Samskara Sourabham

 

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by PA Sayed Mohammed

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p. 1

kwkvIm-c-ku-c`w ]n.-F.-sk-bvXp-ap-l-½Zv

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p. 2

kwkvIm-c-ku-c`w ]n.- F.- sk-bvXp-ap-l-½Zv

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p. 3

-A-h-Xm-cnI Im \qd-dm-­p-Im-e-t¯mfw tIc-f-¯nsâ kmwkv¡m-cnI PohnXs¯ [\y-am-¡nb A\-iz-c-{]-Xn-`-bpsS DS-a-Ø-\m-bn-cp¶p {io.-]n.-G.sk-bvXp-ap-l-½-Zv. tIc-fob kwkv¡m-c-¯nsâ \m\m-a-WvU-e-§-fn {]Im-i-]q-cn-X-amb Hcp Ncn{Xw Ipdn-¡p-hm³ At±-l-¯n\p Ign-ªp. Hcp Ncn-{X-Im-c-\mbn cwK¯p {]th-in¨ skbvXp-ap-l-½Zv Ncn-{X-cw-Ks¯ am{X-a-Ã, kmaq-ln-I-kmw-kvIm-cnI Pohn-X-¯nsâ hnhn[ taJ-e-Isf Zo]vX-am-¡p-hm³ tkmÕmlw ]cn-{i-an-¨p. kzPo-hn-X-¯n {]I-S-am-bncp¶ D¡-S-amb tZim-`n-am-\hpw, kap-Zm-b-kvt\-l-hpw, kmln-Xym-`n-cpNn-bpw, ]ptcm-K-a-\-]-chpw hnim-e-amb ho£m-K-Xnbpw kaq-l-a-²y-¯n-emI-am\w {]N-cn-¸n-¡p-hm³th­n At±-l-¯nsâ Xqen-Ibpw kwL-S-\m-]mS-hhpw \nc-´cw {]hÀ¯n-¨p. \qX-\-amb Hcp kwkv¡m-c-k-c-Wn-bn-te¡v kzk-ap-Zm-b-s¯bpw P\-Xsb BsI-¯-s¶bpw DbÀ¯pI F¶-Xm-bncp¶p At±-l-¯nsâ e£yw. B e£y-¯n-tebv¡v _lp-Zqcw bm{X-sN¿p-hm³ Ignª B PohnXw [\yw Xs¶. Hcp kwkv¡m-c-Zq-X-\m-bn-cp¶ sk-bvXp-ap-l-½-Zv _lp-ap-J-amb hnjb-§sf kw_-Ôn¨v \nc-h[n teJ-\-§Ä Fgp-Xn-bn-«p-­v. Ah-sb-ÃmwXs¶ ]e kph-\o-dp-I-fnepw hnti-jmÂ{]-Xn-I-fn-ep-ambn NnX-dn-¡n-S-¡pI-bm-Wv. Ah-bnÂ\n¶v kz`m-h-ssh-hn-[y-ap-ff GXm\pw teJ-\-§Ä am{Xw sXc-sª-Sp-¡-s¸-«-h-bmWv Cu kam-lm-cw. sk-bvXp-ap-l-½-Znsâ lrZ-bhpw {]Xn-`bpw {]Imin-¸n-¡m³ t]mcp¶ {]mXn-\n-[y-kz-`mhw Chbv¡p-­v. `mh-\m-k-¼-¶-amb Bßm-hn-jv¡m-c-amWv kmln-Xy-sa-¶p-s­¦n CXnse Hmtcm teJ-\hpw Hmtcm kmln-Xy-Ir-Xn-bm-Wv. Fs´-¶m kzm\p-`-h-¯nÂ\n¶v Dcp-¯n-cn-bm¯ H¶pw-Xs¶ sk-bvXp-ap-l-½-Zv. FgpXm-dn-Ã. Bßmhnjv¡mc-¯nsâ NqSpw shfn-¨hpw CXnse Hmtcm teJ-\¯nepw kv^pSn-¨p- \n¡p-¶-Xmbn ImWmw.

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p. 4

_mey-¯n Xs¶ sk-bvXp-ap-l-½-Zns\ Hcp kzmX-{´y-`-S-\m-¡n-am-ddn-b-Xn alm-\mb apl-½Zv A_vZp-d-ln-am³ sNep-¯nb kzm[o-\-iàn kp{]-[m-\-am-bn-cp-¶p. Bß-Kp-cp-hmb apl-½Zv A_vZp-d-ln-amsâ [ochpw XymK-]qÀ®hpw DÖz-e-amb Pohn-X-¯nsâ {]Im-i-tc-J-I-fm-Wv. "Hcp [\ym-ßm-hnsâ ambm¯ ap{Z-IÄ' F¶ teJ-\-¯n hc-¨p-Im-«p-¶-Xv. tZim-`n-am-\n-bmb sk-bvXp-ap-l-½-Zns\ Cu teJ-\-¯n \ng-en-¨p-ImWmw. "hnip-²n-bpsS IhnX' ae-bm-f-¯nse GIm-´-]-Yn-I-bmb knÌÀ tacn _\o-RvP-bpsS Imhy-k-©m-c-k-c-Wn-bp-sS-þ-{]-tXy-In¨pw amÀt¯m½m-hn-Pbw F¶ IrXn-bpsS þ Hcm-kzm-Z-\-am-Wv. AXp-t]mse F.-Un.-l-cniÀ½-bpsS kmln-Xy-Po-hn-Xs¯ kw_-Ôn¨ asäm-cm-kzm-Z\w "kmln-Xy¯-d-hm-«nse Hcp henb a\p-jy³' F¶ teJ-\-¯n-eqsS Ah-X-cn-¸n-¨n-cn¡p-¶p. Cu c­p teJ-\-§-fnepw "am¸n-f-km-lnXyw' F¶ asämcp teJ\-¯n-ep-ambn kmln-Xy-\n-cq-]-I-\mb sk-bvXp-ap-l-½-ZnZv {]Im-in-¨p\n¡p-¶p. "_u²-kw-kv¡mcw {]mNo-\-tI-c-f-¯nÂ', "kmc-k-k-©m-cn-IÄ' F¶nh sk-bvXp-ap-l-½-Znsâ \nZÀi-\-§-fm-Wv. sImSp-§-Ãq-cnse Hcp apÉow ]f-fn-bpsS kao-]-¯p-ff _p²-hn-{Klw teJ-I³ ]cn-tim-[n-¡p¶-Xnsâ Nn{X-t¯m-Sp-Iq-Sn-bm-bn-cp¶p ChnsS BZyw-]-dª teJ\w {]kn-²o-I-cn-¨n-cp-¶-Xv. sk-bvXp-ap-l-½-Znsâ P·-tZ-i-¯p-X-s¶-bp-ff "kmbvhnsâ ]ffn' bpsS ]cn-k-c-¯n H¶n-e-[nIw _p²-hn-{K-l-§Ä D­m-bn-cp-¶p-sh¶v At±lw ]e-t¸mgpw ]d-ªp-tI-«n-«p-­v. Cu ASp¯ Ah-k-c-¯n ar¯n-Im-\nÀ½n-X-amb _u²-cq-]-§Ä Fdn-bmSv {]tZ-i¯p-\n¶pv Is­-Sp-¡p-Ibpw sNbvXn-«p-­v. A§s\ hym]-I-am-bn-cp¶ _p²-a-X-{]-Nm-c-¯nsâ kmwkv¡m-cnI kn²n-I-fn-te¡v eLp-hmb tXmXnse-¦nepw shfn¨w hoip-¶-XmWv Cu teJ-\w. kmc-k-k-©m-cn-I-fpsS kml-kn-I-bm-{X-IÄ Ncn-{Xm-t\z-jn-IÄ¡v F¶pw Dd-hp-h-äm¯ Dd-hn-S-

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p. 5

amWv. B Dd-hn-Sw-tX-Sn-bp-ff sNdnb bm{X-bmWv B \ma-t[-b-¯n-ep-ff c­m-as¯ teJ-\w. Ncn-{Xm-t\z-jn-bmb skbvXp-ap-l-½-Zn\v Ncn-{X-Im-c-·m-tcm-Sp-ff BZchpw, Ah-cpsS kw`m-h-\-I-sf-¡p-dn-¨p-ff A`n-am-\hpw sXfn-ªp\n¡p¶ c­p teJ-\-§-fmWv "Cfw-Ipfw Ipª³]n-ff', "tSmb³_n' F¶n-h. Cfw-Ipfw tIc-f-N-cn-{X-Im-c-\m-sW-¦n tSmb³_n hniz-N-cn-{XIm-c-\m-Wv. c­p-t]cpw AX-Xp-a-WvU-e-§-fn sNbvXn-«p-ff kw`m-h\ \nXy-kva-c-Wo-b-a-s{X. Cu Ncn-{X-Im-c-·m-cpsS A`n-{]m-b-§-fn ]e-Xnt\mSpw \mw hntbm-Pn-t¨-¡mw. F¦nepw Ah-cpsS kaÀ¸-W-_p-²n-tbm-SpIq-Snb Kth-j-W-s¯-bpw, [otcm-Zm-¯-amb ho£-W-s¯bpw _lp-am-\n¡m-Xn-cn-¡m³ h¿. B A\-iz-c-[n-j-Wm-im-en-Isf sk-bvXp-ap-l-½-Zv AÀln-¡p¶ hn[w BZ-cn-¨n-cn-¡p-¶p. hen-sbmcp hmb-\-{]n-b-\m-bn-cp¶p sk-bvXp-ap-l-½-Zv. {KÙ-im-eIsf At±lw tZhm-e-b-§-fmbn Icp-Xn. B kc-kz-Xo-t£-{X-§-tfm-Sp-ff sk-bvXp-ap-l-½-Znsâ AXyp-Zm-c-amb AÀ¨-\m-`m-hs¯ shfn-s¸-Sp-¯p¶ teJ-\-amWv "JpZm-_Iv£nsâ \nXy-kvam-c-I-¯nÂ'. Is¿-gp-¯p-{]-Xn-IÄ DÄs¸sS {KÙ-§Ä Fhn-sS-\n¶v e`n-¨mepw AXp tiJ-cn-¡pI F¶Xv Pohn-X-{h-ambn FSp¯v hen-sbmcp hniz-{K-Ù-tImiw kzcq-]n¨ JpZm_Iv£nsâ {KÙ-im-e-bn-te¡p \S-¯nb XoÀ°m-S-\-amWv CXnse {]Xn]m-Zyw. {KÙ-im-e-I-tfm-Sp-ff skbvXp-ap-l-½-Znsâ Bcm-[-\m-a-t\m-`mhw {Xkn-¨p-\n¡p¶ Cu teJ-\w, A\p-hm-N-I-tcbpw Cu XoÀ°-bm-{X-bnte¡p amSn-hn-fn-¡p-¶-Xm-Wv. PohnXw [\y-am-bn-¯o-cp-¶-Xp-Xs¶ {KÙ]m-cm-b-W-¯n-eq-sS-bm-sW¶v "[\y-Po-hnXw' F¶ asämcp teJ-\-¯n kaÀ°n-¡p-Ibpw sNbvXn-cn-¡p-¶p. Ah-km-\-ambn tNÀ¯n-«p-ff c­p-te-J-\-§Ä þ "ss{IkvX-hcpw ae-bm-f-]-{X-§fpw', "hnÚm-\-tIm-i-N-cn{Xw'þ sk-bvXp-ap-l-½-Znsâ hmb-

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p. 6

\m-io-e-¯nsâ k´-Xn-I-fm-Wv. c­pw hnÚm-\-{]-[m-\-§-fm-Wv. ae-bmf ]{X-am-kn-I-I-fpsS BZy-Im-e-N-cn-{Xhpw, hnÚm-\-tIm-i-§-fpsS BhnÀ`m-hhpw Adn-bp-¶-Xn\v B teJ-\-§Ä klm-bn-¡pw.-B-[p-\nI tIcf kwkvIm-c-¯nsâ hfÀ¨-bn ss{IkvX-hÀ \ÂIn-bn-«p-ff kw`mh-\-IÄ {]mXx-kvac - -Wo-b-§-fm-Wv. AXn AXn-{]-[m-\-am-b Hcp thZnbs{X ]{X-am-kn-I-IÄ. \½psS ho£-W-N-{I-hm-fs¯ hnI-kz-c-am-¡phm³ Cu teJ-\-§Ä D]-I-cn-¡pw. s]mXpsh ]d-ªm kwkvIm-c¯nsâ hnhn[ aWvU-e-§sf XgpIn {]h-ln-¡p¶ Hcp Znhy-X-cw-Kn-WnbpsS aÀ½-cm-e]w Cu {KÙ-¯n-eqsS k©-cn-¡p¶ A\p-hm-N-I\v {ihn¡p-hm³ Ign-bpw. efn-Xhpw `mh-\nÀ½-e-hp-amb Hcp `mjm-ssi-en-bm A\p-{K-lo-X\mWv skbvXp-ap-l-½-Zv. Ccp-]-Xmw-\q-d-dm-­nsâ aq¶mw ]mZ-¯n aebmf `mjsb A\p-{K-ln¨ c­p Znhy-tIm-In-e-§-fm-bn-cp¶p hb-emdpw skbvXp-ap-l-½-Zpw. HcmÄ Imhy-Km-\-§Ä IqP\w sNbvXp. atd-d-bmÄ \nc-h-Zy-kp-µ-c-amb KZy-ssi-en-bn Be-]n-¨p. c­p i_vZ-§fpw Htc Ime¯v \ne¨p F¶Xv AÀ°-h-¯m-bn-t¯m-¶p-¶p. {]IrXn AXn \nKql\w sNbvXn-«p-ff AÀ°-sa-s´¶v I­p-]n-Sn-¡p¶ {]iv\w Ime¯n\p hn«p-sIm-Sp-¡p-I. skbvXp-ap-l-½-Znsâ apKvZ-[-`m-h-\-I-f-S-§nb Cu D]-\ym-k-k-am-lmcw aqI-th-Z-\-tbmSpw Nmcn-XmÀ°y-t¯m-Spw-IqSn Rm³ klr-Z-b-k-a£w Ah-X-cn-¸n-¨p-sIm-f-fp-¶p. ]\-§mSv 30-þ1þ1976 ]n.- sI.- tKm-]m-e-Ir-jvW³

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p. 7

-D-f-f-S¡w Hcp [\ym-ßm-hnsâ ambm¯ ap{Z-IÄ ..................... 7 hnip-²n-bpsS IhnX ............................................... 16 kmln-Xy-¯-d-hm-«nse Hcp henb a\p-jy³ ........... 22 -am-¸n-f-km-lnXyw ..................................................... 26 -_u-²-kw-kv¡mcw {]mNo\-tI-c-f-¯nÂ................. 33 kmc-k-k-©m-cn-IÄ ................................................ 40 Cfw-Ipfw Ipª³]n-ff ........................................ 47 tSmb³_n............................................................... 50 -Jp-Zm-_Iv£nsâ \nXy-kvam-c-I-¯Nâ ................... 54 [\y-Po-hnXw............................................................ 60 ss{I-kvX-hcpw ae-bm-f-]-{X-§fpw .......................... 64 hn-PvRm-\-tImi-N-cn{Xw .......................................... 70 tZ-io-tbmÂ{K-Y-\hpw \yq\-]-£§ - fpw.................. 76 alm-\mb Hcp tIc-fob imkv{X-Ú³ ................. 80

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p. 8

Hcp [\ym-ßm-hnsâ ambm¯ ap{Z-IÄ BßmÀ°-amb Bi-b-ZmÀVyw sIm­v P\-X-bpsS kZvhnIm-c§Ä¡v {]tNm-Z\w \ÂIp-Ibpw, AXnÂ\n¶v DÛq-X-amb hnNm-c-hn-¹hs¯ tZiob Pohn-X-¯n-te¡v Xncn-¨p-hn-Sp-Ibpw sNbvXn-«p-ff {]Xn-`mim-en-Isf C³Uy³ cmjv{So-b-a-WvU-e-¯n hf-sc-b-[nIw Is­-¶p-hcn-Ã. s]s«¶p ]d-bp-¶-h-cn dmw taml³dmbv, _me-Kw-Km-[-c-Xn-e-I³, tKm]m-e-Ir-jvW-tKm-J-se, auem\m apl-½-Z-en, alm-ßm-Km-Ôn, ]WvUnäv Ph-lÀem s\lvdp XpS-§n-b-hÀ sI«-S-§m¯ kmwkv¡m-cnI ssNX\yw Xe-ap-d-I-fn-te¡v kw`m-h\ sNbvX-h-cm-Wv. kaq-l-¯nsâ Bh-iy-§-tfbpw [mc-W-I-tfbpw ZmÀi-\n-I-`m-h-t¯msS t\m¡n-¡m-WpIbpw AXn-\-\p-kr-X-ambn kzX-kn-²-amb Ign-hp-IÄ D]-tbm-K-s¸-Sp-¯pIbpw sNbvXn-«p-ff [otcm-Zm-¯-cn kvacn-¡-s¸-Sp¶ \ma-amWv ]tc-X\mb apl-½Zv A_vZp-d-ln-am³ kmln-_n-sâ-Xv. Cu Xe-ap-d-bnÂ-\n-¶v, c­p hymg-h-«-¡m-e-¯n-\p-ap-¼p-ff kmaq-ly-a-WvU-es¯ A]-{K-Y-\m-ßI-ambn kao-]n-¨m apl-½Zv A_vZp-d-ln-am³ \nÀÆ-ln¨ tkh-\-¯nsâ Afhv F´m-sW¶v Gsd-¡psd a\-Ên-em-Ipw. ISp¯ bmYm-Øn-Xn-IXzw t{]cW sNep-¯n-bn-cp¶ kaq-l-L-S-\-bnÂ\n¶v ]pXnb {]h-W-X-IÄ DÄs¡m-f-fm³ Bthiw ]q­ B [À½-`-S\v I­-Im-IoÀ®-§-fmb amÀ¤-§-fmWv Xpd-¶p-In-S-¶n-cp-¶-Xv. tkh\w Hcp Ih-N-sa-¶-t]mse Im¯p-kq-£n-¡p-Ibpw [À½m-[n-jvTn-X-amb kmaq-ly-hn-¹-h-¯n B Ih-N-a-Wnªv BÀÖ-h-`m-h-t¯msS a\p-jy-\o-Xn-¡mbn s]mcp-Xp-Ibpw sNbvX apl-½Zv A_vZp-d-ln-amsâ kw`m-h-\-IÄ \ndª PohnXw HuÕp-Iy-ap-ff ]pXnb Xe-ap-dbv¡v Bthiw \ÂIp-¶-Xm-Wv. 7

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p. 9

Pohn-X-¯nsâ sshhn-[y-ap-ff taJe-I-fn Bªp \S-¶n-«p-ff Hcp t]mcm-fn-bpsS Bß-ss[cyw A_vZp-d-ln-am\n I­n-cp-¶p. a\-Êm£n-¡p-t¯-ev¡msX, Xsâ BZÀi-_-Ô-§Ä¡v De-¨n kw`-hn-¡m-¯hn[w tkh\w sN¿p-t¼m-sg-Ãmw, kapÂIr-jvS-amb ssZh-hn-izm-k¯m At±lw t{]cn-X-\m-bn-cp-¶p. hyàn kaq-l-¯n Hcp {]iv\ambn amdp-t¼mÄ _mly-{]-tNm-Z-\-§ÄsIm­v ]co-£-W-§Ä¡v hnt[b-\m-Im-dp-­v. {]kvXpX ]co-£-W-§sf ip²-amb hnIm-c-`m-h-t¯msS AXn-Po-hn-¨-hÀt¡ BZÀi-t¸m-cm-«-¯n hnP-bn-¡m³ Ign-ªn-«p-f-fp. cmjv{So-b-¯nse hnIm-c-Po-hn-X-¯n Akm-am-\y-[o-c-\mbn DbÀ¶p\n¡p-t¼mgpw DÂIr-jvS-§-fmb hnNm-c-[m-c-IÄ D±o-]n-¸n¨ Hcp henb a\p-jy³ IqSn-bm-bn-cp¶p P\m_v apl-½Zv A_vZp-d-ln-am³ kmln-_v. cmPy-N-cn-{X-¯n H¶n-e-[nIw aWvU-e-§-fn hyànXzw t\Sn-sb-Sp¯ apl-½Zv A_vZp-d-ln-am³ kmln-_ns\ kw_-Ôn¨v ]Tn-¡W-sa-¦n ]e amÀ¤-§-fn-eq-sSbpw kao-]n-t¡-­n-bn-cn-¡p-¶p. kmaq-lytk-h-\-¯nse ]e If-cn-Ifpw ]tc-Xsâ ImÂs¸-cp-am-äw-sIm­v [\y-ambn-«p-f-f-Xm-Wv. hnZymÀ°n, tbm²m-hv, kap-Zm-b-]-cn-jv¡À¯m-hv, BZÀiXo-{h-hm-Zn, kmwkvIm-cn-I-{]-hÀ¯-I³ F¶n-§-s\-bp-ff aWvU-e-§-fn sXfnª apJ-t¯msS ]eÀ¡pw At±-ls¯ ]cn-N-b-s¸-Sp-hm³ Ignªn-«p-­v. k¦Â]-§-tf-¡mÄ bmYmÀ°y-§Ä¡v hne-bn-cp-¯nb apl½Zv A_vZp-d-ln-amsâ PohnXw Hcp Xpd¶ ]pkvX-I-am-bn-cp-¶p. ad¨p ]nSn-¡m-hp-¶-sXm¶pw B ]pkvX-I-¯nsâ Xmfp-I-fn Fgp-Xn-bn-cp-¶n-Ã. AXnse A²ym-b-§Ä kXy-k-Ô-amb CuSp-dd hnIm-c-§-fn s\bvsXSp-¯-Xm-Wv. AXnse hcn-IsfÃmw lrZ-b-¯nsâ `mj-bn-emWv Ipdn-¨p-sh¨n-cn-¡p-¶-Xv. Hcp hnZymÀ°n F¶ \nebv¡v Cu \qd-dm-­nsâ {]Ya L«¯n ]e ]pXnb hnh-c-§-fpw Adn-bm³ B{K-ln-¨n-cp¶ hnÚm-\-Zm8

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p. 10

ln-bm-bn-cp¶p At±-lw. hnZym-eb`n¯n-¡-¸p-d-¯p-ff hnim-e-amb temIs¯ ssI F¯n-¸n-Sn-¡m³ At±-l-¯n-¶m-{K-l-ap-­m-bn-cp-¶p. XnIª aX-`-ànbpw AXn-¶-\p-Kp-W-amb Pohn-X-N-cy-Ifpw "Iymc-IvSÀ' F¶ Aaq-ey-k-¼¯v At±-l-¯n\v k¼m-Zn-¨p-sIm-Sp-¯p, kvIqÄ hnZym`ym-km-\-´cw hmWn-b-¼mSn (tIm-gn-t¡m-Sv) _mk anjy³ tImtf-Pv, a{Zmkv apl-½-Z³ tImtf-Pv, UÂln Pman-bm-an-Ãnbm F¶o Øm]-\-§-fneqsS [\y-amb hnZymÀ°n-Po-hnXw \bn¨p apt¶m«p \o§nb A_vZp-dln-am³ kmln-_n sXfn-ªp-I­ kÂkz-`mhw hfÀ¶p-h-cp¶ Hcp alm-]p-cp-jsâ BK-a-\-ap-{Z-bmbn klr-Z-b-temIw ]cn-K-Wn-¨p. hnZymÀ°n-Po-hn-X-Im-e¯v kXoÀ°y-cpsS IjvS-¸m-Sp-IÄ¡v ]cn-lmcw ImWp-¶-Xn-\pw ]nt¶m-¡-\n-e-bn InS-¡p¶ Xsâ kap-Zm-b-¯nsâ hnZym-`ym-k-Im-cy-§-fn {i²n-¡p-¶-Xn\pw e`n¨ kµÀ`-§-sfm¶pw At±lw ]mgm-¡n-bn-Ã. A_vZp-d-ln-am³ kmln_v Hcp kmap-Zm-bnI ]cnjv¡À¯m-hmbn cq]-s¸-«p-h-cp¶ FÃm km²y-X-Ifpw A¶p sXfn-ªp-I­n-cp-¶p. kap-Zmb ]cn-jv¡À¯m-¡-fmb la-Zm\n ssiJv, h¡w A_vZpÄ JmZÀ auehn F¶n-h-cpsS k¼À¡w , B[p-\nI hnZym-`ym-k¯nsâ t{]c-Wm-i-àn, aX-{]-Nm-c-I-·m-cp-sS-bn-S-bn-ep-­m-bn-cp¶ Nn´m-]c-amb kwhmZw F¶o kml-N-cy-§Ä kzX-{´-Nn-´-I-\mb A_vZp-d-lnamsâ {]hÀ¯-\-§Ä¡v Ah-ew_w \ÂIn. tIc-f-¯nsâ ]pd-t¯bv¡v D]-cn-]-T-\mÀ°w t]mb-t¸mÄ {]kn-²-cmb alm-]-WvUn-X-·m-cp-ambn At±lw _Ô-s¸-«p. C´y-bnse CÉm-an-I-kw-kvIm-c-¯nsâ B[p-\nI Imes¯ hàm-¡-fmb ssiJpÂln-´v, sk¿Zv apÀ¯-f-a-Jp-ssc-in, Al-½Zv aZ-\n, auem\m BkmZv XpS-§n-b-h-cpsS Hu¶-Xy-ap-ff hyànPo-hn-Xw apl-½Zv A_vZp-d-ln-am³ kmln-_ns\ lTm-Zm-IÀjn-¨p. temI{]-i-kvXc - mb Cu alm-]-WvUn-X·mÀ tZio-b-{]-Øm-\-¯nsâ kap-¶-Xhn-[m-Xm-¡-fm-bn-cp-¶p. C³Uy-bn hfÀ¶ CÉm-an-I-kw-kvIm-c-¯nsâ hniz-kvX-cmb kq£n-¸p-Imcpw hnN-£-W-cmb X¯z-Nn-´-I³amcpw tZio9

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p. 11

b-{]-Øm-\-¯nsâ iàn-tI-{µ-§-fmbn \ne-sIm-f-fp-¶-Xp-I-­-t¸mÄ apl½Zv A_vZp-d-ln-am³ kmln-_v, B Bßo-b-{]-Xm-]-hm-·m-cpsS k¼À¡w Hcp alm-`m-Ky-ambn Icp-Xn. kao-]-\-¯n ka-Nn-¯-X, hnim-e-am-b BZÀi-t{]-aw, \nkzmÀ°-amb tkh-\-k-¶-²-X, ASn-bp-d¨ kzcm-Pykvt\lw F¶o kÂKp-W-§Ä aqe-[-\-ambn kq£n-¨n-cp¶ De-am-¡Ä Bßo-b-{]-Xm-]-¯nsâ B[n-Im-cnItI-{µ-§-fn \n¶n-d§n tZio-b-k-a-c¯n\v t\XrXzw \ÂIn-b-t¸mÄ apl-½Zv A_vZp-d-ln-am³ kmln-_v Xsâ amÀ¤hpw e£yhpw AXn Is­-¯n. At±lw {]Øm-\-hp-ambn Aenªp-tNÀ¶p. ka-c-¯nsâ {]hm-l-¯n-te¡v At±lw Cd-§n-¡-gn-ªp. Xnc-t¡-dnb Pohn-X-¯nsâ kmc-Yn-bmbn«mWv ac-Ww-h-scbpw ]n¶o-S-t±ls¯ ImWp-¶X - v. `mc-X-kzm-X-{´y-k-a-c-¯n\v Du¡pw Dincpw \ÂInb kp{]-kn-²amb Jnem-^¯v {]t£m-`-W-amWv Aán-]-co-£-W-¯n-te¡v A_vZp-d-lnam³ kmln-_ns\ sIms­-¯n-¨-Xv. C´y³ cmjv{So-b-cw-Ks¯ `ojvamNm-cy-\mb auem\m apl-½-Z-en-bpsS ka-cm-lzm\w Bth-i-]qÀÆw DÄs¡m­ A_vZp-d-ln-am³ kmln_v D]-cn-]-T\w sIm­v D­m-tb-¡mhp¶ D¶-X-]-Z-hn-sb-¸än Btem-Nn-¡m³ an\-s¡-«n-Ã. tZio-b-hn-Zym-`ymk Øm]-\-amb ""Pmanbm anÃnbm''bpsS A¦-W-¯nÂsh-¨v, tImtfPv _lnjv¡-cn¨v cwK-t¯-¡n-d-§n-b-t¸mÄ tZhv_´ - nse ssiJq ln´v apl-½Zp lÊ\pw, auem\m ju¡-¯-enbpw hnIm-c-hm-bvt]msS apÉow hnZymÀ°n-`-S-·mÀ¡v \ÂInb Bth-i-`-cn-X-amb bm{X-b-b-¸p-{]-kw-K¯nse {]k-à-`m-K-an-Xm-Wv: ""C³Uy-bpsS ]qÀ®-kzm-X-{´yhpw, CÉm-ansâ atlm-¶-X-]-Zhnbpw \n§-fpsS ssII-fn kpc-£n-X-am-Wv. \½psS cmPys¯ AS-¡n`-cn-¨p-sIm-­n-cn-¡p¶ hntZ-i-i-àn-Isf Xpc-¯p-¶-XnÂ, kzmX-{´y¯n\pw kmtlm-Z-cy-¯n\pw hne Iev]n-¡p¶ CÉmw, \n§Ä¡p {]tNm10

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p. 12

Z\w \ÂIpw.-A-Xn-s\-Xn-cmb Hcp iàn¡pw \n§-fpsS Bß-_-es¯ Iog-S-¡p-hm³ Ign-bp-I-bn-Ã. Pohn-X-¯nepw, {]hr-¯n-bnepw \n§Ä ]peÀ¯p¶ kXy-k-Ô-Xbpw, A`n-am-\hpw \½psS cmPy-¯nsâ A`n-am\-ambn hne Iev]n-¡p¶ Imew AXn-hn-Zq-c-a-Ã. sshj-ay-ap-ff XymKw, AXp kln-¡p-hm-\p-ff a\-¡-cp¯v Ch \n§Ä¡p-­m-Is«'' Bth-i-I-c-amb Cu Blzm\w {]mhÀ¯n-I-am-¡m³ addp k¶-²-`S-·m-tcm-sSm¸w apl-½Zv A_vZp-d-ln-am³ kmln-_pw {]hÀ¯-\-a-WvU-e¯n-te¡v IpXn-s¨-¯n. Jnem-^-¯nsâ tI{µ-t\-XrXzw X¶n-eÀ¸n¨ D¯c-hm-Zn-Xz-¯nsâ I\-¯-`m-cw, cwK-s¯-¯n-b-t¸m-gmWv A_vZp-d-ln-am³ kmln-_n\v t_m²y-am-b-Xv. auem\m apl-½-Z-en-bpsS hoc-KÀÖ\w Ft¸m-gpw At±-l-¯nsâ {ih-W-§-fn Ae-b-Sn-¨n-cp-¶p. apkÂam-sâbpw, C³Uy-bp-sS-bpw, tamN\w F§ns\ t\Sn-sb-Sp¡mw?þ AXm-bncp¶p At±-ls¯ D¡-WvTm-Ip-e-\m-¡n-bn-cp-¶-Xv. ae-_m-dnse ImÀjnI-hr-¯n-bn GÀs¸-«n-cp¶ \nÀ²-\-cpw, aX-`-à-cp-am-bn-cp¶ apÉo-an-§Ä Jnem-^-¯n-s\-bpw, \nÊ-l-I-c-W-{]-Øm-\-s¯bpw AXpÄs¡m-f-fp¶ AÀ°-¯n ssIImcyw sN¿m-Xm-b-t¸mÄ \nÀ`m-Ky-I-c-amb Nne ]mI-¸ng-IÄ kw`-hn-¨p. Cu L«-§-fn-seÃmw `à-\mb A_vZp-d-ln-am³kmln_v \a-kv¡m-c-th-f-I-fn Ic-ªp-{]mÀ°n-¡m-dp-­m-bn-cp-¶p, F¶mWv At±-l-¯nsâ Gd-dhpw ASp¯ kl-{]-hÀ¯-IÀ ]d-bp-¶-Xv. ]e-t¸mgpw [ym\-\n-a-á-\mbn ImWm-dp-ff A_vZp-d-ln-am³ kmln-_n-s\t¸mse A{Xbpw DevI-WvTbpw, thh-em-Xnbpw Jnem-^¯v {]t£m-`-W¯n ad-dmÀ¡pw D­m-bn-cp-¶n-Ã. Xsâ alm-·m-cmb t\Xm-¡-·m-cpsSbpw {]Øm-\-¯n-sâbpw ap¼n Imcy-§Ä hni-Zo-I-cn-¡p-¶-Xp-hscbpw At±lw hnjm-Z-aq-I-\mbn Xs¶ Ign-ªp-Iq-Sn-bn-cp-¶p. C³UybpsS hntam-N-\-¯n-\p-th­n Bcw-`n¨ al-¯mb ImÀjn-I-hn-¹h - hpw, AXn\p {]tNm-Z\w \ÂInb Jnem-^¯v {]t£m-`-Whpw Ae-kn-¸n-cn11

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p. 13

ªp-t]m-btÃm F¶ tJZw At±-l-¯nsâ a\-Êns\ ]e-hn-[-¯nepw Ae-«n-bn-cp-¶p. Jnem-^¯p {]t£m-`-W-¯n-\p-tijw Ai-c-W-cmb \m«pImÀ¡p-th­n Zpcn-Xm-izmkw kwL-Sn-¸n-¡p-¶-Xnepw AJn-te-´ym-t\-Xm¡-·m-cpsS BßmÀ°-amb kl-I-cWw t\Sp-¶-Xnepw A_vZp-d-lnam³km-ln_v hnP-bn-¨p. tIm¬{K-Ênsâ tIm¡-\U kt½-f-\-¯n A_vZp-d-ln-am³km-ln_v sNbvX hnIm-c-`-cn-X-amb {]kwKw Ic-f-en-bn-¸n¡-¯-¡-Xm-bn-cp-¶p. Pam-A¯v De-am-ln-µnsâ P\-d sk{I-«dn apln-bp±o³ Al-½-Zvkm-ln-_ns\ ae-_m-dn-te¡v sIm­p-h-cp-¶-Xn\v A_vZp-d-lnam³km-ln_nsâ {iaw {]tbm-P-\-s¸-«p. ae-_m-dnse Zpcn-Xm-izm-k-{]hÀ¯-\-¯n\v Poh-Im-cp-Wy-{]-Z-amb t\XrXzw \ÂInb tI{µ-Jn-em-^¯v kwL-S-\-bp-sS-bpw, DZm-c-a-Xn-I-fmb hyàn-I-fp-sSbpw ]n¶nse t{]c-Wmiàn A_vZp-d-ln-am³km-ln_mbn-cp-¶p. ka-c-¯n ]s¦-Sp¯ ]etcbpw \mSp-I-S-¯n-b-t¸mÄ AXn-s\-Xn-cmbn i_vZ-ap-bÀ¯m³ At±-l¯nsâ \mhpw, Xqen-Ibpw \nÀ`bw Nen-¨p. Pbn Pohn-X-¯n-\n-S-bn tZio-b-{]-Øm-\-s¯-bpw, apÉow kap-Zm-b-s¯bpw hfÀ¯p-¶-Xn\v Hcp ]{X-¯nsâ Bhiyw At±-l-¯n\v t_m²yw h¶n-cp-¶p. ""AÂ-þ-A-ao³'' F¶ ]{Xw At±-l-¯nsâ `mh-\-bn cq]w sIm­-Xm-Wv. kztZ-im-`nam\n cma-Ir-jvW-]n-f-fbv¡pw, h¡w A_vZpÄ JmZÀ aue-hn¡pw, tIkcn F. _me-Ir-jvW-]n-f-fbv¡pw tijw Gd-dhpw IqSp-X {]Xn-_Ô-X-IÄ t\cn-tS-­n-h¶ ae-bm-f-`m-j-bnse {]apJ ]{Xm-[n-]-cmWv AÂþ-A-ao³ ]{Xm-[n-]À A_vZp-d-ln-am³. AÂ-þ-A-ao³ tZio-b-{]-Øm-\-¯nsâ Pnlz-bm-bn-cp-¶p. BZÀi-[o-c-X-tbmsS ]d-bm-\p-f-fXv Xpd-s¶-gp-Xn-bn-cp¶ AÂ-þ-A-ao³ 1928 emWv Bcw-`n-¨-Xv. C¶p t]sc-Sp¯p Ign-ªn-«p-ff {]i-kvXc - mb kmwkvIm-cn-I-{]-hÀ¯-IÀ AÂ-þ-A-ao-\p-ambn ]tcm-£-ambpw {]Xy-£12

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p. 14

ambpw _Ô-s¸-«-h-cm-Wv. tZio-b-{]-iv\-t¯m-sSm¸w Nnt´m-±o-]-I-§-fmb kmwkvIm-cn-I-{]-iv\-§fpw AÂ-þ-A-ao-\n ssIImcyw sNbvXn-cp-¶p. DÖz-e-\mb cmjv{So-b-t\-Xm-hmbn Adn-b-s¸-«n-cp¶ P\m_v apl-½Zv A_vZp-d-ln-am³km-ln_nsâ kmkvIm-cn-I-{]-Xn-`-bpsS \nZÀi-\w-Iq-Sn-bmbn-cp¶p AÂ-þ-A-ao³. apÉnw hnZym-`ymkw F§ns\ hfÀ¯n-s¡m-­p-h-c-Ww, aXm\p-jvTm-\-§Ä F§ns\ {]mhÀ¯n-I-am-¡-Ww, B[p-\nI ImgvN-¸m-Sp-IÄ apÉow-IÄ F§ns\ ]n´p-S-c-Ww, km¼-¯n-I-L-S-\-bnse ]en-im-{]iv\s¯ apÉnw kap-Zmbw F§ns\ ho£n-¡-Ww, hnip² JpÀ-B³ amXr-`m-j-bn-eqsS {Kln-¡m³ Fs´Ãmw amÀ¤-§Ä kzoI-cn-¡Ww F¶n§s\ ]e {]iv\-§fpw AÂ-þ-A-ao-\n NÀ¨ sN¿-s¸-«n-cp-¶p. Hmtcm hnj-b-s¯-Êw-_-Ôn¨p {]kn-²o-I-cn-¨n-cp¶ ]WvUn-tXm-Nn-X-amb teJ-\§fpw , Btcm-Ky-I-c-§-fmb JWvU-\-a-WvU-\-§-fpw, AÂ-þ-A-ao³ ]{X¯n\p P\-{]oXn k¼m-Zn-¨p-sIm-Sp-¯p. temI-hn-Úm-\-im-J-bn ]q¯phn-cn-bp¶ ]pXnb \à Imcy-§-sfÃmw apÉow P\-km-am-\y-¯n\v ]cn-N-bs¸-Sp-¯p-¶-Xn AÂ-þ-A-ao³ hln¨ ]¦v anI-¨-Xm-Wv. kap-Zm-b-¯nse Dev]-Xn-jvWp-¡-fmb aX-]-WvUn-X-·mÀ¡pw, `mjm-kvt\-ln-IÄ¡pw, hnZym-`ym-k-{]-hÀ¯-I-·mÀ¡pw AÂ-A-ao³ henb tXmXn {]tNm-Z\w \ÂIn-bn-cp-¶p. ae-bm-f-`m-j-bn-te¡v Cw¥ojv ]Z-§-fpsS ]cn-`m-jm-k¼¯v hfÀ¯n-s¡m-­p-h-¶-Xnepw AÂ-þ-A-ao\v henb ]¦p-­v. ]p¯³ ssien-Ifpw, {]tbm-K-§fpw `mjm-km-ln-Xy-¯n-te¡v kw`m-h\ sNbvX AÂ-þ-A-aosâ ]n¶n Hcp kmwkvIm-cnI taJe Xs¶ DbÀ¶p-h-¶n-cp¶p. 1939  AÂ-þ-A-ao³ KhÀs½-­nsâ {]Xn-_-Ô-§Ä XcWw sN¿m³ \nhr-¯n-bn-ÃmsX \ndp-¯Â sNt¿-­n-h-¶p. bp²-ap-J-¯p-\nev¡p¶ t]mcm-fn-sb-t¸mse Hcp hymg-h-«-¡mew {]Xn-_-Ô-§fpw kln¨p apl-½Zv A_vZp-d-ln-am³ AÂ-þ-A-ao³ {]kn-²o-I-cn-¨p. B Ime13

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p. 15

§-fn AÂ-þ-A-aos\ Ae-¦-cn-¨n-cp¶ apJ-{]-kw-K-§-sfÃmw tIc-f¯nse tZio-b-k-a-c-¯n\p hne-s¸-«-Xm-bn-cp-¶p. AÂ-þ-A-ao-\n-eqsS apl½Zv A_vZp-d-ln-am³ kmln_v F¶ [otcm-Zm-¯-\mb cm{ão-b-t\-Xm-hns\-bpw, AXn-\-Xo-X-ambn kvt\l-hm-bvt]msS ]p©n-cn-¨p-\n-ev¡p¶ a\pjy-kvt\-ln-bmb kmwkvIm-cnI \mb-I-t\bpw \ap¡p ImWm³ Ign-bpw. hmÄ«-b-sdt¸mse [oc-\pw, _À¡n-s\-t¸mse kmwkvIm-cn-I-{]-Xm-]-hm-\pamb apl-½Zv A_vZp-d-ln-am³ kmln_v \S-¶p-t]mb Imsem-¨-IÄ F¶pw Xe-ap-d-IÄ¡m-thiw \ÂIpw. hoc-\mb B atlm-¶-Xsâ ssP{X-bm{X Hcp Ihn hc-¨p-Im-«p-¶-Xn-§-s\-bmWv : ""I¶n-sh-f-f-¡m-dp-t]mse tIc-f-¯n \osf IXnÀ sNmcnª ssP{X-bm{X R§-tfmÀ¸p Imte apd-dp-a-go-t¡m-Sp-\n¶p ap¡ sa¯p-thmfw apàamw \n³ ssP{Xbm{X R§-tfmÀ¸p Imte ]mSn-Ss« kpkz-X{´ IWvT-ap-bÀs¯-§Ä ]mS-eamw \nsâ IoÀ¯n Xe-ap-d-IÄ¡mbn 14

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