Multisensory Reading Level 3C (Sample)

 

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Cracking the ABC Reading program

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Reading Level 3C Multisensory Dr Lillian Fawcett CRACKING THE

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Multisensory Reading – Level 3C Dr Lillian Fawcett Ph.D., B.Ed., B.A. Psychology (Honours) Illustrator: Kate Mullen kate.alida@hotmail.com This book belongs to ____________________________

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CONTENTS PAGE Introduction…………………………………………………………. Instructions…………………………………………………..……… • General Knowledge………………….…………………………... • Grapheme and Vocabulary Development…..…………………… • Comprehension………………………….……………………….. • Oral Reading………………….………………………………….. • Syllabification………………….…………………………….…... • Interactive Pictures………………….……………….…………... Unit 1: ay, a-e, ai = /ay/ and ar, a = /ar/……………………………. Unit 2: or, au, aw = /or/ and ow, ou = /ow/…………………………. Unit 3: ea, ee, ie, e-e = /ee/ and ph, gh = /f/..………………………. Unit 4: ir, ur, er = /er/ and oa, ow, o-e = /oa/…………....…………. Unit 5: ew, oo, ue, ui, u-e = /ue/ and oy, oi =/oy/………..…………. Unit 6: y = /i/, /ie/, /ee/ and i-e, ie, i = /ie/……………………..……. Unit 7: ch = /ch/, /sh/, /k/ and ou, o, a = /u/……………………..…. Unit 8: ce, ci, cy = /s/ and ge, gi, gy = /j/……………….…..………. Unit 9: ti, ci, si = /sh/ and i+vowel = /ee/, /ie/…….….….…………. Unit 10: u, oo = /oo/ and are, air, ear, ere = /air/……….………..… Unit 11: wo, wor, wa, war and ear, eer, ere = /eer/………………… Unit 12: Silent Letters and Tricky Words………...……………….. Grapheme Revision ……………………………………………..…. Code Cracker…………………………...…………………………... References ………………………………………………………….. 2 3 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 24 34 44 54 64 74 84 94 104 114 124 129 139 144 Multisensory Reading 3C p. 1

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Introduction The written form of a language is a code. Each language has its own set of phonemes (sounds) and the symbols used to represent these phonemes (graphemes) are the written code of that language. Therefore, once the relationship between symbols and sounds are learned (i.e., the code is broken) any text can be decoded (read) or encoded (written down). In English, it is generally agreed that that there are approximately 44 different phonemes, although there are some variations due to accent and articulation. These 44 phonemes are represented by the 26 letters of the alphabet either individually or in combination. However, problems arise in English because numerous letters or letter can be used to represent one phoneme (e.g., or-fork, au-sauce, aw-paw) and the same grapheme may represent more than one phoneme (e.g., ow-cow, show, bowl). A Brief History The different graphic representations for a phoneme arise from the fact that English has developed from the integration and influence of several languages. The base or root words have arisen over time and can be divided into distinct phases. In 55BC the Romans conquered England and during their 400 year occupancy many Latin words (and consequently French and Greek words which had been absorbed into Latin) were incorporated into the English language (e.g., wall, castle, servant). The next invaders, the Anglo-Saxons, are said to have had the greatest influence on English language and culture. They inhabited England between the 5th and 9th centuries and most base or root words in English are from this period (e.g., lady, lord, song). The spread of Christianity from 596 resulted in the introduction of more Latin words to explain religious and philosophical ideas (e.g., bible, chapter). Between 700 and 900AD Danish Vikings invaded and later settled in England bringing with them Old Norse words which had their origins in German (e.g., sun, skin, want). In 1066, William the Conqueror from Normandy (now a region of modern day France) defeated King Harold of England at the Battle of Hastings and French became the language of the ruling classes (e.g., mutton, peasant, gentry). With the invention of the printing press, in the 15th century, attempts were made to standardise the spelling and pronunciation of words throughout England and this resulted in many of the irregularities found in the spelling of English words. Exploration led to the discovery of new countries, new foods and new words (e.g., tobacco, kayak, and kangaroo). Similarly, the Industrial Revolution in the 18th century and ongoing discoveries and inventions all led to the development and inclusion of new words. These words were either adopted from other languages or described the invention (e.g., tele (from afar) + phone (sound) = telephone). The intermingling of languages and cultures has resulted in many synonyms (e.g., sad, upset, unhappy, miserable) and a range of ways of representing the same phoneme. The challenge for students is to break this complex code. The Stages of Literacy Development According to Frith’s Literacy Acquisition Model (as cited in Heath, Hoben & Tan, 2008), we first begin to read and spell using logographic strategies whereby we focus on the visual appearance of words and remember words as single units. The problem with this as a long-term strategy is you can only read and spell words that you have seen and remembered. The next stage in literacy development is the alphabet phase. This has two components. The first is having good phonological awareness. This involves identifying, manipulating and thinking about the sounds in speech. Students proficient in this area can break words into syllables (e.g., den-tist) and individual phonemes (e.g., d-e-n-t-i-s-t) and blend them back into words. They can delete phonemes (e.g., take the /l/ out of ‘clap’ to make ‘cap’) and can substitute one phoneme for another (e.g., change the /a/ in ‘cat’ to /o/ to make ‘cot’). The research consistently shows a positive link between good phonological awareness and reading and spelling competency (e.g., McNamara, Scissons & Gutknecth, 2011). Multisensory Reading 3C p. 2

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The second component is learning the alphabet code. This requires learning to match graphemes with specific phonemes. Students with this knowledge are able to decode words they have not seen before and to more accurately and automatically encode and decode a large number of words. Mastery of this stage is readily tested by having students read nonsense words (e.g., trinneeth). The research consistently shows that direct, specific instruction in phonics is not only the most effective way of improving the reading and spelling skills of students having literacy difficulties, but also leads to changes in brain functioning (e.g., Eden et al., 2004, Odegard et al., 2008). However, competence in the third orthographic phase is necessary for true literacy (see research by Holmes & Quinn, 2008). Students competent in the last stage of literacy acquisition (the orthographic phase) are able to use their knowledge of spelling rules, syllabification strategies, affixes, and root words in the encoding and decoding process. At this stage, students realise that the meaning of a word, rather than simply a direct sound-symbol relationship, can provide key information as to the graphemes to choose for the correct spelling or reading of a word. This is particularly true of words of Latin and Greek origin which are often found in higher levels of education. Students at this stage also need to memorise the approximately 20% of English words which do not fit the common alphabetic or orthographic patterns. All of these stages are incorporated into the Cracking the ABC Code programs which have been developed over many years and tried and tested on numerous students with excellent results. In addition, the programs utilise a range of memory techniques and a multisensory approach to maximum retention of the information taught (see for example Krafnick et al.’s 2011 study for the benefits of such an approach). Instructions The Multisensory Reading Level 3C program is a 12 week course (requiring a 5 days a week commitment) which systematically introduces the more complex phonemes and their common graphic form using a multisensory format. It consists of 6 interlinking sections: General Knowledge, Phoneme and Vocabulary Development, Comprehension, Oral Reading and Syllabification. The program has been designed so that each section complements and reinforces the others. Repetition and meeting time goals is integral to this program as many children require numerous repetitions for learning to occur so information is retained in long-term memory and to develop fluency (e.g., Vadasy & Sanders, 2008; Sukhram, 2008). The aim of the Multisensory Reading Level 3C program is to enable students to instantly recognise the common graphemes so they are able to rapidly decode familiar and unfamiliar words. Students are then in a position to use their ‘mental energy’ in understanding the text. It is assumed that students know the basic sound-symbol relationship of the alphabet and consequently it is recommended for older students with a reading age of at least 8.00 years. Students are required to place two or three fingers of their writing hand under the words being read. Poor eye tracking is not uncommon among students with reading difficulties and using fingers as markers helps strengthen this skill. Using two or three fingers helps increase eye span and research has long shown that proficient readers process more than one word at a time (see Miller & O'Donnell, 2013). In addition, studies in eye movement while reading (e.g., Rayner, Pollatsek, & Reichle, 2003) show fixations (visual pausing), regression (rereading) and skipping (moving up and down and backwards and forwards over the page) commonly occur when reading. Each of these factors impinges on reading fluency and accuracy. Moving your fingers under words while reading reduces these inhibiting eye movements (e.g., Miyata et al., 2012). Multisensory Reading 3C p. 3

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GENERAL KNOWLEDGE Root word dico=to say edict dictation verdict dictator Dictaphone Prefix trans=across transport transfer transpose transform transcontinental Suffix ate=to make activate placate Collective noun A group of wool/hay=bale Proverb Truth will out=The truth will be discovered. Idiom In the red=in debt (owe money) Simile As wise as an owl • On the first day discuss the information on the page. • On subsequent days, the adult says the words in italics and the student reads the underlined words. • On the last day, see if the student can say the underlined words from memory. Multisensory Reading 3C p. 4

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The General Knowledge section provides the knowledge required for Stage 3 literacy development (see Frith’s Literacy Acquisition model cited in Heath, Hoben & Tan, 2008). The sophisticated words in English are often those derived from Greek and Latin. An understanding of the meaning of key root words enriches the student’s knowledge of English, making spelling and reading easier Introduce the root words to the student and discuss their meaning and some of the examples. Prefixes are fixed in front of a word (pre=before). The prefix changes or adds meaning to the root word. For example, trans=across. Therefore, transcontinental=across continents. Introduce the prefix to the student and discuss its meaning and some of the examples. Note: To remember that pre=before, think “You go to preschool before Year 1.” Suffixes are fixed to the end of a word (suf=end). A suffix can be added onto a verb to change the tense (e.g., ‘ed’ indicates past tense). An ‘s’ added onto nouns indicates the plural form. Alternatively, a suffix can be used to change a word from one part of speech to another. For example, ate=to make. Therefore, activate=to make active (i.e., it is changing the adjective ‘active’ into a verb). Introduce the suffix to the student and discuss its meaning and some of the examples. Note: To remember that suf=end, think “You suffer to the end of (something the student dislikes doing).” A noun is a word that names an object, a person, an animal, a place, a ‘thing’ or a feeling. ‘A’ (or ‘an’) and ‘the’ can be placed in front and it can be pluralised. A collective noun is the word given to describe a group of nouns (e.g., a group of students=a class; a group of wool or hay=a bale). Introduce the collective noun to the student and discuss. A proverb is a short traditional saying that expresses a common belief or truth based on common sense or practical experience. Proverbs often have a different meaning to their literal meaning. Thus, an understanding of a range of proverbs increases the student’s understanding of the English language. Discuss the meaning of the proverb and if possible relate it to an experience in the student’s life. An idiom is a phrase or expression that means something different to the literal meaning and usually develops among a particular group of people. Consequently, new idioms are constantly being introduced into the English language. Discuss idioms used by the student and his/her peers. Introduce the idiom and discuss its meaning. A simile is used to compare two things that have something in common and contains the word ‘as’ or ‘like’ in the phrase. The similes in this workbook have been in common usage for many years. It should be stressed that although similes provide interest and clarity in creative writing, they should be original comparisons. Introduce and discuss the simile. Multisensory Reading 3C p. 5

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GRAPHEME & VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT ai a-e ay ea-steak ey-grey ei-eight a-table e-crochet a ar ear-heart au-laugh er-sergeant a-e ay ai de/cay/ing straight/en dis/play/ing con/cen/trate a/ccum/u/late pre/vail por/tray con/tem/plate ar (car) a (bath) car/di/gan bar/gain gal/a cas/tor star/tle starve mar/vell/ous var/nish mar/gin car/ni/val par/cel ras/ping so/pran/o grasp shaft Day 4 (cake) (tray) (rain) dis/lo/cate re/pay/ment in/di/cate re/main/der a/vail/a/ble ess/ay trait/or cam/paign e/val/u/ate punc/tu/ate ex/claim dis/a/rray mi/grate cast/a/way ex/plain be/tray/al a/pprox/im/ate com/plain in/ves/ti/gate re/strain im/i/tate mot/i/vate Day 1 Day 2 plas/ter plaz/a par/tic/u/lars staff har/bour dis/as/trous arth/ri/tis par/lia/ment lav/a sing/u/lar ar/gu/ment aux/ili/ar/y sab/o/tage sub/mar/ine ghast/ly Day 3 15 sec Day 5 15 sec 15 sec 15 sec 1 min • • • • If /ay/ is the last sound heard in a base word use ‘ay’. ‘a’ is commonly pronounced /ar/ when followed by ‘ss’ ‘ff’, ‘th’, ‘st’, ‘lm’ and ‘lf’ A vowel followed by two consonants (same or different) is pronounced as a short vowel sound (e.g., essay). A vowel followed by one consonant and then another vowel is usually pronounced as a long vowel sound (e.g., repay), except if the syllable containing the vowel is not stressed (e.g., indicate, opening). Multisensory Reading 3C p. 6

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This section is the key to the success of the program. Two phonemes (sound unit) and their common graphic representations (graphemes) are introduced each week. Each grapheme is linked to a key word and picture and these are combined into an integrated picture for each phoneme. The key words and integrated picture both assist in retention and recall. Introduce the phoneme, the accompanying graphemes, key words and integrated picture to the student. Note: Teach and encourage the student to use the following strategy when trying to work out the spelling of unfamiliar words. Say the sounds in the word (e.g., drain=/d/-/r/-/ay/-/n/). Think of the /ay/ picture (e.g., the rain falling on the cake on the tray). Write the word using each of the different graphemes (e.g., drain, drane, drayn). Eliminate any word which doesn’t agree with the rules (e.g., ‘ay’ is only used at the end of base words so ‘drayn’ must be wrong). It is common in English for any one phoneme to be represented by numerous graphemes. The less common graphemes are listed for information and future reference. Draw the student’s attention to the various graphemes for the phoneme being studied. There are two columns of words each containing the phoneme and the different graphemes to be learned so the student is able to see the graphemes in context. The words have also been syllabified to reinforce the strategy of breaking words into syllables to assist with decoding. Underline each grapheme using a different colour. Have the student colour code each word by underlining the grapheme(s) being learned in the same colour. Colour coding the words will accentuate the visual component of learning. The goal is for the student to learn to read one column of words in 15 seconds or less each day. On the 5th day the student should practise reading all 60 words until the 1 minute goal is reached. Research shows that reading the words at this rate (i.e., 1 word per second) is an indicator that the words have been stored in long-term memory, and that the student will be able to return to these words and still read them accurately in several weeks time. Begin the session by helping the student work out how to pronounce and syllabify each word in the column. Give the student strategies for working out unknown words (e.g., Divide into syllables; look for digraphs; find root words, suffixes and prefixes; etc.). Discuss the meaning of each word. Keep this short and quick. Have the student learn the words until every word can be read confidently and correctly. If the student is finding a few words difficult to remember, spend time on just those words – circle the syllable or letter that is causing difficulty, draw a picture, put the word into a sentence, repeat the word several times, practise reading the word with the words on either side, etc. Once the student can read the words accurately, time how long it takes to read the whole column. Correct errors as they occur and this should be included in the time. Record the time taken in the boxes under the column. Continue until the student can read the column in 15 seconds or less (remember to practise words causing difficulty before re-timing Ensure the student places two or three fingers of his/her writing hand under each word. Each day, before learning the next column of words, revise the previous column(s) by quickly reading through the words, without timing. The 5th day is spent practising to read all 60 words in 1 minute. Before retiming, remember to practise words the student has difficulty reading. Rules associated with the reading (decoding) or spelling (encoding) of the phonemes or graphemes are highlighted in a box. Discuss the rules with the student. Multisensory Reading 3C p. 7

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COMPREHENSION Set 1 (Column 1) 1. Raymond loved to drink____________________. 2. The player’s sprained ankle was very ____________________. 3. Many people are ____________________ of snakes. 4. The prisoner ____________________ from the jail. 5. We followed the ____________________ through the bush. Set 2 (Column 2) 1. Think about something ______________________ 2. A person who serves food ______________________ 3. Not crooked______________________ 4. Blow up with air ______________________ 5. Disappointment, sadness ______________________ Set 3 (Column 3) 1. The ______________________ stole all our money. 2. My favourite colour is ______________________. 3. It was the baby’s first ______________________. 4. “Do not ______________________ me while I’m working,” complained Dad. 5. The ______________________ bird nearly drove me berserk. Set 4 (Column 4) 1. Filthy ______________________ 2. Specialist, professional ______________________ 3. Bag to put money in ______________________ 4. Wavy ______________________ 5. Attentive, watchful ______________________ Multisensory Reading 3C p. 8

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The comprehension exercises are designed to reinforce the meaning of the words being learned in the previous section as increase vocabulary is linked to increased comprehension (Shany, & Biemiller, 2010). The comprehension exercises are designed to reinforce the meaning of the words being learned in the previous section. Each set relates to a column of words from the previous page. The student completes one set each day. Each exercise requires a different skill. The student completes one set each day. The student should read the sentence saying ‘something’ or a nonsense word like ‘blurb’ in place of the missing word. Return to the columns of words and have the student find the correct word from the list corresponding to the comprehension exercise. When the student finds the correct word, identify the letters of the sound being studied and the linking picture (e.g., ‘ay’ for ‘tray’). Point out any unusual letter combinations that may make correct spelling of the word difficult. Return to the comprehension page and say the syllables and then the sounds within the syllables as the student writes the word (e.g., repayment: re=/r/-/ee/, pay=/p/-/ay/, ment=/m/-/e/-/n/-/t/). Orally modelling the process the student should be using when spelling will help make the strategy more instinctive for the student. These are cloze exercises. Cloze exercises are useful for identifying a student’s knowledge and understanding of the reading process. They help extend the student’s vocabulary, encourage him/her to monitor for meaning and encourage the critical and analytical interpretation of the text. These are definitions. For the student to understand the text, it is important to not only be able to decode a word, but also understand the meaning of that word. Multisensory Reading 3C p. 9

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ORAL READING 1. Raymond followed the trail to the lemonade. I used to have a snake for a pet which I kept in a cage and fed cake and lemonade. But one day, it escaped and slid under Jane’s bed. To my dismay, Mum sent my snake away to the zoo. Craig used his brain and notified the police straight away when he saw the blood stain on the waiter’s face. The police detained the gun man and took him to the nearest jail. Craig was amazed at the shape of the whale. Many people keep dogs for the purpose of protecting their home. Last Saturday, my dog disturbed a burglar. Burt’s dog is a small, poodle with purple fur. The dog went berserk and the burglar hurled himself off the property and over the kerb I watched the bird peck at the girl’s hamburger. If I had not been driving at thirty kilometres per hour, I would have hurt the dirty girl I told her to be more alert and look before going onto the road. 20 sec 2. 20 sec 3. 20 sec 4. 20 sec • The student reads one passage each day and decodes unknown words by breaking them into syllables. • Help the student practise difficult words in isolation and within the text. • The student reads the passage repeatedly until the goal time is reached – reading must be accurate. Cover the whole line when the student says the second last word on that line (i.e., before the last word is read). • Ask some questions about the passage, determine the main idea, circle the sentence that doesn’t belong, and identify the part of speech and find substitute words for the underlined word. Multisensory Reading 3C p. 10

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The Oral Reading section has been developed to increase the student’s ability to rapidly and accurately decode text. The text has been divided into eye span lengths to encourage the student to look at chunks of text and move away from a word by word focus (see Rayner et al.’s, 2010 research). A fluent oral reader decodes the text ahead of the words that are being spoken. To develop this skill, place a cardboard strip above the line being read and cover the line completely once the student says the second last word. Each passage includes vocabulary from the corresponding column of words being learned (i.e., passage 1=column 1). Using the same words provides additional practice in the learning and retention process as well as further developing the student’s understanding of the words by placing them in context. The student is required to complete one oral reading exercise each day. Ensure the student uses two or three fingers of his/her writing hand to track the words being read. The student reads through the passage. • Underline the unknown words. • Together work out unknown words by placing in syllabification marks. • The student practises reading the underlined words several times in isolation and in the phrase. • The student reads the passage and the time is recorded in the boxes to the side. Meeting time goals assists in the development of processing speed which results in increases in the student’s ability to read fluently and accurately. • Place a piece of card above the line the student is reading. As the student reads the second last word in the line slide the card down so it covers the words in that sentence and sits above the words in the next line. If the student can’t remember the last word, quickly raise the cardboard and then lower it again. • Encourage the student to concentrate on both accuracy and fluency. • Errors should be corrected as they occur and included in the total time. • If the student doesn’t reach the time target, practise difficult words both in isolation and as part of a phrase. • The student continues rereading the passage until the target time of 20 seconds or less is reached. The amount of repetitions required to meet this goal will vary considerably between students and between passages. • After the time target is reached, the student rereads the passage silently (without timing) to ensure there is full comprehension of the text. If the student’s lips are moving during silent reading, have the student place a finger on his/her lips and concentrate on just ‘using his/her eyes’. This type of verbalisation reduces silent reading speed. • Effective reading requires understanding as well as decoding. Thus you are required to ask the student two or three comprehension questions about the passage to assess understanding. The student should be encouraged to refer back to the text to both find and justify the answer and to answer using full sentences (e.g., Question: What did Raymond feed his pet snake? Answer: Raymond fed his pet snake lemonade.). • Each passage contains one sentence that doesn’t address the same subject matter as the other sentences. Identifying the sentence that does not belong encourages the student to move beyond a basic understanding of the text and to make inferential judgements. • In determining the sentence that doesn’t belong, the student needs to establish the main idea of the other sentence. • In the final task, the student identifies whether the underlined word is a verb, noun, adverb, adjective, etc. and finds meaningful substitute words (these words do not have to have the same meaning but just make sense from a grammatical perspective). This exercise is designed to develop the student’s understanding of the grammatical structure of English. Multisensory Reading 3C p. 11

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SYLLABIFICATION • Multisensory Reading 3C p. 12 • Remember to pronounce ‘a’, ‘e’, ‘i’ , ‘o’ and ‘u’ as the short vowel sound /a/ apple, /e/ egg, /i/ insect, /o/ orange and /u/ umbrella, unless it is combining with another letter to make a different sound (e.g., ‘ay’, ‘ir’). ‘a’ can be pronounced as /a/ as in ‘apple’ or /ar/ as in ‘bath’. Try both pronunciations. grep/sann/at dip/saff nadd/em/dop gladdempop nittemlox contracting sacrimmat roddiggat mandoblat offending rett/ur/day dirm/ait ber/take laipane furnish ackirpave astirper advertise purdattap tashirpray mon/dail/ay claif/ang taim/hane discriminate camtain stepsimwail mayonnaise crimsain unclimped pitaitang dir/bafe itt/ur/ay as/taff/ing clapirlay raitenner sommurtade properly thirstily splaitwer pathirner • Read one column each day. • The first 3 words of each column have been syllabified for you. On the next 3 words, the student draws in the syllabification lines one at a time, reading the syllable before drawing the next line. Try to just use your eyes to make the line on the last 4 words and make sure there is a definite break between each syllable. • Find the two real words. • On day 5, read the words in the last column 3 times. Encourage the student to blend the syllables smoothly into a word.

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The ability to quickly and accurately syllabify words is a key to reading mastery. However, traditional rules for syllabifying words can be complex. The syllabification exercise in this program uses a simplified method of syllabification that is easily learned and can be effectively applied to the decoding of unknown words. Although the system is not 100% perfect due to the exceptions in the English language, it provides a close enough representation that the student is easily able to decipher the correct pronunciation (e.g., hipp/op/ot/am/us versus hip/po/pot/a/mus). The use of nonsense words in this program requires the student to practise the skill of rapidly breaking words into syllables and recognising graphemes (see Diliberto et al., 2009). As a result, the student is better able to rapidly and accurately decode unfamiliar words. In contrast, if real words are used, the student tends to rely on a visual memory of the total word rather than the smaller components within the word. This exercise is also good for developing working memory. Each nonsense word is composed of the graphemes being learned plus graphemes from previous units. This constant exposure to the graphemes in different contexts further reinforces the learning and retention of sound-symbol relationships. Once the student has learned more than one way in which a grapheme can be pronounced, the use of the alternative pronunciations should be encouraged. Why a particular pronunciation would not be correct based on the rules should also be discussed. The student reads one column each day. The first 3 words have already been syllabified. The student draws in the syllabification line for the next 3 words, reading the syllable before drawing the next line. The student mentally breaks the next 4 words into syllables, ensuring there is a definite break between each syllable. Each column contains two real words which the student attempts to locate. On the 5th day, the student rereads the last column attempting to blend the syllables smoothly into a word. This may require several steps: Working out the syllable, blending the sounds represented by each of the letter(s) into a syllable and then blending the syllables. The student may require several attempts to successfully read the word smoothly. Easy Syllabification Rules for Decoding 1. Place a dot under the first vowel and place a slash after the next consonant. As a general rule pronounce the vowels as /a/, /e/, /i/, /o/ and /u/ (e.g., con/trac/ted). 2. Join double consonants (twins) and place the slash after the twins (e.g., coff/in). 3. Join vowels representing one phoneme (e.g., ai, ea, oi) and place the slash after the next consonant (e.g., moun/tain). 4. Join consonant clusters that represent one phoneme (ch, sh, th, ng) and place the slash after the joined consonants (e.g., mash/ing). 5. If there are extra consonants at the end of the word and no vowel, don’t make another syllable (e.g., den/tist). 6. ‘y’ is the only letter that can be left by itself at the end of a word and is usually ‘acting’ as a vowel (e.g., un/happ/y). 7. Don’t separate the ‘e’ at the end of the word in split digraphs (e.g., ath/lete). 8. When working out the pronunciation of a syllable, be aware of letter combinations (ew, ar, ow, ur) representing one phoneme (e.g., cur/few). 9. Place the slash after the first ‘c’ when double ‘c’ is followed by ‘e’, ‘i’ or ‘y’ (e.g., ac/cid/ent) as the first ‘c’ is pronounced /k/ and the second is /s/. Multisensory Reading 3C p. 13

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