reading of a word. This is particularly true of words of Latin and Greek origin which are often found in higher levels of education. Students at this stage also need to memorise the approximately 20% of English words which do not fit the common alphabetic or orthographic patterns. All of these stages are incorporated into the Cracking the ABC Code programs which have been developed over many years and tried and tested on numerous students with excellent results. In addition, the programs utilise a range of memory techniques and a multisensory approach to maximum retention of the information taught (see for example Krafnick et al.’s 2011 study for the benefits of such an approach). Instructions The Multisensory Reading Level 4 program is a 15 week course (requiring a 5 days a week commitment) which systematically and comprehensively introduces the alphabet ‘code’ using a multisensory format. It consists of 6 interlinking sections: General Knowledge, Phoneme and Vocabulary Development, Comprehension, Oral Reading and Syllabification. The program has been designed so that each section complements and reinforces the others. Repetition and meeting time goals is integral to this program as many children require numerous repetitions for learning to occur so information is retained in long-term memory and to develop fluency (e.g., Vadasy & Sanders, 2008; Sukhram, 2008). The aim of the Multisensory Reading Level 4 program is to enable students to instantly recognise the common graphemes so they are able to rapidly decode familiar and unfamiliar words. Students are then in a position to use their ‘mental energy’ in understanding the text. It is assumed that students have some knowledge of the more common graphemes and a reasonable vocabulary. Consequently, it is recommended that students have a reading age of at least 10.00 years. Students are required to place two or three fingers of their writing hand under the words being read. Poor eye tracking is not uncommon among students with reading difficulties and using fingers as markers helps strengthen this skill. Using two or three fingers helps increase eye span and research has long shown that proficient readers process more than one word at a time (see Miller & O'Donnell, 2013). In addition, studies in eye movement while reading (e.g., Rayner, Pollatsek, & Reichle, 2003) show fixations (visual pausing), regression (rereading) and skipping (moving up and down and backwards and forwards over the page) commonly occur when reading. Each of these factors impinges on reading fluency and accuracy. Moving your fingers under words while reading reduces these inhibiting eye movements (e.g., Miyata et al., 2012). Multisensory Reading Level 4 p. 3

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GENERAL KNOWLEDGE Root words scribe=to write describe, proscribe Prefixes ject=to throw object, inject, reject Suffixes pro=forward/ahead proceed, project or/er=person who/thing that visitor, tractor, teacher, heater in=in inscribe, inject tion=state of rejection, action Use your knowledge of root words, prefixes and suffixes to match the definitions with the words on the right. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Throw into: Write ahead of time: Write in: The state of throwing in: Thing that throws light forward: The state of throwing forward: Person who writes in: injection projection inject inscribe proscribe projector inscriber Collective noun A group of baboons=troop Proverb Ill than flitters it got hold=Appearances can be deceptive (All that glitters is not gold) Idiom Dark horse= person who was previously unknown Simile as fresh as a daisy Multisensory Reading Level 4 p. 4

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The General Knowledge section provides the knowledge required for Stage 3 literacy development. (see Frith’s Literacy Acquisition model cited in Heath, Hoben & Tan, 2008). The sophisticated words in English are often those derived from Greek and Latin. An understanding of the meaning of key root words makes spelling and reading easier as well as enriching the student’s knowledge of English. Introduce the root words to the student and discuss their meaning and some of the examples. Prefixes are fixed in front of a word (pre=before). The prefix changes or adds meaning to the root word. For example, in=in. Therefore, inject=throw in. Introduce the prefixes to the student and discuss their meaning and some of the examples. Note: To remember that pre=before, think “You go to preschool before Year 1.” Suffixes are fixed to the end of a word (suf=end). A suffix can be added onto a verb to change the tense (e.g., ‘ed’ indicates past tense). An ‘s’ added onto nouns indicates the plural form. Alternatively, a suffix can be used to change a word from one part of speech to another. For example, or=person who or a thing that. Therefore, teacher=a person who teaches (i.e., it is changing the verb ‘teach’ into a noun). Introduce the suffixes to the student and discuss their meaning and some of the examples. Note: To remember that suf=end, think “You suffer to the end of (something the student dislikes doing).” This exercise helps students apply their understanding of the root words, prefixes and suffixes. The student uses his/her knowledge of root words, prefixes and suffixes to match the words with the definitions provided. A noun is a word that names an object, a person, an animal, a place, a ‘thing’ or a feeling. ‘A’ (or ‘an’) and ‘the’ can be placed in front and it can be pluralised. A collective noun is the word given to describe a group of nouns (e.g., a group of students=a class; a group of baboons=a troop). Introduce the collective noun to the student and discuss. A proverb is a short traditional saying that expresses a common belief or truth based on common sense or practical experience. Proverbs often have a different meaning to their literal meaning. Thus, an understanding of a range of proverbs increases the student’s understanding of the English language. The student changes one letter in each word to reveal the proverb. Discuss the meaning of the proverb and if possible relate it to an experience in the student’s life. An idiom is a phrase or expression that means something different to the literal meaning and usually develops among a particular group of people. Consequently, new idioms are constantly being introduced into the English language. Discuss idioms used by the student and his/her peers. Introduce the idiom and discuss its meaning. A simile is used to compare two things that have something in common and contains the word ‘as’ or ‘like’ in the phrase. The similes in this workbook have been in common usage for many years. It should be stressed that although similes provide interest and clarity in creative writing, they should be original comparisons. Introduce and discuss the simile. p. 5 Multisensory Reading Level 4

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GRAPHEME & VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT /oo/ u /ie/ i-e */ue/ oo /f/ ie oo u bush oo book ew ui u-e ue ph ph phone i ie pie i-e kite i child oo u-e ui ew ue moon flute suit screw glue gh gh laugh surefooted hoodwinking unfaithful woolgathering bulletin inputted spinsterhood misunderstood woodlark slothful bullock crookedness boastful butchered sorrowful Day 1 1 exemplifies immobile entitled vile diversified edifies complied absentminded reminder belied clandestine despite implies binary expedite Day 2 bamboozle subdue recruitment shrewd commute ridicule unloosening fruitful screwdriver construe gratitude undervalue unbruised spookiness strewn Day 3 phenomenal catastrophic roughness logographical draughtsman phosphate laughingly claustrophobic toughened troughs philosopher philanthropist emphatic clough coughing Day 4 15 sec Day 5 15 sec 15 sec 15 sec 1 min • • • • ‘i’ is most likely to be pronounced /ie/ when it is followed by one consonant. It is most likely to be pronounced /i/ when it is followed by two consonants. ‘ui’ is not used at the ends of words. * These graphemes can be pronounced /ue/ or /you/ depending on the preceding letter (e.g., flute vs cube). ‘ph’ can also be pronounced /v/ as in ‘Stephen’. p. 6 Multisensory Reading Level 4

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This section is the key to the success of the program. Each week the student is introduced to various graphemes (letters or combinations of letters) and the phonemes (sounds) which they represent. Each grapheme is linked to a key word and picture and these are combined into an integrated picture for each phoneme. The key words and integrated picture both assist in retention and recall. Introduce the graphemes, the accompanying phonemes, key words and picture to the student. Note: Teach and encourage the student to use the following strategy when trying to work out the spelling of unfamiliar words. Say the sounds in the word (e.g., drain=/d/-/r/-/ay/-/n/). Think of the /ay/ picture (e.g., the rain falling on the cake on the tray). Write the word using each of the known graphemes (e.g., drain, drane, drayn). Eliminate any word which doesn’t agree with the rules (e.g., ‘ay’ is only used at the end of base words so ‘drayn’ must be wrong). There are four columns of words which use the graphemes currently being learned so the student is able to see the graphemes in context. Underline each grapheme using a different colour. From unit 7 onward, underline the different pronunciations of the grapheme using a different colour. The student colour codes each word by underlining the grapheme(s) being learned in the same colour. Colour coding the words will accentuate the visual component of learning. Circle any prefixes and suffixes. Apply the simplified syllabification rules to work out the pronunciation of each word. Since there are inconsistencies in the coding of the English language, at times some words will need to be ‘tweaked’. This means that either the syllabification line will need to be in a different place to that dictated by the simplified syllabification rules or there may be a change in pronunciation (e.g., a long vowel sound instead of a short vowel sound or visa-versa). Place an * next to any words which are rule breakers. The goal is for the student to learn to read one column of words in 15 seconds or less each day. On the 5th day the student should practise reading all 60 words until the 1 minute goal is reached. Research shows that reading the words at this rate (i.e., 1 word per second) is an indicator that the words have been stored in long-term memory, and that the student will be able to return to these words and still read them accurately in several weeks time. Begin the session by helping the student work out how to pronounce and syllabify each word in the column. Give the student strategies for working out unknown words (e.g., Divide into syllables; look for digraphs; find root words, suffixes and prefixes; etc.). Discuss the meaning of each word. Keep this short and quick. Have the student learn the words until every word can be read confidently and correctly. If the student is finding a few words difficult to remember, spend time on just those words – circle the syllable or letter that is causing difficulty, draw a picture, put the word into a sentence, repeat the word several times, practise reading the word with the words on either side, etc. Once the student can read the words accurately, time how long it takes to read the whole column. Correct errors as they occur and this should be included in the time. Record the time taken in the boxes under the column. Continue until the student can read the column in 15 seconds or less (remember to practise words causing difficulty before re-timing). Ensure the student places two or three fingers of his/her writing hand under each word. Each day, before learning the next column of words, revise the previous column(s) by quickly reading through the words, without timing. Rules associated with the reading (decoding) or spelling (encoding) of the phonemes or graphemes are highlighted in a box. Discuss the rules with the student. Put * next to any words in the vocabulary list that ‘break’ the rule. www.thefreedictionary.com is a good reference for finding the meaning and hearing the pronunciation of words. Multisensory Reading Level 4 p. 7

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COMPREHENSION • • Complete 1 set each day. Each set relates to a column of words from the previous page. For each word, identify the relationships between the sounds and the letter(s). Set 1: Find the missing word from column 1. 1. We read about the sorrowful state of affairs in the ____________________ . 2. The ____________________ employee was fired for not finishing his work. 3. The ____________________ of the street added to the charm of the village. 4. The ____________________ blabbermouth thought he was the best at everything. 5. The spinster ____________________ the foolish bachelor’s instructions. Set 2: Circle the word which means the same as the underlined word. (Units 1-7) 1. I had to keep my broken arm immobile for one month. a) crooked b) bound c) moving d) motionless 2. The absentminded professor was not understood by the mainstream population. a) forgetful b) attentive c) foolhardy d) aggrieved 3. The clandestine drug selling operation was discovered by the police. a) authentic b) secret c) vile d) lawless 4. His calm manner belied his inner turmoil. a) contradicted b) believed c) showed d) compounded 5. Despite many reminders, the absentminded child still forgot his homework. a) boycotts b) flaws c) prompts d) misunderstandings Set 3: Decide if the following statements are stating a fact (F) or an opinion (O). (Units 1-4) 1. It is easy to bamboozle absentminded people. ____ 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Screwdrivers are used to remove screws. ____ The diplomat’s intelligence is undervalued. ____ It is necessary to loosen your shoelaces before taking off your shoes. ____ Fruit will become bruised if dropped onto the floor. ____ You must show gratitude for the president’s assistance. ____ Many people use public transport in their daily commute to work. ____ It is very spooky being caught in a thundershower while camping. ____ Set 4: Write a word from column 4 that completes the sentence by showing the relationship. 1. Water is to hydrophobic as small room is to ____________________. 2. Learner is to student as thinker is to ____________________. 3. Happy is to laughing as sick is to ____________________. 4. Polished wood is to smoothness as mountain track is to ____________________. 5. Dog is to bowl as pig is to ____________________. Multisensory Reading Level 4 p. 8

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The comprehension exercises are designed to reinforce the meaning of the words being learned in the previous section. (Shany, & Biemiller, 2010). Each exercise develops a different skills and relates to a column of words from the previous page. The student completes one set each day. Note: The comprehension exercises for Sets 2 and 3 are not the same in every unit. These are cloze exercises. Cloze exercises are useful for identifying a student’s knowledge and understanding of the reading process. They help extend the student’s vocabulary, encourage him/her to monitor for meaning and encourage the critical and analytical interpretation of the text. The student should read the sentence saying ‘something’ or a nonsense word like ‘burb’ in place of the missing word. Return to the columns of words and have the student find the correct word from the list corresponding to the comprehension exercise. When the student finds the correct word, identify the letters of the sound being studied and the linking picture (e.g., ‘ay’ for ‘tray’). Point out any unusual letter combinations that may make correct spelling of the word difficult. Return to the comprehension page and say the syllables and then the sounds within the syllables as the student writes the word (e.g., repayment: re=/r/-/ee/, pay=/p/-/ay/, ment=/m/-/e/-/n/-/t/). Orally modelling the process the student should be using when spelling will help make the strategy more instinctive for the student. These exercises require a good understanding of the definition of the vocabulary. For students to understand the text, it is important that they are not only able to decode a word, but also understand the meaning of that word. The student circles the word that has the same meaning as the underlined word which has been taken from the list words. These exercises require the student to firstly comprehend the text and secondly draw valid conclusions based on the information provided. This requires a high level of critical thinking. The student circles the letter next to the sentence which is most true based on the information provided. These exercises also require a high level of critical thinking. First the student must have a good understanding of the key vocabulary. Secondly, the student must be able to determine the relationship between the first and second words. Based on this information a word from the list is selected which shows a similar type of relationship to the third word. Multisensory Reading Level 4 p. 9

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Set 2: Circle the word that has been used incorrectly. Replace the incorrect word with an appropriate word from column 2. (Units 8-15) 1. The physical implied that surgery was necessary. ____________________ 2. Some snakes mollify their victims with their venom. ____________________ Set 3: Read the story, then put the sentences in the order in which the events occurred. (Units 5 & 6) Before she pleaded passionately for her cause, the mathematician lunged forward and tapped the clergyman on the shoulder. After talking to her impressionable audience, she mentioned that no extensions would be granted on the next assignment. The mathematician: a) Tapped the clergyman on the shoulder. _____ b) Mentioned that no extensions would be granted. _____ c) Talked to an impressionable audience. _____ d) Pleaded passionately for her cause. _____ Set 3: In each pair of sentences, indicate which is the cause (C) and which is the effect (E). (Units 7 & 8) 1. The adolescent procrastinated for some time over his homework. ____ The mother was not surprised that her son failed his assignment. ____ Set 3: In each pair of sentences, indicate which is descriptive (D) and which is emotive (E). (Units 9 & 10) 1. The model sardine was constructed from plasticine. ____ Pete admired the exquisite model of a sardine. ____ Set 3: Indicate whether each pair of sentences has the same (S) or a different (D) meaning. (Units 11 & 12) 1. The psychology lecturer’s career was in jeopardy because his diaphragm was fractured. The psychology lecturer’s diaphragm was fractured and so now his career was in jeopardy. Set 3: Match the emotions below with the following sentences. (Units 13 & 14) embarrassed scared delighted contemptuous woebegone 1. With tears prickling his eyes, he respectfully buried his pet chameleon. __________________ Set 3: Decide whether the following arguments are valid (whereby the first two sentences establish a relationship and the third draws a conclusion based on that relationship) or invalid. (Unit 15) 1. Palaeontologists study prehistoric life forms. There are Czechoslovakian palaeontologists. It is common for Czechoslovakians to study prehistoric life forms. Multisensory Reading Level 4 p. 10

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These exercises also require a good understanding of the meaning of the vocabulary. However, in this exercise, the student has to firstly identify and circle the word that has not been used correctly and then find an appropriate replacement word from the list. The replacement word is written on the line provided. These sequencing exercises require the student to firstly identify the key events in the paragraph and then to pay close attention to the order in which these key events occur. After reading the paragraph, the student needs to read each of the following sentences and write the numbers 1 to 4 on the lines provided with 1 indicating the event that occurred first and 4 indicating the event that occurred last. A cause (e.g., lots of rain) is the reason that an event (e.g., flooding) occurred. The effect (flooding) is the outcome of the cause (lots of rain). Often a cause can have more than one effect. For example, lots of rain (the cause) might result in not only flooding (the effect) but also dams overflowing and crops being destroyed (additional effects). Similarly, an effect (the flooding) might have more than one cause (lots of rain and rivers breaching their banks). In addition, an effect might subsequently become the cause for another effect. Lots of rain (cause) resulted in flooding (effect). However, the flooding (cause) resulted in people drowning (effect). The student needs to determine which of the two statements in each pair is the cause and which is the effect. It is important to be able to differentiate between emotive language (designed to create a reaction in the reader) and descriptive language. Emotive language is often used in advertising to persuade people to purchase a particular product. Emotive language is also used in novels to evoke an emotional response in readers to ‘hook’ them into the story. In this exercise, the student needs to decide which of the two sentences in each pair is providing a factual description and which is using emotive language. Sometimes the words in two sentences can be in a different order or use some different words and still have the same meaning. At other times, the words in two sentences can be very similar, but by changing the word order, you also change the meaning of the sentence. In this exercise, the student needs to determine whether the two sentences have the same or a different meaning. Inferential comprehension requires the reader to ‘read between the lines’ and infer the author’s intention. In this exercise the student needs to detect the emotion the person referred to in each sentence is feeling based on the information provided. The student then matches each sentence with an emotion listed at the top of the exercise. These exercises are designed to develop logical competency. This skill is useful for solving problems and making better decisions. In this exercise, each argument consists of three sentences. The first two sentences build a relationship. So, in this example both sentences refer to ‘palaeontologists’. The student needs to decide whether the third sentence draws a valid or invalid conclusion based on the relationship established in the first two sentences. In this example, just because some Czechoslovakians are palaeontologists and palaeontologists study prehistoric life forms, this does not mean that all Czechoslovakians do this. Therefore, this argument is invalid. Multisensory Reading Level 4 p. 11

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ORAL READING 1. Tom was reluctant to conduct the experiment on the effect of feminism in the workplace. He thought the males were dominant and would not comprehend the purpose of his study. It is very depressing that different ethnic groups are consistently reluctant to dominate. Main idea: ____________________________________ Part of speech of underlined word: _______________ Substitute word: ______________ Circle the sentence that doesn’t belong. 2. Havoc was created when the democratic leader was accused of being involved in the trafficking of drugs. At the moment, asbestosis is an ethical problem for the democrats. He contended that he was being wrongly accused and that his wealth was due to prudent investments. Main idea: ____________________________________ Part of speech of underlined word: _______________ Substitute word: ______________ Circle the sentence that doesn’t belong. 3. Lavish spending by the president is seen as a good omen. The diplomat was publishing a book about the problems of the domestic market. He believed the disruptions caused by officials who obstructed the transport of goods were to blame. Main idea: ____________________________________ Part of speech of underlined word: _______________ Substitute word: ______________ Circle the sentence that doesn’t belong. 4. The timid president regretted the misconduct and disrespect shown by the diplomat. In addition, he found it very distressing that the diplomat did not follow the correct protocol. He also thought the diplomat’s nostrils should be inspected. Main idea: ____________________________________ Part of speech of underlined word: _______________ Substitute word: ______________ Circle the sentence that doesn’t belong. 20 sec 20 sec 20 sec 20 sec • The student reads one passage each day and decodes unknown words by breaking them into syllables. • Help the student practise difficult words in isolation and within the text. • The student reads the passage repeatedly until the goal time is reached – reading must be accurate. Cover the whole line when the student says the second last word on that line (i.e., before the last word is read). • Ask some questions about the passage, determine the main idea, circle the sentence that doesn’t belong, and identify the part of speech and find substitute words for the underlined word. Multisensory Reading Level 4 p. 12

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The Oral Reading section has been developed to increase the student’s ability to rapidly and accurately decode text. The text has been divided into eye span lengths to encourage the student to look at chunks of text and move away from a word by word focus (see Rayner et al.’s, 2010 research).. A fluent oral reader decodes the text ahead of the words that are being spoken. To develop this skill, you are asked to place a cardboard strip above the line being read and to cover the line completely once the student says the second last word. Each passage includes vocabulary from the corresponding column of words being learned (i.e., passage 1=column 1). Using the same words provides additional practice in the learning and retention process as well as further developing the student’s understanding of the words by placing them in context. The student is required to complete one oral reading exercise each day. Ensure the student uses two or three fingers of his/her writing hand to track the words being read. The student reads through the passage. • Underline the unknown words. • Together work out unknown words by placing in syllabification marks. • The student practises reading the underlined words several times in isolation and in the phrase. • The student reads the passage and the time is recorded in the boxes to the side. Meeting time goals assists in the development of processing speed which results in increases in the student’s ability to read fluently and accurately. • Place a piece of card above the line the student is reading. As the student reads the second last word in the line slide the card down so it covers the words in that sentence and sits above the words in the next line. If the student can’t remember the last word, quickly raise the cardboard and then lower it again. • Encourage the student to concentrate on both accuracy and fluency. • Errors should be corrected as they occur and included in the total time. • If the student doesn’t reach the time target, practise difficult words both in isolation and as part of a phrase. • The student continues rereading the passage until the target time of 20 seconds or less is 20 reached. The amount of repetitions required to meet this goal will vary considerably between sec students and between passages. • After the time target is reached, the student rereads the passage silently (without timing) to ensure there is full comprehension of the text. If the student’s lips are moving during silent reading, have the student place a finger on his/her lips and concentrate on just ‘using his/her eyes’. This type of verbalisation reduces silent reading speed. • Effective reading requires understanding as well as decoding. Thus you are required to ask the student two or three comprehension questions about the passage to assess understanding. The student should be encouraged to refer back to the text to both find and justify the answer and to answer using full sentences (e.g., Question: What did Tom think of the males? Tom thought the males were dominant). • Each passage contains one sentence that doesn’t address the same subject matter as the other sentences. Identifying the sentence that does not belong encourages the student to move beyond a basic understanding of the text and to make inferential judgements. • In determining the sentence that doesn’t belong, the student needs to establish the main idea of the other sentence. • In the final task, the student identifies whether the underlined word is a verb, noun, adverb, adjective, etc. and finds meaningful substitute words (these words do not have to have the same meaning but just make sense from a grammatical perspective). This exercise is designed to develop the student’s understanding of the grammatical structure of English. Multisensory Reading Level 4 p. 13

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