# p. 1

MODELS OF INSTRUCTION
"A model of teaching is a description of a learning environment."' Models provide teachers with a series of steps to use in instructional planning. The teacher may use these steps as an outline, but need not follow them exactly in all situations.
Direct Instruction Models Expository
1. Provide daily review. 2. State objectives. 3. Provide new content. 4. Allow for guided practice. 5. Provide feedback and correctives. 6. Provide independent practice.
Memory 1. State the objective. 2. Organize the content. 3. Order or categorize the content. 4. Link to the familiar (mnemonic devices). 5. Practice associations.
Lecture (older students only)
1. 2. 3. 4. Begin with hook. Use visual organizer on overhead. Ask questions while lecturing. Check students' notes for accuracy. 5. When visual organizer is complete, cover to see how much students recall.
Mastery
1. Use cue set. 2. Provide best shot. 3. Provide guided practice with feedback and correctives. 4. Allow for independent practice. 5. Provide correctives and feedback. 6. Provide closure.
Indirect instruction: Teacher and students share in the learning process.
Indirect Instruction Models
Concept Attainment
1. State objectives. 2. Define attributes of concept. 3. Provide positive and negative examples. 4. Test for attainment-feedback on examples and nonexamples. 5. Integrate the learning.
Discussion (Full class discussion of a topic)
1. State the purpose of the discussion. 2. Define the rules of the discussion. 3. Mo n it or a n d/ or d ir ec t t he discussion with key questions. 4. Summarize the discussion.
Directed Reading Thinking Activity Reciprocal Teaching
1. State the objectives. 2. Define the process. 3. Make predictions about the content to be learned. 4. Read the content. 5. Provide for student-led questioning about content. 6. Provide for student-led summarization. 7. Clarify unclear points. 8. Repeat steps 3 through 7 until content is covered.
(DRTA) Reading new material
1. State the objectives. 2. Mak e pr e d ic t i ons - r ec o rd broadest possible speculation about content. 3. Read. 4. Refine and extend. 5. Repeat steps 2 and 3. 6. Conclude.

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# p. 2

Inquiry/Discovery
1. Present the problem, question, hypothesis. 2. Gather data and investigate situation. 3. Evaluate findings/interpret data. 4. Develop a theory or inference. 5. Predict. 6. Verify predictions.
Induction
1. Observe specific examples or data. 2. Describe common elements or features. 3. Discuss other examples noting commonalities. 4. State generalization. 5. Check it against new examples.
Think, Pair, Share
1. Teacher poses a question. 2. Students think individually. 3. Each student discusses his or her answer with classmate. 4. Students share their answers with class.
Deduction
1. State generalization. 2. Gather supporting examples or evidence. 3. Test generalization to determine if it is supported by evidence. Revise or refine generalization

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