Multisensory Reading Level 2B (Sample)

 

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Cracking the ABC Reading program

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Reading Level 2B Multisensory Dr Lillian Fawcett CRACKING THE

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Multisensory Reading – Level 2B Dr Lillian Fawcett Ph.D., B.Ed., B.A. Psychology (Honours) Illustrator: Kate Mullen kate.alida@hotmail.com This book belongs to ____________________________

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CONTENTS PAGE Introduction……………………………………………….……….…. Instructions……………………………………………………..….…. • Key Word and Picture ……………….…………………...…..... • Vocabulary Development………………………..……..………. • Comprehension………………………….…………………….... • Oral Reading………………….…………………………..…….. • Extension Words…………………….…………………..….…... • Syllabification………………….……………………….…..…... sh-ship………………………………………………………….…….. ch-chick.…………………………………………………………..….. th-three………………………………………………………….……. ee-tree………………………………………………………….….….. a-e cake…………………………………………………………..….... i-e kite………………………………………………………….….….. o-e bone.……………………………………………………….….….. oo-moon…………………………………………………………..….. ng-ring………………………………………………………….…….. er-flower………………………………………………………..…….. ck-duck……………………………………………………….………. all-ball………………………………………………………….…….. y-sunny……………………………………………………….………. ar-car………………………………………………………….….…… oa-boat…………………………………………………………….….. ay-tray…………………………………………………………….….. ow-cow……………………………………………………………...... ir-girl………………………………………………………………...... ea-leaf……………………………………………………………….... ai-rain…………………………………………………………..…….. oy-boy…………………………………………………………….….. or-fork…………………………………………………………….….. ur-church……………………………………………………….…….. oi-coin………………………………………………………….…….. ou-house………………………………………………………….…... aw-paw………………………………………………………….……. ow-bow………………………………………………………………. oo-book………………………………………………………………. y-sky …..…………..………………………………………………..... ew-screw …………………………………………………………...... Grapheme Revision…..………………………………………….…… References …………………………………………………………… 2 3 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 22 28 34 40 46 52 58 64 70 76 82 88 94 100 106 112 118 124 130 136 142 148 154 160 166 172 178 184 190 196 204 Multisensory Reading 2B p. 1

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INTRODUCTION The written form of a language is a code. Each language has its own set of phonemes (sounds) and the symbols used to represent these phonemes (graphemes) are the written code of that language. Therefore, once the relationship between symbols and sounds are learned (i.e., the code is broken) any text can be decoded (read) or encoded (written down). In English, it is generally agreed that that there are approximately 44 different phonemes, although there are some variations due to accent and articulation. These 44 phonemes are represented by the 26 letters of the alphabet either individually or in combination. However, problems arise in English because numerous letters or letter can be used to represent one phoneme (e.g., or-fork, au-sauce, aw-paw) and the same grapheme may represent more than one phoneme (e.g., ow-cow, show, bowl). A Brief History The different graphic representations for a phoneme arise from the fact that English has developed from the integration and influence of several languages. The base or root words have arisen over time and can be divided into distinct phases. In 55BC the Romans conquered England and during their 400 year occupancy many Latin words (and consequently French and Greek words which had been absorbed into Latin) were incorporated into the English language (e.g., wall, castle, servant). The next invaders, the Anglo-Saxons, are said to have had the greatest influence on English language and culture. They inhabited England between the 5th and 9th centuries and most base or root words in English are from this period (e.g., lady, lord, song). The spread of Christianity from 596 resulted in the introduction of more Latin words to explain religious and philosophical ideas (e.g., bible, chapter). Between 700 and 900AD Danish Vikings invaded and later settled in England bringing with them Old Norse words which had their origins in German (e.g., sun, skin, want). In 1066, William the Conqueror from Normandy (now a region of modern day France) defeated King Harold of England at the Battle of Hastings and French became the language of the ruling classes (e.g., mutton, peasant, gentry). With the invention of the printing press, in the 15th century, attempts were made to standardise the spelling and pronunciation of words throughout England and this resulted in many of the irregularities found in the spelling of English words. Exploration led to the discovery of new countries, new foods and new words (e.g., tobacco, kayak, and kangaroo). Similarly, the Industrial Revolution in the 18th century and ongoing discoveries and inventions all led to the development and inclusion of new words. These words were either adopted from other languages or described the invention (e.g., tele (from afar) + phone (sound) = telephone). The intermingling of languages and cultures has resulted in many synonyms (e.g., sad, upset, unhappy, miserable) and a range of ways of representing the same phoneme. The challenge for students is to break this complex code. The Stages of Literacy Development According to Frith’s Literacy Acquisition Model (as cited in Heath, Hoben & Tan, 2008), we first begin to read and spell using logographic strategies whereby we focus on the visual appearance of words and remember words as single units. The problem with this as a long-term strategy is you can only read and spell words that you have seen and remembered. The next stage in literacy development is the alphabet phase. This has two components. The first is having good phonological awareness. This involves identifying, manipulating and thinking about the sounds in speech. Students proficient in this area can break words into syllables (e.g., den-tist) and individual phonemes (e.g., d-e-n-t-i-s-t) and blend them back into words. They can delete phonemes (e.g., take the /l/ out of ‘clap’ to make ‘cap’) and can substitute one phoneme for another (e.g., change the /a/ in ‘cat’ to /o/ to make ‘cot’). The research consistently shows a positive link between good phonological awareness and reading and spelling competency (e.g., McNamara, Scissons & Gutknecth, 2011). Multisensory Reading 2B p. 2

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The second component is learning the alphabet code. This requires learning to match graphemes with specific phonemes. Students with this knowledge are able to decode words they have not seen before and to more accurately and automatically encode and decode a large number of words. Mastery of this stage is readily tested by having students read nonsense words (e.g., trinneeth). The research consistently shows that direct, specific instruction in phonics is not only the most effective way of improving the reading and spelling skills of students having literacy difficulties, but also leads to changes in brain functioning (e.g., Eden et al., 2004, Odegard et al., 2008). However, competence in the third orthographic phase is necessary for true literacy (see research by Holmes & Quinn, 2008). Students competent in the last stage of literacy acquisition (the orthographic phase) are able to use their knowledge of spelling rules, syllabification strategies, affixes, and root words in the encoding and decoding process. At this stage, students realise that the meaning of a word, rather than simply a direct sound-symbol relationship, can provide key information as to the graphemes to choose for the correct spelling or reading of a word. This is particularly true of words of Latin and Greek origin which are often found in higher levels of education. Students at this stage also need to memorise the approximately 20% of English words which do not fit the common alphabetic or orthographic patterns. All of these stages are incorporated into the Cracking the ABC Code programs which have been developed over many years and tried and tested on numerous students with excellent results. In addition, the programs utilise a range of memory techniques and a multisensory approach to maximum retention of the information taught (see for example Krafnick et al.’s 2011 study for the benefits of such an approach). INSTRUCTIONS The Multisensory Reading Level 2B program consists of 30 units and is designed to teach early readers, who know the basic common sounds of the letters of the alphabet, the 25 most common digraphs (sh, ch, th, ee) using multisensory strategies. It consists of 5 interlinking sections: Key Word and Picture, Vocabulary Development, Comprehension, Oral Reading and Syllabification. The program has been designed so that each section complements and reinforces the others. Repetition and meeting time goals is integral to this program as many children require numerous repetitions for learning to occur so information is retained in long-term memory and to develop fluency (e.g., Vadasy & Sanders, 2008; Sukhram, 2008). The aim of the Multisensory Reading Level 2B program is to enable students to instantly recognise the common digraphs so they are able to rapidly decode familiar and unfamiliar words. Students are then in a position to use their ‘mental energy’ in understanding the text. It is assumed that students know the basic sound-symbol relationship of the alphabet and consequently it is recommended that students have a reading age over 6.00 years. Students are required to place two or three fingers of their writing hand under the words being read. Poor eye tracking is not uncommon among students with reading difficulties and using fingers as markers helps strengthen this skill. Using two or three fingers helps increase eye span and research has long shown that proficient readers process more than one word at a time (see Miller & O'Donnell, 2013). In addition, studies in eye movement while reading (e.g., Rayner, Pollatsek, & Reichle, 2003) show fixations (visual pausing), regression (rereading) and skipping (moving up and down and backwards and forwards over the page) commonly occur when reading. Each of these factors impinges on reading fluency and accuracy. Moving your fingers under words while reading reduces these inhibiting eye movements (e.g., Miyata et al., 2012). Multisensory Reading 2B p. 3

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KEY WORD & PICTURE three /t/ and /h/ make /th/ for three /th/ for three /th/ for three /t/ and /h/ make /th/ for three /th/, /th/, /th/ Note: ‘th’ can be pronounced as a voiced (e.g., them) or voiceless (e.g., three) sound. Compare to /f/. ‘th’ is the rudest sound because you poke out your tongue! Multisensory Reading 2B p. 4

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This section is the key to the success of the program. One grapheme (a letter or combination of letters) is introduced each week. Each grapheme is linked to a key word and an accompanying picture to assist in retention and recall. Note: Teach and encourage the student to use the following strategy when trying to work out the spelling of unfamiliar words. Say the sounds in the word (e.g., sheet = sh-ee-t). Ask: What makes the /sh/ sound? Answer: ‘s’ and ‘h’ as in ‘ship’. Write it down. Ask: What makes the /ee/ sound? Answer: ‘e’ and ‘e’ as in tree. Write it down. What is the last sound? Answer: /t/. Write it down. (If student answers ‘e’ and ‘a’ make ‘ea’ for leaf, say, “Yes, that’s correct. What else makes the /ee/ sound?” Each day, practise the grapheme currently being learned using the following clapping pattern and an appropriate action (e.g., /ch/ for chick – make a beak using one hand, /th/ for three - hold up 3 fingers, i-e for kite – make the shape of a kite by joining the thumb and pointer finger of each hand to form a kite shape, etc). /t/ and /h/ make /th/ for /th/ for /th/ for three three [slap] [clap] [put up 3 fingers] [slap] [clap] [put up 3 fingers] three [slap] [clap] [slap] [clap] [slap] [clap] [put up 3 fingers] /t/ and /h/ make /th/ for /th/ /th/ /th/ [slap] [clap] [slap] three [slap] [clap] [slap] [clap] [slap] [clap] [put up 3 fingers] * Please note: The letters in between the slashes indicate the sound. For example, ‘oo’ in moon, ‘u-e’ in flute, ‘ui’ in suite all represent the same sound and would all be written as /ue/. Similarly, /t/ should be pronounced as in ‘tap’ and /h/ as in ‘hat’. * We remember best when we link new knowledge to existing knowledge. So by saying /t/ and /h/ rather than the letter names not only is previously learned knowledge reinforced but the new sound is linked to existing knowledge of sounds. At the beginning of each session, ask the student to trace over each grapheme that has already been learned while saying the sounds of the letters, the phoneme and the accompanying key word (e.g., /s/ and /h/ make /sh/ for ship, /c/ and /h/ make /ch/ for chick, /t/ and /h/ make /th/ for three). When introducing the grapheme, discuss other information provided on the page. This provides the student with ‘orthographic’ knowledge which assists developing proficiency in reading and spelling. Multisensory Reading 2B p. 5

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VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT th with/in math/em/at/ics re/think tooth/brush rath/er thick/en through thinn/er moth/ball birth/day Read and time 3x every day. Practise difficult words in between. 10 secs Multisensory Reading 2B p. 6

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There are ten words each containing the grapheme to be learned so the student is able to see the grapheme in context. The words have also been syllabified to reinforce the strategy of breaking words into syllables to assist with decoding. The student is required to trace over the letters forming the grapheme being learned using a coloured marker. As the letter is traced, the student should also be saying the letters and sound (e.g., /t/ and /h/ make /th/). In this way the student is using the sense of sight (as the grapheme is colour-coded), the sense of hearing (as the letters and sound are spoken) and the sense of touch (from the movement of the marker as the letters are traced). Research shows that this type of multisensory learning aids in retention and recall. The goal is for the student to learn to read the ten words in 10 seconds (or less). Research shows that reading the words at this rate (i.e., 1 word per second) is an indicator that the words have been stored in long-term memory and that the student will be able to return to these words and still read them accurately in several weeks’ time. In the first session, help the student work out how to pronounce each word in the column. Give the student strategies for working out unknown words (e.g., divide into syllables, look for diagraphs, find root word, suffixes and prefixes, etc.). Discuss the meaning of each word as it is decoded. Keep this short and quick. Three times each day, time the student reading the list of 10 words and record the time in the boxes. Circle the best of the three times. Colour in the star when the student can read the list without help in 10 seconds or less. Correct errors as they occur by helping the student sound out the word (and this is included in the total time). Do not just tell student the words causing difficulty. Practise poorly read words between each time trial. For some students, it is beneficial to concentrate on 3 different words each time. If the student is finding a few words difficult to remember, spend time on just those words – circle the syllable or letter(s) causing difficulty, draw a picture, put the word into a sentence, repeat the word several times, practise reading the word with the words on either side, etc. Ensure the student places two or three fingers of his/her writing hand under each word as is it being read. Multisensory Reading 2B p. 7

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COMPREHENSION • Complete 2 exercises each day (one of each type). These exercises relate to the 10 ‘Vocabulary Development’ words from the previous page. • When the student finds the correct word, say the sounds in the words as you point to the letters representing those sounds. • As the student writes the word, say the syllables and sounds (e.g., within: with=/w/-/i/-/th/, in=/i/-/n/). 1. Use a ____________ to clean your teeth. 2. The ball went ____________ the hoop. 3. The ____________s protected the clothing. 4. We study ____________ at school. 5. Mum used flour to ____________ the sauce. 6. The day you were born: _____________ 7. Think again: ______________ 8. Skinnier: ______________ 9. Prefer: ________________ 10. Inside: _______________ Multisensory Reading 2B p. 8

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The comprehension exercises are designed to reinforce the meaning of the words being learned in the previous section. Complete one comprehension exercise from each section each day (i.e., two a day in total). The student should read the sentence saying ‘something’ or a nonsense word like ‘ding’ in place of the missing word. Return to the list of words and have the student find the correct word from the list. When the student finds the correct word, identify the letters of the sound being studied and the linking picture (e.g., /th/ for three). Say the sounds in the word as you point to the letters representing those sounds. Highlight any unusual letter combinations that may make the correct spelling of the word difficult. Return to the comprehension page and as the student writes the word, say the sounds (e.g., thin: /th/, /i/, /n/). Orally modelling the process the student should be using when spelling will help make the strategy more instinctive for the student. These are cloze exercises. Cloze exercises are useful for identifying a student’s knowledge and understanding of the reading process. They help extend the student’s vocabulary, encourage him/her to monitor for meaning and encourage the critical and analytical interpretation of the text. These are definitions. For the student to understand text, it is important that he/she is not only able to decode a word, but also understands the meaning of that word. Multisensory Reading 2B p. 9

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ORAL READING 1. It’s my birthday on the tenth of July. I will have a party with lots of balloons and a birthday cake. I don’t think it’s a good idea to brush your teeth with a mothball. 2. We all have to study mathematics at school every day of the week. My mother thinks she is getting thinner and thinner. We do lots of adding and other sorts of sums. 3. I think you should thank everyone who has helped you think of these things. There are three mothballs in the cupboard in my bedroom. The mothballs are to stop the moths from eating all my jumpers. 4. Within a big word, there are often lots of other little words. I would rather have an ice-cream than suck on my thumb. To find the little words, you need to look hard and use your brain to think. Multisensory Reading 2B p. 10 20 sec 20 sec 20 sec 20 sec

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The Oral Reading section has been developed to increase the student’s ability to rapidly and accurately decode text. The text has been divided into eye span lengths to encourage the student to look at chunks of text and move away from a word by word focus. A fluent oral reader decodes the text ahead of the words that are being spoken. To develop this skill, you are asked to place a cardboard strip above the line being read and to cover the line completely once the student says the second last word. Each passage includes vocabulary from the list of 10 ‘Vocabulary Development’ words. Using the same words provides additional practice in the learning and retention process of both the words and the grapheme, as well as further developing the student’s understanding of the words by placing them in context. The student is required to complete one oral reading exercise each day. Ensure the student uses two or three fingers of his/her writing hand to track the words being read. The student reads through the passage. • Underline unknown words. • Together work out unknown words by placing in syllabification marks. • The student practises reading the underlined words several times in isolation and as part of a • The student reads the passage and the time is recorded in the boxes to the side. Meeting time goals assists in the development of processing speed which increases the student’s ability to read fluently and accurately. • Place a piece of card above the line the student is reading. As the student reads the second last word in the line, slide the card down so it covers the words in that sentence and sits above the words in the next line. If the student can’t remember the last word, quickly raise the cardboard and then relower it. • Encourage the student to concentrate on both accuracy and fluency. • Errors should be corrected as they occur and included in the total time. • If the student doesn’t reach the time target, practise difficult words both in isolation and as part of a phrase. • The student continues rereading the passage until the target time of 20 seconds or less is reached. The amount of repetitions required to meet this goal will vary considerably between students and between passages. • After the time target is reached, the student rereads the passage silently (without timing) to ensure there is full comprehension of the text. If the student is moving his/her lips during silent reading, have him/her place a finger on the lips and concentrate on just ‘using his/her eyes’. This type of verbalisation reduces silent reading speed. • To assess understanding, you are required to ask the student two or three comprehension questions about the passage. The student should be encouraged to refer back to the text to both find and justify the answer, and to answer using full sentences (e.g., Question: When is the birthday party? Answer: The birthday party is on the tenth of July). • In addition, each passage contains one sentence that doesn’t address the same subject matter as the other sentences. Identifying the sentence that does not belong encourages the student to move beyond a basic understanding of the text and to make inferential judgements. • In the final task the student is required to identify whether the underlined word is a verb, noun, adverb, adjective, etc. and find meaningful substitute words (these words do not have to have the same meaning but just make sense from a grammatical perspective). This exercise is designed to develop the student’s understanding of the grammatical structure of English. Multisensory Reading 2B p. 11

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EXTENSION WORDS th with think thank tooth thick throb thin thump moth thug within rethink thanks toothbrush thicken throbbed thinner thumped mothball thugs without thinker thanking toothpick thickest throbbing thinned thumping moths thuggery • The student sounds out the first word. • Draw the student’s attention to the location of the first word within the second and third words. • Practise reading the words fluently from left to right. • Aim for a rate of 1 word per second. Multisensory Reading 2B p. 12

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This exercise is designed to help the student ‘see’ words inside of words and therefore make the decoding process easier. Help the student decode the word on the left hand side. Draw the student’s attention to the fact that the same word (written in bold font) is located inside the next two words to the right. Consequently, the student should immediately be able to say that part of the word without ‘resounding’. Then it is just a matter of adding on the accompanying prefix or suffix. Once the student is able to read the list of 10 ‘Vocabulary Development’ words in 10 seconds, he/she can practise learning to read these extension words (reading the words in rows from left to right, not down the columns) aiming for a time of 30 seconds. Multisensory Reading 2B p. 13

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