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center for children and technology integrating web 2.0 tools into the classroom changing the culture of learning daniel light deborah keisch polin edc center for children and technology new york ny dlight@edc.org june 28 2010 this research was funded by a grant from intel.®


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web 2.0 changing the culture of learning executive summary this report presents findings from a two-year investigation of the ways in which web 2.0 tools and social networking technologies are being used to support teaching and learning in classrooms across the united states with funding from intel® the education development center s center for children and technology edc/cct interviewed or visited over 30 educators in 22 different schools throughout the country as they employed these tools in their classrooms in innovative ways we also spoke with and observed a number of students in these schools currently there is much discussion and excitement about web 2.0 in education but we still know very little about how these tools actually work in the classroom therefore the goal of this research was simply to interview and observe educators and students who are experimenting with these tools in the classroom to see what uses are emerging and to explore the learning affordances of blogs wikis and other web 2.0 tools over the two years of our research the sample of teachers was drawn from the intel® teach essentials course and the network of master teachers and training agencies that has grown up around that program through this network of educators we sent out a request for volunteers to teachers that are experimenting with web 2.0 technologies in their classrooms during the first year we recruited 12 individual teachers but for the second year we targeted districts with larger groups of teachers experimenting with web 2.0 and were able to reach 27 educators across three districts our report is divided into two sections 1 a summary of some of the most frequent web 2.0 applications we encountered and 2 a discussion of different themes and issues concerning the use of web 2.0 tools in classrooms that emerged from all the interviews and visits the first section of this report presents a catalog of the range of tools that we observed teachers using or that teachers reported using we discuss the most salient examples in more depth but we also present tables listing all the tools and defining how teachers reported using them web 2.0 a term we use almost every day is actually an ambiguous concept referring to a large and shifting set of technological tools we sought to solve the definition problem by limiting ourselves to the tools we encountered in our visits and grouping the tools into loose categories according to the teachers pedagogical goals for them our list is not meant to be exhaustive we divided the resources into the following four categories 1 tools that create or support a virtual learning environment 2 tools that support communication and cultivate relationships 3 resources to support teaching and learning 4 tools enabling students to create artifacts representing what they are learning 2


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the second part of this report discusses and interprets our observations about the use of these tools the initial thrust of the research was intended to identify broad themes and to help demonstrate the extent of web 2.0 use across a variety of classrooms and a range of teachers and students while this project did not aim for a set of definitive findings the following key themes emerged that will be a useful starting point for further and deeper research our overall finding is that these tools show potential to transform many aspects of teaching when web2.0 teachers are thoughtful about how they use the tools and they are blended with careful instructional designs innovative teachers are using the networked nature and ease of web 2.0 to create virtual extensions of their classrooms teachers and schools we visited are using different web 2.0 tools or programs to create virtual spaces or networks that support and enrich their pedagogical goals both at the classroom and the district level and increase educational capacity by extending learning beyond the physical walls of the classroom these virtual extensions are a daily part of teaching and learning in their classrooms the web 2.0 tools that teachers are selecting are very easy to use and this ease of use appears to be a key factor in the decision to use any individual tool a salient feature of this current generation of technologies is the relative ease with which users can create products and virtual spaces from teachers creating virtual classrooms to support teaching and learning to fluid communication among students teachers and parents to students doing online activities to mashing up products from different programs learning how to use the technology was seldom a focal point of the activity nor was much time spent logging into sites designing spaces or dealing with decorative aspects of creating products in fact many teachers reported not using web 2.0 tools that could not be embedded into their own virtual spaces required a complex login or presented any other type of roadblock to use educators are using web 2.0 tools to promote new avenues of communication among teachers students and the community in ways that can strengthen the community of learners when the assignment is meaningful and supports the learning objectives web 2.0 tools are being used to increase communication not just dissemination of information in ways that strengthen the educational community and help to center classroom and out-of-classroom conversation on issues and topics that support and deepen learning we examine the following four lines of communication in the report 1 communication among students 2 communication between students and teachers 3 communication with parents and 4 communication among educators as the networked nature of web 2.0 begins to blur our traditional boundaries between school/home public/private or youth/adult culture it presents an emerging challenge 3


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web 2.0 changing the culture of learning web 2.0 technologies are fundamentally reshaping and realigning many aspects of the communication loop the people with whom teachers students and parents communicate how they communicate what they communicate about and where and when they communicate these ongoing processes bring to the fore exciting opportunities and novel challenges for educators as schools use these technologies to build communities the old boundaries between public and private in school and out of school and youth culture and adult culture are melting away and being redrawn 4


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introduction current discussions among technology advocates suggest that web 2.0 applications have tremendous potential to transform students learning recent surveys show that although web 2.0 tools such as facebook myspace wikis and blogs are part of nearly every student s home life these technologies are barely used in school consortium for school networking 2009 interactive educational systems design 2009 national center for educational statistics 2010 given high expectations but little school use experts are renewing calls to do qualitative and situated research on web 2.0 in the classroom to understand better how these new networked technologies and social media might play out and be harnessed for student learning greenhow robelia hughes 2009 with funding from intel® the education development center s center for children and technology edc/cct has been able to visit classrooms to observe and talk to teachers and students in order to document the range of activities that are emerging in u.s classrooms using web 2.0 tools and social networking technologies to learn more about the educational benefits and challenges of such tools we conducted qualitative research over two years with a sample of teachers who are innovating using web 2.0 tools in their classrooms the teachers were recruited through the intel teach essentials course v10 and its network of state-level trainers and technology coordinators analytical framework methods and data sources this project represents our initial attempt to explore the learning affordances of blogs wikis and other web 2.0 tools by interviewing and observing educators and students who are experimenting with these tools in the classroom during this preliminary stage of the work when we collected data broadly relating to a wide variety of web 2.0 use we needed a framework within which to analyze patterns and trends across activities we developed our analytical perspective from the emerging literature on the concept of technological pedagogical content knowledge tpack ferdig 2006 freidhoff 2008 harris mishra koehler 2009 tpack suggests first of all that the instructional design of technology ­rich activities is crucial for success ferdig 2006 and that specific tools work in particular ways that may or may not support the instructional objectives second the technological affordances of a tool vary by specific learning goals and content area in our descriptions of the uses of web 2.0 tools we encountered we attempt to highlight the teacher s instructional objectives the affordances of each tool and how these affordances facilitated or inhibited those pedagogical objectives our sampling strategy changed over the two years of research both in terms of whom we interviewed and the aspect of their practice on which we focused in the first year the sample consisted of teachers who participated in a professional development experience promoting web 2.0 intel® teach essentials v10 and the research focused on the materials teachers developed from that training in the 5


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web 2.0 changing the culture of learning essentials 10 course teachers are asked to design a unit plan using web 2.0 tools and other technologies with students study participants were recruited through trainers as well as through an open e-mail request to teachers who had completed the training we collected 28 unit plans from which we randomly selected 12 units although our request specifically asked for unit plans using the web 2.0 tools only seven of the 12 teachers interviewed used wikis or blogs with their students two other teachers used podcasts two included blogs in their unit plans but did not use them and one teacher did not plan to use any social media we developed an artifact-based interview protocol about the web 2.0-based unit plan and its implementation in the classroom the interviews asked teachers to describe the lesson activities note student reactions and judge the success of the lesson each participant was asked about the use of web 2.0 tools as well as other aspects like the use of formative assessments or supporting 21st-century skills the interviews were performed face to face when possible or over the telephone in the second year because we wanted to explore a range of tools in the classroom and to visit all study participants we decided to recruit schools or districts with multiple teachers using the network of intel training agencies in three states we recruited three districts that were well known in their state for experimenting with web 2.0 tools in the classroom in each chosen district five or more teachers who were using a variety of web 2.0 tools agreed to speak with us not all teachers were intel participants although all were receiving support from district technology coordinators who were intel master teachers we spent two to three days in each district observing classrooms and interviewing teachers administrators and students about web 2.0 in the second year we spoke with 27 educators from 13 schools in three districts during the entire two-year research period we spoke with 39 educators from 22 schools the sample included teachers from alaska to florida and included classroom teachers technology coordinators and administrators 6


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findings our report is divided into two sections 1 a summary of some of the most frequent web 2.0 application we encountered in our visits and interviews with teachers and 2 a discussion of the different themes and issues concerning the use of web 2.0 tools in classrooms that emerged from all the interviews and visits web 2.0 applications web 2.0 a term we use almost every day is an ambiguous concept that refers both to a large and shifting set of technological tools and to an approach to the socially and technologically integrated use of technology some studies use web 2.0 others use the term social computing redecker 2009 or simply the phrase digital age greenhow et al 2009 some of the touchstone authors in the field talk about new media practices ito et al 2008 but they are all talking about tools ranging from blogs facebook and media-sharing sites to platforms such as virtual worlds or virtual learning environments and even web-based applications for example voicethread or google earth in addition scholars often refer to a web 2.0 approach or connectedness as much as to any one tool for example videos have been available over the internet for years but it is the ability to upload and share videos on youtube and similar sites that has brought video into a web 2.0 context we sought to solve the definition problem by limiting ourselves to the tools we encountered in our visits and grouping these tools into loose categories according to the teachers pedagogical goals for them our list is not intended to be exhaustive nor do we expect it to resolve the issues of how to define categories of web 2.0 applications the purpose of this section is simply to review the tools and applications we encountered in our visits and conversations with educators our presentation of web 2.0 resources is grouped according to the goals of the teachers using these tools some tools are so flexible that they can be used to support a variety of objectives and the reader may therefore easily disagree with our categorization nevertheless we hope that our discussions of how we saw the tools being used will still be informative we divided the resources into the following four categories 1 tools that create or support a virtual learning environment 2 tools that support communication and cultivate relationships 3 resources to support teaching and learning and 4 tools enabling students to create artifacts representing what they are learning we also saw teachers using devices for example ipods interactive whiteboards or flip video cameras that were critical to their ability to undertake many of the learning activities we saw we did not specifically review those devices but they are mentioned in the discussion of the relevant activities tables 1 through 4 list all the applications that educators mentioned in our conversations but not all of them are discussed in the sections below appendix a lists all the tools and links to their websites 1 tools that create or support a virtual learning environment the teachers and schools we visited used different web 2.0 tools or programs to create virtual spaces or virtual networks that support their pedagogical goals both at the classroom and the district level this section describes some platforms 7


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web 2.0 changing the culture of learning teachers used to create or support their virtual learning environments and other tools they used to plan lessons or create virtual materials table 1 tools that create or support a virtual learning environment activexpression basic application on the promethean board blackboard learning management system dropbox stores and shares files and folders via internet edmodo social platform and learning management system examview builds comprehensive tests goknow software iweb myudutu puzzlemaker quia raptivity sharepoint schoology trackstar learning environment for mobile devices apple software for building websites rapid e-learning authoring tool builds puzzles builds activities quizzes online worksheets rapid e-learning authoring tool microsoft collaborative work space learning management system lesson plan storage/depository virtual learning environments a virtual learning environment vle is a software platform that provides a private password-protected virtual classroom space in which teachers can perform a variety of both static and interactive tasks and provide classroom resources a vle system might also be known as a course management system cms or learning management system lms but the concept of a vle is used to emphasize that the platform is a tool for teaching and learning as much as for management vles provide a range of functions administrative tasks such as file storage assessment and grading links to a variety of activities for students and tools such as blogs and forums for communication with and among students for the teachers we observed these vles also served as a type of online homeroom functioning the way a web portal might have functioned in the past as the starting place for most of the online activity connected to a particular class many of the learning platforms had built-in tools such as blogs or wikis some of the more innovative teachers we visited had course pages built around a class blog that served as a central forum or central meeting space for the students some vles were districtwide that is the district had purchased a license and required teachers to have accounts and/or home pages other vles were created and used by individual teachers who encouraged their use by word of mouth examples of the ways in which we observed teachers using vles include the following ·as a web portal that connects students to resources both outside and within the vle ·as a way to stimulate student interest in a topic ·as a storage space for student work ·as a way to track student progress ·as a space for student discussion 8


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·as a place for to post assignments ·as a way for students to work collaboratively on assignments ·as a way to ensure that all virtual classroom work and discussion happens within an educational space and under the purview of the teacher of the three districts we visited two had districtwide platforms blackboard and moodle in the third individual teachers created their own course site with a free vle edmodo these three vles are described below blackboard is contracted through the district districts can opt for a variety of tools within blackboard as part of their package so it can be tailored to a district s needs teachers build a homepage which links to different tools and sections such as the discussion board edmodo is currently free so does not offer districtwide contracts defining itself as a social platform for education it has the look and feel of facebook the popular social networking site most of the action on edmodo happens on or through the teacher s homepage moodle modular object-oriented dynamic learning environment is a free and open-source e-learning software platform moodle is similar to edmodo in that it emphasizes classroom community building the district we visited that was using moodle had contracted with a local webmaster to use moodle to develop its vle other vles are also available a technology administrator in one of the districts mentioned her interest in a vle called schoology however we did not observe use of this site another teacher who had previously used a number of palm-based activities in her classroom was using goknow a vle for mobile devices classroom management tools we found that teachers had very positive reactions to a variety of administrative tools that were either built into vles or were separate programs that they could embed into their pages all of the virtual learning platforms had student accounts and ways for students to hand in homework online all of the teachers liked the convenience of automatically keeping track of student work and progress some teachers were also using automatic e-mail and text messages to remind students about homework or field trips perhaps to compensate for adolescent tendencies not to tell parents anything two middle school teachers in different districts were even using built in e-mail notification systems to keep the parents informed of class activities quiz and test-building tools.1 teachers also spoke about tools for example quia and examview that allowed them to create and administer online quizzes and tests they appreciated these tools because they offer quick and easy ways to check what students know and students can do these quizzes as part of their own self assessments quia allows teachers to create their own quizzes as well as other 1 other tools like brainpop or study island also offer quizlike activities but are not principally test making tools for teachers those sites are covered in the group of resources to support teaching and learning 9


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web 2.0 changing the culture of learning learning activities flashcards word scrambles etc examview offers a bank of thousands of test items aligned to state standards for language arts reading math science and social studies one teacher who used examview within blackboard felt that it really helped her differentiate instruction as the online tests and bank of test items made it easy for her to test reteach and then retest as many students as she needed for any level of her content most of these tools have an extensive bank of test items that will automatically update or refresh a test with new items if the same student takes it again another quiz tool activeexpressions is part of the promethean board package it includes a handheld device or clicker that students use to respond to questions the responses are then collected in real time and in various formats graphs for numerical responses text for word responses on the promethean board this application allows the teacher to check students understanding in mid-lesson with quick quizzes with automatic tabulation ,on the whiteboard the teacher we observed who used this tool told us that she often shows students pictures at the beginning of a unit and then asks them to text in simultaneously what they think the unit is going to be about this approach both engages students and tests their foreshadowing abilities e-learning authoring tools these tools help teachers quickly build interactive teaching resources or lesson plans that are then stored online most teachers we interviewed built their simple resources using either word or excel which they then uploaded into their virtual classroom space but one teacher did report using an e-learning authoring tool myudutu to create lessons and resources that she was able to import into the district moodle e-learning or rapid e-learning resources allow teachers to create simple interactive learning materials such as worksheets that auto-grade or quizzes that adapt to individual ability by changing subsequent questions based on the student s response to the previous one or multimedia resources to support their lessons flipchart is another software tool included with the promethean board that teachers can use to create interactive presentations for students not only does it provide teachers with a wide variety of multimedia resources to use during the lesson but the resulting flipcharts can also be shared with students via e-mail so that they can then use the teacher s presentation to review the lesson one teacher showed us a lesson she created on flipchart incorporating music text photos and videos to demonstrate the influence of gospel music on jazz her students had never heard of say mahalia jackson or aretha franklin and she was able to embed links to audio clips of these singers and others in the flipchart she said she couldn t imagine teaching this unit with just a textbook and that this tool brought the outside world in for her students this same teacher also created unit reviews for students using flipchart and embedded quizzes into the review document or resource-sharing tools these allow documents to be edited collaboratively and asynchronously as well as making it easy for a community of users to share professional resources such as websites to the extent that vles provide places for teachers to upload and make resources available for students 10


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they support sharing resources document sharing however refers to a technology-enabled way to keep track of a co-authored document that may change over time some teachers for example mentioned blackboard s document-sharing capacity but those teachers also reported that it was easier to use google docs google docs allows multiple users to share create and edit documents in word or excel collaboratively and asynchronously we saw students using this tool to work collaboratively on documents for group projects without having to schedule face-to-face meetings we also spoke to a teacher who used it to provide fast feedback to students on their work delicious allows for the storage and sharing of web references in the first year of our research a group of teachers from the same school used delicious to share websites with one another 2 tools that support communication and cultivate relationships two central features of the classrooms and teaching practices we encountered in the course of our observation visits were the range of tools and techniques that teachers and students used to communicate with one another and with parents in new ways and the ways in which this intergroup communication fostered a learning community table 2 tools that support communication and cultivate relationships online chronological presentation of commentary and information blogs microsoft product that supports communication and collaboration communicator diigo social networking bookmarking tool delicious social networking bookmarking tool epals online international learning community jing social networking tool twitter social networking tool sending text messages via cellphone to another phone or to a website texting this section presents some of the tools and techniques used to support both the method and content of student-teacher communication our emphasis here is on text-based communication video and audio-based activities are discussed in the section on tools enabling students to create artifacts wikis and blogs are often lumped together as web 2.0 communication tools but our observations suggest that they function differently as pedagogical tools wikis are collaborative writing tools that permit the creation and editing of content by multiple users blogs web logs are chronologically organized online writing spaces that can be constructed individually or collaboratively another communication tool we found in use was twitter in addition some teachers used 11


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web 2.0 changing the culture of learning the automatic texting feature built into the vle to reach students and parents see section on classroom management tools above some teachers we interviewed described wikis as having a more research oriented focus than blogs thus serving as an opportunity for students to collaborate while learning content or skills overall we did not find very many teachers using wikis and most teachers we interviewed did not seem to think them a particularly useful tool we encountered a variety of wiki tasks but found only a few teachers using the wiki for a group-authored document most teachers used wikis in more static ways essentially as a place to store class documents one elementary school teacher used wikis as a format for her students to collaborate on creative writing projects she gave groups of students lists of characters settings and activities from which to choose and then had the groups work on building a story together using their selections from the lists we observed static wikis in use by teachers we observed in a district that required teachers to have a wiki most of those teachers had created their own vles elsewhere e g edmodo but they were using the required wiki on the district s site to post the class syllabus rubrics and accompanying samples of student work while their vle was restricted to students the wiki was open to parents as well one teacher we interviewed was aware that this was not a sophisticated use of a wiki but it met his need for increased transparency with parents and helped them gain a sense of the caliber of work that was expected for a given assignment he felt that parents better understood the grades he gave as a result particularly when these were lower than parents were hoping blogs are chronologically organized online writing spaces that can be constructed individually or collaboratively outside the classroom context blogs are usually written by one individual with other individuals then posting comments however most teachers we observed did not use blogs in this way the most common approach we saw was the creation of a classroom blog as shared space for students and teachers the teachers we interviewed characterized blogs as more of a conversation tool to inspire interest and communication as with wikis we observed a wide variety of blog tasks which fell broadly into classroom blogs and individual blogs or journals classroom blogs centralized teacher-directed blogs were often found on the class or vle homepage where students would post comments often the teacher s goal was to generate a discussion among students via such comments in response to a teacher-generated statement or question we found examples of blog tasks that had at least one of the following four pedagogical objectives to elicit prior knowledge generate interest support student debates or provide students with feedback from their peers a number of teachers used blog tasks as activities to test prior knowledge or generate interest for example one social studies teacher used a blog to introduce her civil war unit the night before beginning the unit she posted the question what do you know about the civil war to the blog and required students to post a response as well as a comment on another student s response by a certain time both the students and the teacher reported that this approach generated excitement as students posted facts tried to outdo one another with more facts or disagreed with one another on historical 12


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interpretations generating hundreds of posts in one evening this activity not only engaged students in the topic it permitted the teacher to gauge student knowledge and misconceptions prior to beginning the unit a language arts teacher in a different district used a blog task to generate interest and prior knowledge before teaching the science fiction novel flowers for algernon posting the blog prompt what is intelligence and does it matter after conducting a spirited online debate about street smarts book learning and human dignity throughout the evening the next day her students started to read the tale of man whose very low iq is artificially tripled but who then finds his newfound intelligence quickly slipping away as the effects wear off we also heard about many blog debates the students really liked these activities claiming that they were different from classroom discussions students felt that the class blog allowed them to participate even if they were too shy to speak in class a blog also allowed them to give more critical feedback because they could take the time to write a statement that was critical of another s position but not mean spirited students in one middle school class told us of a very heated blog discussion they had had about whether the iditarod dog sled race was animal cruelty or not one final example of a blog task requiring students to give feedback to one another is both powerful and very particular a middle school art teacher spends a lot of time helping her students learn to give and receive criticism about their artwork after a few weeks of face-to-face crits for training she moves online each week on her class blog a student posts a digital image of a recent work and self-critiques it over the week the other students post their feedback individual blogs or journals which could be public or private required students to write and post individually for some of these blog tasks other students were expected to comment from what we observed however it was difficult for teachers to create meaningful educational activities using these individual blogs some of the problems were logistical as students were often required to log in and out of several other students blogs in order to make comments thus not only was the resulting communication isolated from the larger group and often inauthentic but the mechanics were frustrating for example in a french class we observed all students had an individual blog where they both posted their homework and commented on other students assignments on their respective blogs many students were not getting credit for their comments however because in order for the teacher to see them the comment first had to be accepted and thus made public by the student to whose blog it had been posted most students did not remember to accept their peers comments so the teacher then had to create a paper-and-pencil checklist to track who had and had not completed the task besides these logistical problems it also proved challenging to design a meaningful blog task that would motivate students to write posts and read one another s comments for example in the same french class students were assigned to post the french names of three favorite foods to their blog and then comment on their peers selections the task of selecting an individual blog task that generates real meaningful communication appears to be very difficult which may explain why we found that the most successful individual blog activities were tasks that only the teacher read 13


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web 2.0 changing the culture of learning one teacher treated private individual blogs not accessible to other students as a space for students to reflect freely on their classroom experience and learning and to promote communication between herself and each student she required students to post regular reflections on their blogs in which they were free to express any and all feelings about the class these blogs thus served as the students private journals and the teacher felt that they were an effective way for her to understand what individual students were thinking and feeling about the work of the class in another example a spanish teacher we observed in the first year of our research used a travel blog activity for each chapter of her textbook centered on a spanish-speaking country she had her students blog about an imaginary visit to that country her goal was to get her students to write in spanish but she also liked the fact that a web-based journal allowed them to post pictures news clippings advertisements and so on as part of their blogs a social networking site is designed to promote communication among the members of a particular community while these sites are quite popular for personal use most students we interviewed reported having either a facebook or myspace page we did not observe much classroom use of them however many teachers used the vle to create a truly educational sns twitter which we did encounter a few teachers using is an sns that allows users to post short blurbs known as tweets of up to140 characters in length as well as read the tweets of other users these messages are by default visible to the general public but a user can subscribe to other users tweets which then show up on that user s own home page and this is the extent to which the community and/or audience can be controlled in our research we observed twitter being used less as a space for dialogue and more as a way for members of the classroom community to read and post updates on activities the most effective uses of twitter we observed were highly supervised instances in which students were asked to post with a particular audience in mind usually parents about what they were doing or learning in that class or on a field trip one teacher who taught a gifted and talented pull-out program for students in grades 1 to 3 used a class twitter account so that each group of students could share what they were doing with the students from the other grades they can see what other kids are doing in the other classes first graders get to see [what third graders are doing my first graders like it more than anyone we also observed twitter being used in less successful ways in one classroom the teacher asked students to post reactions to their classmates final projects while they were actually presenting while the comments were positive e.g nate s was cool i liked his diorama they were not very constructive nor did students appear to take it very seriously 3 resources to support teaching and learning in the networked world of these innovative classrooms we visited teachers used a variety of web-based resources to present material to students and engage them in 14


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larger conversations about the content unlike the e-authoring tools described above teachers do not need to build such resources themselves this section presents some of these resources and provides examples of how they were used in the classroom table 3 resources to support teaching and learning brainpop animated curriculum-based content activities curriculum associates online curricular materials google earth satellite images of the earth grammar girl audio and text mini-talks on grammar holt online online textbook and grading system kto8.com database of exercises that reinforce critical skills mountain math/language/science skill building and test prep software readplease text-to-speech software starfall phonics website study mate interactive assessment activities study island online standards-based learning tools surveymonkey online survey tool thinkfinity standards-based lesson plans and resources youtube video-sharing site video and audio resources teachers downloaded these materials from online libraries or resource repositories some of these repositories like teacher s domain were specifically for education others were general audience sites such as youtube while many of these sites also allow users to upload their own resources e.g posting one s own video to youtube we did not observe this use as an educational activity for students in our research we mostly learned how teachers used these sites to bring audiovisual resources into their classrooms and we noted how they could become exciting tools for learning via display devices such as interactive whiteboards in the classrooms we visited the technology was able to bring such resources into the learning process quickly and seamlessly a teacher with a collection of well-chosen videos is well placed to take advantage of a teachable moment for example we observed one teacher whose students were reviewing literary devices for the state language arts assessment a question about flashback and foreshadowing came up the teacher quickly pulled up the disney cartoon ugly duckling on youtube http www.youtube.com/watch?v=k3t5bmu3uyq on the interactive whiteboard and had the students identify the different literary devices used in that nine-minute version of the story the class stopped or replayed the cartoon at various points to discuss the difference between foreshadowing and flashback as well as other literary devices or to compare the use of devices here to their use in other films and television shows the use of flashback in lost was of particular interest to these students in another example a high school world history teacher shared how he changed his way of teaching the movie gandhi once he obtained a digital version through united streaming the students read about gandhi in the textbook but he uses the movie to help students connect to history as real life he likes to stop the video at key points to discuss events portrayed with his students 15



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