OPEN GOVERNMENT DATA INITIATIVE IN CONTEMPORARY AZERBAIJAN

 

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OPEN GOVERNMENT DATA INITIATIVE IN CONTEMPORARY AZERBAIJAN

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Table of Contents Introduction …………………………………………………………………………………… 2 Establishing a common understanding of OGD …………………………………………… 3 Situational Analysis for Azerbaijan ……………………………………………………… 5 Importance of OGD in E-Participation and Civic Engagement ………………………… 7 Designing OGD initiatives ………………………………………………………………… 10 OGD Readiness Assessment ………………………………………………………………… 12 Challenges, limitations and risks of OGD …………………………………………….……. 15 Theoretical Analysis for Chile & Ghana Case Studies ....…………..……………….. 16 Moldova Case ………….…………………………………………………………….…… 17 Russia Case ……………….….……………….………………………………………… 18 Recommendations for government to open up data ……………………………….……... 20 Tips for piloting, monitoring and evaluation of OGD in Azerbaijan …………………..… 23 Ways to create synergies between OGD and emergins strategies in Azerbaijan ………… 25 Conclusion …………………………………….…………………………………………….…. 26

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www.modernict.az Introduction INTRODUCTION G ood governance is based on transparency, accountability, and civic engagement. These are not only prerequisites for a well-functioning polity, but also a precondition for economic growth and the well-being of society as a whole. In the past years, various actors, from governments to grassroots, have enthusiastically embraced the concept of “Open Government” and initiated Open Government Data (OGD) initiatives. The positive effects of OGD initiatives in high-income countries are undeniably huge on the economy of the country, its governance, and engagement of the citizens. It is believed that these positive effects could also be realized in low- and middle-income countries. stakeholders in both policy-making and implementation processes. This report hereby provides a brief reference guide that enables decision-makers and practitioners within governments to design, pilot, evaluate, and further sustain the successful implementation of OGD initiatives for civic engagement together with e-participation in their national, regional, local, as well as cultural context: 1 2 3 Introduces key OGD relating concepts, policy guidelines, and practice recommendations developed by the international community, Azerbaijan, and other countries’ OGD initiative case studies; Introduces basic tools together with methodology to assess a country’s overall OGD readiness, including an evaluation of key indicators in the legislative framework, policy and regulatory framework, as well as the organizational framework; Provides practical advice on how to develop, design, or redesign a coherent ICT strategy tailored to the specic circumstances in a given national and cultural context; Provides practical advice on how to implement the strategy with practice recommendations and provides a matrix to monitor and evaluate successful implementation; and Outlines the benets, limitations, challenges, risk and risk management of OGD. 2 Open government is about openness and a new relationship between citizens and governments, in which all stakeholders become partners to work together to nd new answers for the solution of societal problems. Sixty four Governments from all around the globe have joined, as of June 2014, the Open Government Partnership (OGP)1, and thus, committing to promote greater transparency, accountability, citizen engagement in policy making and use the potential of technology to improve governance at all levels. In this sense, the design and implementation of Open Government Data initiatives, especially in the OGP member countries, becomes crucial given that data is all about transparency, and OGD initiatives in nature are not a technical that much, as they are a learning process of changing the culture of public sector administration. It requires a new mindset by all stakeholders, a changing public sector administration culture towards openness and the rest of the stakeholders towards participation. The key stakeholder groups are citizens, civil society organizations, community groups, politicians, civil servants in government and public administration, as well as academia and the private sector. Although these stakeholder groups have different interests or constraints, all of them should be invited to the process, structured in a way that enables transparent dialogue with actual involvement of the 4 5 Open Government Data (OGD) initiative in contemporary Azerbaijan 1. http://www.opengovpartnership.org/

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Establishing a common understanding of OGD www.modernict.az ESTABLISHING 1 A COMMON UNDERSTANDING 2 Helps citizens to hold their government and administration accountable, which can reduce corruption and mismanagement OF OGD Helps citizens to better understand why and how decisions are made, which can help restore trust and can lead to better acceptance of policy decisions once enacted Supports and empowers citizens to make informed decisions and engage with the government, thus enabling citizens to have a more-active voice in society Supports decision-makers in government and public administration to make better and factbased policy decisions and thus to increase government efciency and effectiveness Supports governments, citizens, academia, and the private sector to work together and collaboratively nd new answers to solve societal problems 3 Open Government Data he term “open government data (OGD)” came into prominence in 2007 after the publication of a set of principles by a group of experts and advocates in Sebastopol, 2 California, and United States of America . The two main elements of open government data can be dened as follows: 1. Open data as information, which anyone can use for any purpose, without any restrictions. 2. Government data or Public Sector Information (PSI) as any data and information produced or commissioned by Public Sector Bodies (PSBs). Every year, Public Sector Bodies such as parliaments, ministries, courts, and other government authorities produce, maintain and update vast quantities of documents and datasets. Some examples of data include national statistics, budgetary information, parliamentary records, geographical data, laws, and data about education and transport. Not all PSI is OGD. In fact OGD is the intersection of PSI and open data. Governments become more transparent by proactively publishing timely, relevant, and comprehensive information and data on the Internet. This is done so that it can be easily accessed, analyzed, reused, and combined with other data by anyone for any purposes free of charge and without any restrictions. Open data provides the foundation to enable citizens to better understand how their government works, how their tax money is spent, and how decisions and laws are made. Better understanding through increased access to information can be benecial to governments, citizens, and society as a whole, as it: T 4 5 Although a great deal of pioneering work has been done over the last few years to establish the best practice for OGD policy and implementation, a degree of uncertainty remains about the terms and basic concepts involved. It is evident that a clear denition of the terminology and concepts is a prerequisite for the design, implementation, and evaluation of OGD initiatives. Without an agreement regarding terminology and concepts, evaluation and comparison will not be possible. 3 Benets of Open Government Data There are many of the areas where OGD provides clear benets3: 1. Transparency and accountability; 2. Participation and civil engagement; 3. Empowerment of citizens and communities; 4. Improved or new public services through benchmarking; 5. Improved efciency and effectiveness of government services; 6. Impact measurement of policies; 7. Innovations and economic growth and new knowledge from combined data sources or analysis of large data volumes. 2. Open Government Data for Citizen Engagement in Managing Development Guidance Toolkit DESA 2013 3. Advocacy for Open Government: civil society agenda-setting and monitoring of country action plans March 25, 2013 Open Government Data (OGD) initiative in contemporary Azerbaijan

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www.modernict.az Establishing a common understanding of OGD The social accountability benets of Open Government Data. This heightened international interest in OGD can be attributed to its ambitious promise—OGD is regarded as a catalyst of multiple public policy and development achievements. By shedding light on previously hidden aspects of governmental activities, decisions, and expenditures, OGD is expected to strengthen the ability of society to monitor the performance of governments, and lead to tangible social accountability outcomes4. The major benets expected from OGD are the following: the services they consume, and induce service providers to improve their performance. • Strengthening civic participation. While OGD initiatives usually do not provide direct channels for citizen engagement, they may create the grounds for more informed and effective citizen participation by other means. • Improving the effectiveness of public service provision. Exposing information about malfunctioning service providers may help citizens make better-informed choices regarding the services they consume, and induce service providers to improve their performance. • Strengthening citizen participation. While OGD initiatives usually do not provide direct channels for citizen engagement, they may create the grounds for more informed and effective citizen participation by other means. Open Government Data The Impacts of Open Government Data Initiatives 4 Good governance practices OGD impacts and engages citizens at three levels6: Effectiveness of public services 1 2 3 At the basic level: Citizens are beneciaries, receiving better services from government; At the second level: Citizens are partners of government agencies through intermediary groups; and At the third level: Citizens become empowered actors, subjects of developmental processes, equipped with necessary information and skills to engage with government agencies collaboratively at eye-level. Citizen participation Graphics of benets expected from OGD5 • Promoting good governance and curbing corruption. Data on governmental expenditures and performance is the core of OGD initiatives. The release of such data may allow civil society to expose governmental misconduct and help curb corruption. • Improving the effectiveness of public service provision. Exposing information about malfunctioning service providers may help citizens make better-informed choices regarding In other words, the impacts of OGD initiatives include: 1) Governance/ Political Impact a. Increased government transparency and accountability; b. Increased participation and citizen engagement; c. Increased government efciency and effectiveness; Open Government Data (OGD) initiative in contemporary Azerbaijan 4/5. From Open Government Data to Social Accountability World Bank Group April, 2012 6. Increasing citizens' engagement by using social innovation and social media to enhance government's transparency and accountability UNDP 2013

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Establishing a common understanding of OGD www.modernict.az d. Improved coordination between government agencies and different levels of government on one hand, and government and the stakeholders (namely civic societies, private sectors and citizens) on the other hand. 2) Social Impact a. Increased capacity for rational distribution of public funds; b. Move to development-oriented and peoplecentered service delivery culture; c. Increased capacity of citizens to engage in government affairs; d. Empowerment of citizens for self organization. 3) Economic Impact institutions, improve accountability on their works, and enlarge public participation in state activities, National Strategy for Increasing Transparency and Combating Corruption 2007-2011 was implemented. This strategy provided with a crucial framework for the existence of Good Governance policies in Azerbaijan. Willingness to improve efciencies in good government policies, exchange international experience, and determine Open Government strategies led The Republic of Azerbaijan to join Open Government Partnership (OGP) in 2012. According to an ofcial report given by Anti-Corruption Commission of Azerbaijan, up to now, the Republic of Azerbaijan has taken several measures to implant the principles of transparency and open government in the activity of the state institutions: Freedom of information a. Innovation in the creation and improvement of public services; b. Better public services, through innovations built on OGD; c. Cost savings, through increased government efciency and effectiveness; d. Job creation, through innovations built on OGD; e. Consolidation of common internal services; f. Reduction of transaction costs; and g. Indirect impacts through better governance / better policy through fact-based decision-making. Information (Obtaining) Act 2005 was passed. The Commissioner on Human Rights (Ombudsman) was commissioned with the task of overseeing the implementation of this Act. Practical measures easing acquisition of information were enforced within the framework for the National Strategy for Increasing Transparency and Combating Corruption. The Strategy also dened the measures ensuring proactive submission of information to public by state institutions. E-services 5 Denition of “Open” in Open Government 7 Data Access to Information is the rst step for citizens to understand the government's work, which further lays the ground for citizen engagement. Technical Openness refers to the use of open standards and open le formats which allow exploring, sorting, ltering, and recombining of data. Legal Openness becomes essential when dealing with information that requires advanced analysis or when citizens can only use it by contextualizing it with data from other sources. In 2010, the Second E-Azerbaijan State Program was adopted. The President signed Decree on The Measures in Organizing E-Services on the 23rd May 2011. According to this Decree, the state institutions are bound to organize E-services within the domain of their activity. The www.egov.az portal was launched in order to ensure One Stop Shop principle application in rendering E-services. One Stop Shop The state incorporation of the entrepreneurial activity is carried out according to the One-Stop Shop principle since 2008. As a result, the number of procedures for incorporation of the commercial legal persons dropped from thirteen to three, the term shortened from fty three days to just three and the number of the documents to be provided was cut by ve times. Azerbaijan was named as a ‘reformer state’ in the World Bank survey of Doing Business 2009, due to reforms in the eld of Situational Analysis for Azerbaijan Background: In order to enhance the transparency in the state 7. “Open Government Data: Towards Empirical Analysis of Open Government Data Initiatives”, OECD Working Papers on Public Governance, No. 22, OECD Publishing. Open Government Data (OGD) initiative in contemporary Azerbaijan

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www.modernict.az Establishing a common understanding of OGD launching business. The registration of the physical persons for entrepreneurial activity started as 2 on the 1st June 2011 and the incorporation of the legal person, as of February 2012. Furthermore, One Stop Shop facility was in the areas of borderchecking of transported goods and vehicles as of 2008, immigration procedures as of 2009 and registration of imported vehicles as of 2011. Civil Services and Social Innovations State Agency with the President of the Republic of Azerbaijan was established on July 2012 along with the ASAN service center in order to ensure that all services are rendered to citizens from single source, with higher quality and in more convenient manner. Extractive Industry Transparency Initiative The Republic of Azerbaijan has joined the Extractive Industry Transparency Initiative (EITI) in 2003 and established State Commission charged with the implementation of this initiative. The Implementation Mechanism for the initiative was dened by the State Commission, local and foreign companies engaged in extractive industry, NGOs acting in the eld of Increasing Transparency in the Extractive Industry, subsequently leading to the signing of the Memorandum of Understanding on the Implementation of the Initiative. Azerbaijan was granted a status of the candidate and in 2009 was designated as EITI compliant. The State Oil Fund was rewarded with the UN Public Service Award for its achievements in the area of Raising Transparency, Accountability and Responsibility in 2007. In 2009, the EITI award was conferred on Azerbaijan. Cooperation with the Civil Society and Ensuring Public Participation NGOs’ participation was ensured through their active involvement with the work of the working groups under the Commission on Combating Corruption of the Republic of Azerbaijan. Anticorruption NGOs Information Network was set up in 2005. The Commission on Combating Corruption joined the Network as a party. The Network held public hearings on each of the draft legislation on increasing transparency and combating corruption. The Multi-Stakeholder Coalition for Increasing Transparency in the Extractive Industries was set up in 2004, for the purpose of implementing of the initiative. As it can be seen from above, in the case of Azerbaijan, OGD departs primarily from some already existent technical and legal prerequisites necessary for a successful OGD implementation: Technical aspects include: 1. ICT sector of Azerbaijan has expanded twice per three years within 2004-2013; 2. 2012 the extent of Internet access increased to 70 percent (Leading CIS Country) 3. ICT market has soared from 67 % in 2003 to 80% in 2012; 4. 2012 Azerbaijan’s mobile subscriber base had increased by the 10 million subscribers; 5. Fixed-line network has increased from 48 percent in 2003 to 100 percent in 2012; 6. The growth rate of the ICT sector in 2012 was 18% which is 2,5 times more than worldwide average growth rate; and 7. The “Azerspace” - rst telecommunications satellite launched on 8th of February 2013. Legal aspects include: 1. Law of the Republic of Azerbaijan on the Right to Obtain Information – 2005; 2. National Strategy on Increasing Transparency and Combating Corruption (2007-2011) – 2007; 3. “State Program on development of communication and information technologies in Azerbaijan Republic in 2005-2008” (Electronic Azerbaijan I) – 2005; 4. “State Program on the development of information and communication technologies in the Republic of Azerbaijan for the years 20102012 (Electronic Azerbaijan II)” – 2010; 5. Decree of the President of the Republic of Azerbaijan on some measures for the establishment of the electronic services by the state bodies - 2011; 6. National Action Plan on Open Government in 2012-2015 - September 5, 2012; and 7. Azerbaijan joined the Open Government Partnership (OGP) - 2012 6 Open Government Data (OGD) initiative in contemporary Azerbaijan

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Importance of OGD in e-paticipation and civic engagement www.modernict.az IMPORTANCE OF OGD in E-PATICIPATION ENGAGEMENT ivic engagement can bring about improvements in decision-making, transparency, and accountability. By involving citizens in joint decisionmaking, governments can achieve more efcient and equitable outcomes. The evolution of the Internet, mobile and social networking technologies as well as other advances in ICTs have enabled the transformation of public administration, which contributed to a shift in the balance of power between citizens and the State. In addition, the breadth of information exchange has brought the vulnerable populations into the spotlight of policymaking. E-Participation is dened here as the participation of individuals together with legal entities and groups thereof in the decision-making process in the branches of government using information and communication technology (ICT) equipment8. In the context of the federal government's E-Government activities, we interpret this along two lines, i.e. This denition of e-Participation, political participation, and/or citizen involvement does not cover social "citizen commitment", for example, in self-help and charitable institutions, which primarily refer to what is often mutual concrete assistance and can hence be interpreted as some kind of output by the political as well as administrative system and which focuses on interest representation – i.e. the input – to a lesser extent. However, this distinction becomes blurred when political self-help groups ght in the political arena in order to have their interests perceived and supported. Furthermore, the term "citizen involvement" suggests that it is many individual citizens, who participate of their own accord. This view which is AND CIVIC C close to the republican democracy is, however, more of an exception. It is typically so-called "intermediaries" rather than individual citizens who act. Besides the political parties explicitly emphasized in the Basic Law, these primarily include lobby groups from the business community or worker representatives as well as other so-called non-governmental organizations (NGOs) whose importance in the political arena has increased signicantly over the past twenty years. E-participation has the potential to make citizen engagement cheaper, easier, faster, and more transparent. Achieving these goals requires that the modes of e-participation to be linked with more traditional, “ofine” tools. Participation of both citizens and Public Sector Bodies need to be actively promoted, nurtured and moderated; efforts need to be made to ensure that increased eparticipation does not lead to a marginalization of groups with less access to ICTs (e.g. the elderly, rural communities, socio-economically marginalized groups). Need for Citizen Engagement Framework There is now a greater consensus that citizen participation is a crucial building block for good governance, of which e-Governance is a critical component. Additionally, as the government considers enacting the Electronic Service Delivery Law, the possibility of e-Government projects becoming more pervasive in all domains of public services is very much feasible to observe. It marks a paradigm shift in delivery of public and essential services – from human to technology based interfaces. The use of a technology interface for delivery of services throws up many challenges, especially those related to management of change from human interface to technology interface, adoption of a particular technology, differential access to such services etc. To make the procedure successful, creating awareness in, training of and continuous engagement with both the service provider as well as the service seeker to use new tools for better service and more effective interaction with public are crucial factors. For undertaking such an engagement, it was therefore felt that a Citizen Engagement Framework9 was required, which would enable project owners/implementers to identify Objectives Opportunities 7 8. "eParticipation – Electronic Participation of Citizens and the Business Community in eGovernment" 2008 9. Framework for Citizen Engagement in e-Governance April, 2012 Open Government Data (OGD) initiative in contemporary Azerbaijan

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www.modernict.az Importance of OGD in e-paticipation and civic engagement - Techniques Outcomes Role of Open Data for Citizen Engagement Apart from being a recognized human right, citizen engagement can bring improvements in decision-making, transparency, and accountability. By involving citizens in joint decisionmaking process, governments can achieve more efcient and equitable outcomes. Despite the fact that citizen engagement in public administration is not a new idea, in the last two decades the availability, scope, more importantly, the speed of information exchange among a multitude of governance actors have changed. Constantly evolving ICTs have made the exchange of information more convenient and affordable, raised people’s awareness as well as expectations of the extent and quality of information available to the public. Moreover, the breadth of information exchange has brought the vulnerable proportion of populations to the spotlight of policy-making. The inclusion of the voices of underrepresented part of the population in policy formulation, implementation, and evaluation procedure has been a dening feature of the increased focus on citizen engagement. Clearly, civic participation should occur at all stages of policy development stages and be an iterative process, which can later give the following benets: 1. Increasing citizens’ sense of responsibility and understanding of complex issues 2. Understanding each others’ priorities and values lead to an increase in legitimacy between Public Sector Bodies and citizens, especially in implementation of policies and decisions 3. Developing more informed and more consensual policy choices 4. Increasing trust as well as sense of cooperation between citizens and Public Sector Bodies 5. Enhancing the possibilities for Public Sector Bodies to tap into the creativity and technical know-how of citizens Having well functioning OGD system can also have a signicant contribution to a wide range of actors working on particular issues. The opening of data can facilitate cooperation with stakeholders at the local or national level with partner governments (including donor governments) as well as transnational corporations10. The datasets that are clearly relevant for citizen engagements are: 1. Parliamentary Data and Legal Data (of use to parliamentarians themselves, watchdog organizations, media covering parliament and voters); 2. Public Expenditure and Budgeting Data (of interest to public sector and civil society oversight organizations, media, donor institutions, etc.); 3. Environmental Data (of interest to affected citizens, research institutions, commercial service providers, environmental CSOs, public health administration). E-participation has developed in pace with technological and political developments from public information over public consultation towards engagement along with collaboration. These have come from simple websites, blogs and FAQs to the use of social media networks on to more sophisticated and interactive systems, such as evoting or modern ICT to facilitate decision-making processes e. g. Liquid Democracy13. The various forms provide with the different needs by disseminating public service information, giving and receiving feedback, enabling reuse of PSI, on to e-voting and internet petitions. E-participation has the potential to make citizen engagement cheaper, easier, faster, and more transparent. Achieving these goals requires modes of eparticipation to be linked with more traditional, ‘ofine’ tools. Participation and engagement of both citizens and Public Sector Bodies need to be actively promoted, nurtured, and moderated. Additionally, efforts need to be made to make sure that increased e-participation does not lead to a marginalization of groups with less access to ICT. Citizen Engagement Framework for e-Governance Projects E-Governance projects are characterized by large outlays and often implemented through Public Private Partnerships. Given the limited penetration of PCs and broadband, challenges triggered by basic literacy, as well as lack of computer and English knowledge – the current currency of internet, it is important to engage with citizens and other stakeholders of e-Governance projects. 8 Open Government Data (OGD) initiative in contemporary Azerbaijan 10. Public Administration and Democratic Governance: Governments Serving Citizens January, 2007

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Importance of OGD in e-paticipation and civic engagement www.modernict.az In order to effectively engage with citizens, a detailed study of need, stakeholders, and frequency have to be undertaken. This section elaborates on the essential elements of the Citizen Engagement Framework for eGovernment projects. For the sake of getting effective engagement with citizens, all interactions must be undertaken in a well thought out and planned manner, wherein all stakeholders will have an opportunity to voice their inputs/concerns, through using proper feedback mechanism, which can later enable the state institutions to know the main reasons behind the decisions made. To help departments on implementation of such participation, a Framework for Citizen Engagement has been dened. The Framework illustrates critical elements necessary to ensure smooth and meaningful engagement and provides a brief description of each element. Diagrammatically, the Framework can be represented as under: 1. Undertake Needs Analysis 6. Institutionalize Engagement 2. Dene Degree of Engagement 9 5. Analyse Inputs & Provide Feedback 3. Create Engagement Team 4. Undertake Engagement Open Government Data (OGD) initiative in contemporary Azerbaijan

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www.modernict.az Designing OGD initiatives The signicance and objectives of promoting the use of OGD, which have been enumerated below, are: 1 Enhance Transparency and Condence DESIGNING The provision of public data in formats that allow for secondary use will facilitate independent along with adequate analysis and determinations, concerning government policies by the public or through private services. This will eventually serve to enhance the transparency of government administration and build public condence in government. OGD INITIATIVES stablishing OGD initiatives require a rethinking of the approach to governance. There are a set of strategies mentioned below in designing OGD initiatives: 2 Promote Public Participation and Collaboration between the Public and Private Sectors The use of public data by a broad range of entities and the sharing of information between the public and private sectors will encourage the provision of public services through collaboration by the public and private sectors and also support the creation of private services using the information provided by the government. This will enable the rapid and efcient provision of diverse and innovative public services and appropriate responses to the various circumstances that the country is facing, including harsh scal conditions, diversication of needs and values in various activities, and advancing information and communications technologies. 10 E 1. Get stakeholders involved early through an open process / dialogue; 2. Learn from others through benchmarking and replicating what works. Furthermore, the set of strategic plan when designing OGD initiatives includes: 1. Conduct an OGD readiness assessment; 2. Establish a long-term vision, including the expected contribution to development; 3. Identify resources; 4. Identify priorities and expected impact; 5. Set strategic goals and objectives; 6. Establish performance indicators; 7. Assess risks and develop countermeasures; 8. Dene actions. 3 Economic Stimulus and Higher Efciency in Government The provision of public data in formats that allow for secondary use will lead to the creation of various new businesses and the efcient implementation of corporate activities through each stage in the market, including data editing, processing, analysis, and so on, providing economic stimulus to the entire country. In addition, the national government and local governments will be able to increase the efciency of and advance their operations through analysis of policy decisions and the like by making use of Open Government Data. Open Government Data (OGD) initiative in contemporary Azerbaijan

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Designing OGD initiatives www.modernict.az Dening Actions of Open Government Data While the actions will be different from country to country they should all reect four core open government principles: 1 Transparency: information on government activities and decisions is open, comprehensive, timely, and freely available to the public and meets basic open data standards (e.g. raw data, machine readability). In Azerbaijan case, it joined the Extractive Industry Transparency Initiative (EITI) in 2003; it is the rst country disclosing EITI report (March, 2005); it was selected as an EITI Board member at the 3rd EITI conference in October 2006; State Oil Fund won the 2007 UN Public Service Award for Improving Transparency, Accountability and Responsiveness in Public Service for EITI; it became the rst EITI Compliant country among others candidate countries in 2009 and "EITI award 2009" for commitment to EITI principles and criteria and its achievements in EITI Implementation was awarded to Azerbaijan. 2 3 Accountability: there are rules, regulations and mechanisms in place that call upon government actors to justify their actions, act upon criticisms or requirements made of them, and accept responsibility for failure to perform with respect to laws or commitments; Citizen Participation: governments seek to mobilize citizens to engage in public debate, provide input, and make contributions that lead to more responsive, innovative and effective governance; and Technology and Innovation: governments embrace the importance of providing citizens with open access to technology, the role of new technologies in driving innovation, and the importance of increasing the capacity of citizens to use technology. 11 4 Open Government Data (OGD) initiative in contemporary Azerbaijan

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www.modernict.az Open government data readiness assessment OPEN GOVERNMENT READINESS he OGD Readiness Assessment was created to assist governments in assessing how prepared a country is to the adoption and implementation of an OGD initiative11. Specically, the assessment helps governments to identify specic areas for improvements and potential niches for the initial start up of OGD initiatives. Based on key factors the assessment can assist governments in adjusting their respective plans to consolidate strengths and address weaknesses. Currently, there is little evidence-based research available to help implementers understand what precisely might be required for the success of OGD initiatives or how to measure the impact of OGD initiatives. Different countries have differing levels of development as well as different forms and traditions of governance, making it difcult to compare them one-to-one across the board. Thus the OGD Readiness assessment is not aimed to compare or score countries at this stage. The goal of the OGD Readiness project is to allow for crosscountry comparisons for an e-government- alike index based on a better understanding of the factors involved. DATA ASSESSMENT 1. Awareness of political value of knowledge sharing and citizen engagement; 2. Commitment to good governance and OGD; 3. Attitude of high and mid-level political operators and government ofcials to opening up data - Good governance and rule of law. B. Capacity of Civil Society, the Media and Other Rousers In parallel to increasing the capacity and willingness to engage with reusing PSI on the “supply side”, capacities, interest and willingness to engage with and understand the data also often need to be built on the “demand side” of the rousers, be they citizens, CSOs, businesses or media: 1. Citizen’s awareness and understanding of ICT and OGD; 2. Citizens’ and civil society’s participation in government’s affairs; 3. Communication culture and channels; 4. Information and knowledge sharing. C. Legislative and Regulatory Framework Open, secure, and reliable exchanges of PSI are dependent on transparent, stable, and permeable legislative and regulatory frameworks accepted as being impartial by all relevant actors: 1. Provision in constitution on Access to Information; 2. Legislation on Access to Information; 3. Provision in constitution on Data Privacy; 4. Legislation on Data Privacy; 5. Legislation on Open Data; 6. Legislation on intellectual property rights in public sector information; 7. Ratication of International Treaties on Access to Information & Data Privacy. D. Institutional Framework and Organizational Conditions OGD initiatives can often challenge and be challenged by existing institutional frameworks and cultures as well as organizational conditions: 1. Administrative structures and legacies; 2. Public administration reforms; 3. Civil service reform; 4. Central coordination and support unit; T 12 Environmental Conditions in the OGD Readiness Assessment The following areas of the environmental conditions assessed in the OGD readiness assessment are: A. Political Commitment and Appropriate Policies Initiatives increasing good governance or OGD require commitment, buy-in and perseverance from the Public Sector Bodies themselves, political leaders, civil society, media, private sector actors and citizens: Open Government Data (OGD) initiative in contemporary Azerbaijan 11. "Open Data Readiness Assessment Tool" prepared by the World Bank's Open Government Data Working Group that incorporates the feedback received by January 7, 2013

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Open government data readiness assessment www.modernict.az 5. Policy coordination; 6. Intergovernmental relations; 7. Change agents and management 8. Existence of Information (Privacy) Commissioner and his or her independence from executive. E. Cultural and Human Resources Conditions Initiating, implementing and sustaining OGD initiatives will require the fostering of supportive attitudes while retaining the openness to bring in and accommodating those passively or actively resisting the initiative. Given the newness of the concept and especially of the technologies, capacity-building will often be necessary: 1. Culture, traditions and languages; 2. Gender inequality; 3. Educational levels; 4. IT literacy and number of online users; 5. IT educational facilities and programs; 6. Culture of information and knowledge sharing; 7. Prevailing organizational culture; 8. Attitude and adaptability to change, especially in public administration; 9. Managerial skills in the public sector; 10. Capacity to analyze data and utilize information; 11. Capacity to direct information ows into decision-making processes; 12. Service orientation of public administration towards citizens. F. Financial Conditions OGD initiatives do not have to be expensive. Following the concept of government as a platform there is no need for Public Sector Bodies themselves to develop shiny website for better service delivery. Using open source tools the initial steps of opening up data can be done relatively quickly and cost efciently. However to sustain an OGD initiative and to stimulate citizen engagement and the reuse of OGD careful examination of available nancial resources and proper resource planning are essential for the design and implementation of an OGD initiative. Key issues to consider include: 1. Resource allocation process; 2. National income structure; 3. Access to alternative nancing mechanisms; 4. Partnerships with private sector and other role players; 5. Available nancial resources; and 6. Positive scal environment for acquisition of IT equipment. G. Technological Infrastructure Technology is often key to the success or failure of OGD initiatives. This need not be a hindrance to “lesser developed” countries, as they are often not burdened by outdated “legacy systems” of those who introduced respective technologies earlier. The technological infrastructure needs to be geared towards the conditions of the area in question, be it in the demographic, economic, social, cultural, climatic or geographical sense. Public Sector Bodies may need to regulate all-too one-sided commercial providers in this respect. Issues include: 1. Telecommunications infrastructure; 2. Penetration rates of telecommunications (internet, mobile); 3. Urban versus rural: demographic/ geographic bias; 4. Software and hardware (legacy systems); 5. IT standards. H. Data and Information Systems To open up PSI as Open Government Data some changes to the IT systems and processes currently used for collecting, processing and publishing PSI might be necessary. The goal is to optimize these systems and processes so that Open Government Data is the result. Issues that need to be assessed: 1. Legacy of government ICT and information management systems; 2. Degree of digitalism of Public Sector Information; 3. Data collection and processing procedures; 4. Data and information standardization; 5. Data and information quality and data security; 6. Current accessibility of data and information. 13 Open Government Data (OGD) initiative in contemporary Azerbaijan

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www.modernict.az Open government data readiness assessment Benets of the OGD Readiness Assessment for Azerbaijan The following areas of the environmental conditions assessed in the OGD readiness assessment are: The OGD Readiness Assessment helps governments: 1. Assess how prepared a country is to the adoption and implementation of OGD initiatives; 2. Identify specic areas for improvements; 3. Identify potential niches for the start-up of OGD initiatives; 4. Unfolds their full potential through environmental analyses; and 5. Adjusts their respective plans to consolidate strengths and address weaknesses. Financial Resources Another part of the OGD Readiness Assessment is to assess the nancial resources. It is then essential for OGD initiatives to: 1. Identify both the nancial resources available and the nancial resources needed; 2. Build the technical implementation of OGD initiatives on eld-tested open source solutions which can dramatically reduce the costs. Identify Resources The effective design of OGD initiatives depend on a realistic assessment of resources available and resources needed for a successful implementation. The types of resources include: Human and organizational resources; Technology and infrastructure resources; and Financial resources. 14 Human and Organizational Resources Based on the Open Data Study Becky Hogge, Open Data Study, 2011, special focus must be given to civil servants. They must be empowered to actually implement and sustain OGD initiatives, which starts with the mindset that openness, transparency, accountability, and participation can play a major role in the transformation process. Technology and Infrastructure Resources Part of the OGD Readiness Assessment is to assess the technological infrastructure currently used in government agencies for data collection, processing, and dissemination. Case studies (such as the Socrata Open Government Data Benchmark Study, 2011) show that successful OGD initiatives built on open source technology and open standards are the core principle for their reliability, scalability and interoperability. Open Government Data (OGD) initiative in contemporary Azerbaijan

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Challenges, limitations and risks of OGD www.modernict.az CHALLENGES, LIMITATIONS OF OGD O pen data is an ongoing dynamic process that needs continuous maintenance and updating. Although there is a wide consensus that opens government and citizen engagement spur positive and desirable effects for society, they should not be seen as a miracle cure to solve all problems. Hence, it is important to understand that each phase of an OGD process has its own challenges, which can emerge upon different circumstances related to the social, political, and economical context. AND RISKS second phase of desolation and frustration follows, which will then evolve into a third phase of established, realistic and healthy level of expectations. It is important to be clear about the expectations and challenges of OGD, as OGD is not a magic bullet. While it holds tremendous potential for citizens’ engagement, government transparency and accountability, expectations need to be managed properly and realistically. There are limitations and potential risks of OGD, for instance, data privacy, national security constraints, conicts between rights and access to data, and problems of big data among other issues. Risks In spite of the vast advantages of OGD, there are also potential downsides and risks. Some of the risks are related to issues around privacy and data that can be personalized and misused against individuals, communities or various social groups. The publication of such data must be excluded from any OGD initiative. The right to privacy and the right to information are both essential human rights. For the most part, these two rights complement each other in holding governments accountable to individuals. But there is a potential conict between them when there is a demand for access to personal information held by government bodies. Where the two rights overlap, states need to develop mechanisms for identifying core issues to limit conicts. A World Bank research paper by David Banisar (insert reference) examines legislative and structural means to better dene and balance the rights to privacy and information. Challenges Common challenges can be encountered at three different levels: 1. The policy level: lack of top-level political support; lack of assessment of the enabling environment; lack of integration with existing legislation and regulations; poor planning of nancial resources; 2. The engagement level: poor outreach and promotion of the OGD initiative and its goals; lack of stakeholder involvement; little demand and actual usage of the data; missing or weak feedback-loops; weak citizen engagement; weekly empowered and under skilled personnel in public administration; 3. The technical level: improper or legacy IT infrastructure; lack of digital data or data itself; poor data quality and interoperability. 15 Risk Management Do governments need to establish special risk management for OGD? The risk of disclosure of information with potential to endanger national security is also often mentioned. Governments should have a schema of what type of information needs to be classied due to national security concerns. The process of classifying information should be kept entirely separate and occur prior to opening government data. Another potential risk is the unequal access and social division that OGD might introduce. Access requires knowledge and capacity which not all Limitations OGD is a rising international trend and it may be subject to the hype cycle, where after the rst phase of rising attention and high expectations, the Open Government Data (OGD) initiative in contemporary Azerbaijan

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