Sancharikal Kanda Keralam

 

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Sancharikal Kanda Keralam by P A Sayed Mohammed

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p. 1

k©m-cn-IÄ I­ tIcfw ]n F skbvXp-ap-l-½Zv

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p. 2

k©m-cn-IÄ I­ tIcfw {KÙ-IÀ¯m: ]n F skbvXp-ap-l-½Zv

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p. 3

{]kvXm-h\ Ncn-{X-km-ln-Xy-¯n\v AÀln-¡p-¶{X {]m[m\yw ae-bm-f-`m-jbn e`n-¨n-«n-sÃ-¦nepw Bim-h-l-amb ]ptcm-KXn {]kvXpX amÀ¤¯n I­p-Xp-S-§n-bn-«p-s­¶ Imcy-¯n kwi-b-an-Ã. P\-k-ap-Zm-b¯nsâ kmwkv¡m-cnI ]ptcm-K-Xn-bn Ncn-{X-¯n¶v al-¯mb kw`mh-\-IÄ \evIm³ Ign-bp-sa-¶Xv Hcp bmYmÀ°y-am-Wv. hf-cp¶ P\Xbv¡v Ncn-{X-]-T\w AXy-´m-t]-£n-X-am-bn-¯oÀ¶n-cn-¡p-¶p. tIc-f-N-cn-{Xs¯ kw_-Ôn-¡p¶ Fsâ {]Y-a-{K-Ù-amb Ncn-{XtI-c-f-¯n¶v lmÀ±-h-amb kzoI-cWw \ÂInb klr-Z-b-cpsS ap¼n ip`m-]vXn-hn-izm-k-t¯m-Sp-IqSn k©m-cn-IÄ I­ tIc-fhpw kaÀ¸n-¡p¶p. CS-¡n-S¡v ]{X-§-fn-se-gp-Xnb Ncn-{X-kw-_-Ô-amb teJ-\-§-fpsS Hcp kam-lm-c-amWv k©m-cn-IÄ I­ tIcfw. km¼-¯nI `{Z-Xbpw kmwkv¡m-cnI ]ptcm-K-Xnbpw ssItImÀ¯v ]nSn¨v \n¶n-cp¶ ]pcm-X-\tI-c-f-¯nsâ Nn{Xw "k©m-cn-IÄ' Cu {KÙ-¯n-eqsS \evIp-¶p. `n¶cp-Nn-¡m-cpÄs¡m-Åp¶ hn[n-IÀ¯m-¡-fmb hmb-\-¡m-cpsS AwKo-IcWw {]Xo-£n-¨p-sIm-­v ......… kkvt\lw ]n.-G.-sk-bvXp-ap-l-½-Zv.

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p. 4

Df-f-S¡w k©m-cn-IÄ I­ HmWw ................................4 Be-an-bpsS tIc-f-bm{X ................................11 {]mNo\ sImSp-§-ÃqÀ ....................................20 tIcfw PqtX-Xn-lm-k-§-fn ........................27 \yqtlm^v I­ tIcfw ................................37 C_v\p-_-Xq¯ tIc-f-¯n .........................44 Xplv^-¯p apPm-ln-Znsâ Imew ................50 e£Zzo]pI-fpsS CXn-lmkw ........................59

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p. 5

k©m-cn-IÄ I­ HmWw sFXn-lm-kn-I-amb Hcp alm-kw-`-h-¯nsâ kvac-W-bv¡mbn aebm-fn-I-fn¶pw HmW-am-tLm-jn-¡p-¶p. Imew ]ptcm-K-an-¡p-t´m-dpw HmWw Hcp kap-Zm-b-¯nsâ Hcp {]tXy-Im-tLm-j-ambn ]cn-W-an-¡pIbpw sN¿p-¶p. Ncn-{X-¯nsâ Xmfp-IÄ adn-¨p-t\m-¡p-t¼mÄ ]pcm-X-\tI-c-f-¯nse HmWm-tLm-j-§Ä C¶-t¯-XnÂ\n¶v XnI¨pw hyXy-kvXam-bn-cp-¶psh¶v a\-Ên-em-¡mw. ]e Ime-§-fn-embn tIcfw kµÀin-¨n«p-ff hntZ-io-b-k-©m-cn-IÄ tIc-fo-b-cpsS HmWs¯ Hcp tZio-tbm-Õh-am-bn-«mWv Ncn-{X-¯n tcJ-s¸-Sp-¯n-bn-«p-Å-Xv. ]Xn-s\m¶mw \qd-dm­n tIcfw kµÀin¨ {]ikvX Ncn-{Xm-t\z-j-I-\mb AÂ-þ-_-dqWn {Ko¡p-Im-cpsS {]mNo\ ^®nb Hfn-¼n-¡n-t\mSpw, 1154þ tIc-f¯nse¯nb AÂ-C-{Znkn SpWo-jy-cpsS dm_nkm BtLm-j-t¯mSpw, 1159þ ]cy-S\w \S-¯nb _©-an³ awtKm-fn-b-¡m-cpsS jmjqPm DÕh-t¯mSpw \½psS HmWm-tLm-js¯ Xmc-X-ay-s¸-Sp-¯n-bn-«p-­v. HmWw Hcp al-¯mb dn¸-»n-¡³ BtLm-j-am-bn«mWv ]pcm-X-\-tI-c-fo-bÀ sIm­m-Sn-bn-cp-¶-sX¶v Ncn-{X-tc-J-IÄ hnfn-¨p-]-d-bp-¶p. aX-¯n\pw PmXn-¡p-a-Xo-X-ambn t£a-cm-jv{S-¯nse kwXr-]vX-cmb \½psS ]qÀÆnI³amÀ kmtLm-jw-sIm-­m-Snb B kphÀ®Ime-L«w \ap-¡n¶v kz]v\-am-bn-¯oÀ¶n-cn-¡p-¶p. tIc-f-¡-c-bn BZy-ambn IpSn-tb-dn-¸mÀ¯ PqX-·mcpw XZ-\´cw {]th-in¨ {InkvXym-\n-Ifpw apÉo-an-§fpw X§-fpsS tZio-tbmÕ-h-ambn HmWs¯ AwKo-I-cn-¨n-cp-¶p. t]mÀ¯p-Ko-Êp-Im-cpsS B{Ia-W-¯n-\p-ap¼v tIc-f-¯nse hym]m-c-{]-ap-J-\m-bn-¯oÀ¶ PqX-{]-am-Wnbmb tPmk^v dºm³ `mkv¡-c-hÀ½ cmPm-hn\v hntZ-i-km-[-\-§Ä HmWw {]am-Wn¨v k½m-\n-¡p-Ibpw Hcp hymg-h-«-¡m-es¯ HmWm-tLmj-¯nsâ taÂt\m«w `mkv¡-c-hÀ½ At±-l-¯n\v \ÂIp-Ibpw 4

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p. 6

sNbvX-Xmbn Ncn-{X-Im-c-\mb tPmk^v anUn«¬ {]kvXm-hn-¡p-¶p. PqX-·m-sc-t¸mse {InkvXym-\n-Ifpw apÉo-an-§fpw HmWm-tLm-j-§-tfmS-\p-_-Ôn¨v Npa-X-e-IÄ hln-¨n-cp-¶p. {In: 954þ ]mWvUn-s¸-cp-amÄ sImSp-§-ÃqÀ hnfn-¨p-Iq-«nb ]WvUn-X-k-Z-ÊnÂsh¨v {InkvXym-\nIÄ¡pw aX-hn-izm-kn-IÄ¡pw HmW-a-Õcw \S-¯m\pw BtLmjw `wKn-bm-¡m\pw A\p-aXn \evIn. A¶s¯ HmW-¯n\v sh«¯v \m«pIm-cpsS Imbn-I-a-Õ-c-§Ä {]kn-²-am-bn-cp-¶p. Btbm-[\ hnZy-bn {]mhoWyw k¼m-Zn-¨n-«p-ff Bfp-IÄ ""HmW-¸-´n-''bn X§-fpsS A`ym-k-§Ä {]I-Sn-¸n-¡pw. AXn\v k½m\w \nÝ-bn-¡p-hm\pw ad-dpambn \ymbm-[n-]-·m-cmbn {InkvXym-\n-I-sfbpw apÉo-ao-§-sfbpw cmPmhv \nb-an-¡m-dp-­v. Ien-bpK hÀjm-cw-`-amb A D444-þ A£-b]m-{X-tN-c³ F¶ [mÀ½n-I-N-{I-hÀ¯n-bmWv tIc-f-sam-«p¡pw {]mXn-\n[y-ap-ff alm-k-t½-f\w hnfn-¨p-Iq-«n-b-sX¶v kntem¬ _p²-an-jy-\-dnam-cpsS Ncn-{X-tc-J-I-fn ImWp-¶p. _p²-a-X-{]-Nm-c-I\pw Ncn-{X-Im-c\p-amb l-¯nsâ AK-kvXym-\-µ³ t]cn ""Z£n-tW-´y-bn _p²-a-X-¯nsâ {]m_eyw'' F¶ Ncn-{X-{K-Ù-¯n alm-_en N{I-hÀ¯n-tbbpw At±LSn-¸n-¡-s¸-«n-«p-ff HmW-¨-S-§p-I-sf-bpw-]-ddn C§ns\ ]d-bp-¶p. ""{]Pm-X-ev]-c-\mb Ncn{X ]pcp-j-\m-bn-cp¶p alm_-en. tIc-fo-b-cpsS skuioeyhpw[mÀ½n-I-`m-hhpw alm-_en N{IhÀ¯n-bnÂ\n¶v e`n-¨-Xm-bn-cn-¡-Ww. HcmÄ¡pw AÃepw B]¯pw hcp-¯msX kt´m-j-t¯m-Sp-IqSn {]P-IÄ Pohn-¡-W-sa¶v A\p-imkn¨ am-_-en-bpsS `c-W-Im-es¯ A\p-kva-cn-¡p-hm-\mWv tIc-fo-bÀ hÀjw-tXmdpw HmW-am-tLm-jn-¡p-¶-Xv. PmXn-Nn-´IÄ am_-ensb Xo­n-bn-cp-¶n-Ã. ]s£ CS-¡m-e¯v tIc-f-¯n B[n-]Xyw Øm]n¨ sshZn-I-a-X-¡mÀ am_-en-bpsS ]mh-\m-ZÀi-\s¯ _en-I-gn-¡p-I-bm-Wp­m-b-Xv. _p²-a-Xm-\p-bm-bn-Isf `oj-Wn-s¸-Sp-¯n-s¡m-­n-cp¶ sshZnI-a-X-¡mÀ lnwk-bv¡p-IqSn P\-§sf t{]cn-¸n-¨p….………1200þ kµÀi\mÀ°w tIc-f-¯n-se-¯nb AÊo-dn-b-¡m-c-\mb sau­v hnt\m 5

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p. 7

tPm¬ Xsâ ""k©m-c-km-ln-Xy-¯nÂ'' tIc-fo-b-cpsS HmW-¡m-e-¨-S§p-I-sf-¡p-dn-¨n-§s\ ]d-bp¶p: ""{]mtbW im´-io-ecpw {]b-Xv\-imen-I-fp-amb ae-_m-dp-ImÀ X§-fpsS \jvS-s¸« kphÀ®-Im-es¯ kvacn-¨p-sIm­p \S-¯p¶ Hcp-Õ-h-amWv HmWw. Cu DÕ-h-¯n Ah-cpsS FÃm Ie-Ifpw {]ZÀin-¸n-¡pw. Irjo-h-e-·m-cmb \m«p-ImÀ Ah-cpsS \m«n³]p-d-§-fn HmW-ta-f-Xs¶ \S-¯pw.- FÃm aX-hnizmknIÄ¡pw Cu taf-bnepw ]s¦-Sp-¡mw. ip²-hkv{Xw [cn¨v At\ym\yw kvt\lhpw hnizm-khpw ]pXp-¡p¶ Cu BtLm-j-¯n\v CXn-lm-k-{]m-[m-\y-am-Wp-f-f-Xv. Ah-cpsS \mS³Km-\-§-fn \ng-en-¨pIm-Wp¶ Ncn{Xw B CXn-lm-k-¯n-sâ-Xm-Wv. Cu Km\-§Ä Cd-dm-enb³ `mj-bn-te¡pw AÊo-dn-b³ `mj-bn-te¡pw ]cn-`m-j-s¸-Sp-¯m³ Rm³ {ian-¨p. ….'' sau­v hnt\mensâ kµÀi-\-¯n-\p-ap-¼mWv AÂ_-dqWn tIc-f-¯n h¶-Xv. AÂ_-dq-Wn-bpsS hnh-cWw e`n-¨n-St¯mfw tcJ-I-fn hne-s¸-«-Xm-Wv. ""Ipcp-ap-f-In\pw Ge-¯n\pw t]sc-Sp¯ tIcfw k¼Âk-ar-²nbpsS Bhm-k-tI-{µ-am-bn-«mWv F\n-¡-\p-`-h-s¸-«-Xv. Irjn-¡mÀ Jpdm-km-\nse Irjn-¡m-sc-t¸mse Chn-S-s¯bpw {]bXv\imen-Ifpw im´-io-e-cp-am-Wv. tIc-fo-b-cp-sS-bn-S-bn {]i-kvX-\mb Hcp (Jm-en-^v) am_en `cn-¨n-cp-s¶¶v Ah-cpsS tZio-tbm-Õ-hw hyà-am-¡p-¶p. tIcf-¯n IpSn-tb-dn-¸mÀ¯ FÃm-hcpw Cu \à `c-Wm-[n-Im-cnsb ]pIgv¯p-¶p. PqX-·m-cp-sSbpw, {InkvXym-\n-I-fp-sSbpw, apÉo-an-§-fp-sS-bp-anS-bn Cu `c-Wm-[n-Im-cn-sb-¸-ddn \oXn-I-Y-IÄ {]N-cn-¸n-¨n-«p-­v. tImgn-t¡m-«pw, sImÃ-¯pw, ]´-f¯pw HmW-¡m-e¯v Rm³ Xma-kn¨p. R§-fpsS ]cy-S-\-kwLw tImgn-t¡m«p Xma-kn-¡p-t¼mÄ ae-_mdnsâ Nne `mK-§-fn \n¶v R§Ä¡v £W-\-§Ä e`n-¨p. tImgnt¡ms« `c-Wm-[n-Im-cn-I-fpsS taÂt\m-«-¯n R§Ä sh«¯v HmW¡mgvN ImWm³ t]mbn. sh«¯v Kw`o-c-amb kZy-bmWv GÀ¸m-Sp-sN6

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p. 8

bvXn-cp-¶-Xv. Cu kZy-bn ]uc-{]-ap-J-cmb FÃm-hcpw Xpd-ap-Js¯ hntZ-in-I-fmb hym]m-cn-Ifpw ]¦p-sIm-­n-cp-¶p. HmWm-cw-`-¯n sh«¯v \m«n FÃm-hcpw ]s¦-Sp-¡p¶ kZy-IÄ hÀjw-tXmdpw \S¡m-dp-­-t{X. sh«¯v `c-Wm-[n-Imcn kZy-bv¡p-tijw hnt\m-Z-a-Õcw GÀs¸-Sp-¯n-bn-cp-¶p. Cu aÕ-c-¯n {InkvXym-\n-Ifpw apÉo-an-§fpw ]¦p-sIm-­n-cp-¶p. c­p hcn-bn {Ko¡p-ImÀ bp²-¡-f-¯n D]-tbmKn-¨n-cp¶ Hcp-Xcw Bbp[(]-cn-N)hpw [cn¨v {Kmao-WÀ Ifn XpS-§n. AXp-t]mse Imbn-I-hn-t\m-Z-§Ä ]eXpw {]ZÀin-¸n-¨p. Cu aÕ-c-¡-fnbn hnP-bn-¡p-¶-hÀ¡v HmW-_n-cpZw \evIpw. Ifn-kwLw HmW-¡me¯v \msSm-«p¡pw Npddn k©-cn-¡pw. \mSnsâ FÃm `mK-§-fnepw Dt·-jhpw BËm-Zhpw Ae-X-Ãn-bn-cp-¶p. FÃm Iem-hn-t\m-Z-§fpw {]ZÀin-¸n-¡p¶ Cu Ime¯v Hmtcm \m«p-`-c-Wm-[n-Im-cnbpw {]tXy-Iambpw k½m-\-§Ä \evIm-dp-­v. sImïp sN¶-t¸mÄ Ahn-sSbpw hn]p-e-amb \ne-bn BtLm-j-§Ä \S-¡p-¶p. Cu BtLm-j-Im-e§-fn FÃm tZhm-e-b-§fpw Ae-¦-cn-¨n-«p-­m-bn-cn-¡pw. ]pcm-X\ {Ko¡p-ImÀ Ah-cpsS tZio-tbm-Õ-h-ambn BtLm-jn-¨n-cp¶ ^®nb Hfn-¼n-¡n FÃm Ie-Ifpw {]ZÀin-¸n-¡p-Ibpw X§-fpsS cmjv{S¯nsâ `{Z-X-bv¡mbn ]cn-{i-an-¡m³ {]XnÚ ]pXp-¡p-Ibpw sNbvXncp-¶p. AXp-t]mse cmjv{So-b-amb Hcp atlm-Õ-ha - mWv tIc-f-¯nse HmWw. ]WvUn-X\pw XymK-io-e-\p-amb ]´-f¯v cmPmhv HmW-¯nsâ sFXnlyw F\n¡v hnh-cn-¨p-X-¶p. Cu BtLm-j-¯n `mK-`m-¡m¡m³ tImgn-t¡m-s«bpw ]cn-k-c-§-fn-sebpw FÃm apÉo-an-§fpw Xmev]cyw {]I-Sn-¸n-¨n-cp-¶p. aX-]-c-amb bmsXmcp XS-Êhpw BtLmjs¯ _m[n-¨n-cp-¶n-Ã. X§-fpsS {]P-I-fpsS t£am-t\z-j-WmÀ°w cmPm-¡-·m-À \mSv Npd-dn-s¡m-­n-cp-¶p. apÉow {]_e-·m-scbpw BtLm-j-§Ä {InkvXo-b-{]-am-Wn-I-sfbpw DÄs¸-Sp-¯n-s¡m-­pÅ sImïv Rm³ I­p. Nmen-b¯pw I®qcpw Rm³ apÉow IpSpw-_§-fn sN¶-t¸mÄ ln´p {]amWnam-cpsS HmW-k-½m-\-§Ä F¯n-bncp-¶-Xmbn I­p. tImgn-t¡ms« hgn-b-¼-e-§-fnepw k{X-§-fnepw HmW7

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p. 9

¡m-e¯v Bscbpw Rm³ I­n-Ã. Ah-sc-sbÃmw Hmtcm-cp-¯À HmWam-tLm-jn-¡m³ £Wn-¨p-sIm-­p-s]m-bv¡-gn-ªn-cp-¶p. Xpd-ap-J¯v hym]mcw sN¿p¶ hntZ-io-bÀ cmPm-hn\v hne-]n-Sn¨ HmW-k-½m-\-§Ä \evIp-Ibpw cmPmhv Ah-tcmSv Ipi-e-a-t\z-jn-¡p-Ibpw sNbvXn-cp-¶p. sImSp-§-ÃqÀ cmPm-hn\v Atd-_y-bn \n¶pw ssN\-bnÂ\n¶pw HmWk-½m-\-§Ä hym]m-cn-IÄ hgn e`n-¨n-cp-¶p. A§s\ hntZ-i-§-fp-ambn skulmÀ±-l-_Ôw ]pXp-¡p-hm\pw HmWm-tLm-j-¯n\v km[n-¡p-¶p. sImSp-§-ÃqÀ cmPmhv \S-¯p¶ kZy-I-fnepw Iem-a-Õ-c-§-fnepw FÃm aX-hn-izm-kn-Ifpw ]s¦-Sp-¯n-cp-¶p….'' AÂ_-dq-Wn-bpsS A\p-Km-anbmbn 114-þ h¶ AÂ-C-{Zn-kn-bpsS k©m-c-¡p-dn-¸n ]d-bp¶p: ""HmW-¡m-e-¯v, in£n-¡-s¸-«n-«pÅ XS-hp-ImÀ¡v in£ Cf-hpsNbvXp sImSp-¡p-Ibpw am¸p-\-evIp-I-Ibpw sNbvXn-cp-¶p.]c-kv]cw _Ô-s¸-Sp-hm\pw skulmÀ±w IqSp-X ZrV-am-¡p-hm\pw HmW-¡mew tIc-fo-bÀ¡v ]n³_ew \evIn-bn-cp-¶p. AXn-Yn-{]n-b-cmb tIc-fo-b-cpsS at\m-hn-im-eX hntZ-in-IÄ¡v A\p-`-h-s¸-Sp-¶Xv HmW-¡m-e-¯m-Wv. Hcp Znhkw cmhnse ]pd-¯p-h-¶-t¸mÄ \nd-ª-Ip-«-IÄ Fsâ ap¼n I­p At\z-jn-¨-t¸mÄ HmW-k-½m-\-am-sW-¶-dn-ªp. sImïv Imben GÀs¸-Sp-¯n-bn-cp¶ aÕcw ImWphm³ Rm\pw t]mbn. B aÕc-¯nsâ taÂt\m«w {InkvXym-\n-IÄ¡pw apÉo-an-§Ä¡p-am-bn-cp-¶p. HmW-¡m-e¯v CX-c-a-X-hn-izm-kn-IÄ¡v {]tXyIw k½m\w \evIp¶ ]Xn-hp-­v. FÃm-hcpw HmWm-tLm-j¯ - n ]¦p-sIm-Åp-¶p-­v. 1286þ aX-{]-N-c-WmÀ°w h¶ {^bÀ HmtUm-dn¡pw 1347þ tImgn-t¡m«v Xma-kn-¨n-cp¶ doKv s\Ãnbpw [À½-{]-N-c-WmÀ°w \mSp-`cn-¨n-cp¶ am_-en-bpsS kvac-Wsb ]pÂIn-\n-ev¡p¶ HmWs¯ hnip²m-tLm-j-am-bn-«mWv tcJ-s¸-Sp-¯n-bn-«p-Å-Xv. HmW-¡m-e¯v AwK-lo-\scbpw Zcn-{Z-scbpw Biz-kn-¸n-¡m\pw AhÀ¡p klmbw \evIp8

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p. 10

hm\pw cmPm-¡-·mÀ ipjv¡m´n {]I-Sn-¸n-¨n-cp-¶p. hgn-b-¼-e-§-fn Xma-kn-¡p¶ FÃm AK-Xn-I-sfbpw HmW-\m-fp-I-fn tImgn-t¡m«v cmPmhv £Wn-¨p-h-cp¯n kZy \evIn-bn-cp-¶p. hym]m-cn-IÄ¡v {]tXyIw ]mcn-tXm-jn-I-§Ä \ÂIm³ cmPmhv {i²n-¨n-cp-¶p. I®q-cpw, ,Nm-en-b¯pw [À½-S¯pw s\bvXp-­m-¡p¶ hnti-j-s¸« hkv{X-§Ä HmW-k-½m-\-ambn Irjn-¡mÀ¡v \mSp-hm-gn-IÄ \evIn-bn-cp-¶p. ]WvUnX³amÀ¡v hne-Iq-Snb hkv{X-§-fmWv k½m-\-ambn \evIn-bn-cp-¶-Xv. ]ptcm-ln-X-·m-cpsS AI-¼-Sn-tbm-Sp-IqSn HmW-¨-S-§p-IÄ cmPmhv \nÀÆln-¡p-t¼mÄ tZhm-e-b-§-fn im´n¡pw kam-[m-\-¯n-\p-ambn Iq«{]mÀ°\ \S-¯m-dp-­v. CXn FÃm hnizm-kn-Ifpw X§-fpsS ]¦v \nÀÆ-ln-¨n-cp-¶p. tImgn-t¡ms« {]ap-J-·m-cmb Jmkn-am-cpsS hoSp-Ifn Acnbpw XpWnbpw ]g-hÀ¤-§fpw [À½w sImSp-¯n-cp-¶p. hnÃm³I-fn, tNt¡-dv, tIfn-sIm«v XpS-§nb Ifn-IÄ ae-_m-dn HmW-¡m-e¯v \S-¯n-bn-cp-¶p. a{´nbpw cmPm-hp-ambn h\-hm-kn-IÄ {]mIr-X-am-Xr-I-bn \S-¯p¶ tImew-sI-«Â \mS-I-¯n\v hf-sc-tbsd ImWn-Isf e`n-¨n-cp-¶p. a{´n-bpsS Ipddw I­p-]n-Sn-¡p-Ibpw HSp-hn cmPmhv am¸p-sIm-Sp-¡p-¶-Xp-amWv tImew sI«nse Df-f-S-¡w. Cu tImew-sI-«Â shfn-Ø-e-§-fnemWv \S-¯-s¸-Sp-¶-Xv. CXp ImWp-hm³ am_en Fgp-s¶-f-fp-sa¶v hniz-kn-¡-s¸-Sp-¶p. hf-sc-t]À HmW-¡m-es¯ ]¦p-sIm-Åpw…..'' ImbÂbm-{X-bnepw \mSp-hm-gn-b-S¡w s{^bÀ HtUm-dn-¡nsâ Item-Õ-hs¯ kw_-Ôn¨pff hnh-c-W¯nsâ Hcp `mK-am-Wn-Xv. doKvs\Ãn-bpsS ""sht̳ F³Iz-bdn''bn \½psS HmW-¡mes¯ ]WvUn-X-k-Z-Ên-s\bpw kÀÆ-a-X-k-t½-f-\-s¯bpw kw_-Ôn¨mWv ]d-bp-¶-Xv. HmWw FÃm-hcpw BZ-cn-¡-s¸-Sp¶ tZio-bm-tLm-jam-sW¶pw Hcp Iq«p-Ip-Spw-_-k-{¼-Zmbw \ne-hn-ep-­m-bn-cp¶ tIc-f9

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p. 11

¯nse cmjv{So-tbm-Õ-h-sa¶ \ne-bn-emWv _lp-P-\-§-f-Xw-Ko-I-cn-¡p¶sX¶pw doKv s\Ãn ]d-bp¶p. am_en Hcp-k-¦-ev]-I-Ym-]m-{X-am-sW¦nepw A\p-I-c-Wo-b-\mb Ncn-{X-]p-cp-j-\m-bn-cp-¶p-sh¶pw At±lw Du¶n-¸-d-bp-¶p. B[p-\n-I-tI-c-f-¯nse P\X {]Pm-[n-]-Xy-¯n-sâbpw, tkmjy-enk-¯n-sâbpw amÀ¤-¯n-te¡v {]th-in-¡p-I-bm-Wv. Ign-ªp-t]mb B Ime-L«w C\n hcn-I-bn-sÃ-¦nepw A¶s¯ skulrZ-Po-hn-Xhpw klI-c-W-t_m-[hpw hos­-Sp-¡m³ \mw {ian-¡-Ww. tIc-f-kw-kv¡m-c-sa¶Xv Cu \mSnsâ a®n IpSn-tb-dn-¸mÀ¯ FÃm-h-cp-sSbpw skulmÀ±-¯nsâ aW-ap-ff al-¯mb kwkv¡m-c-am-Wv. km¼-¯n-Iamb hnj-a-X-Ifpw PmXo-b-Nn-´bpw B[p-\n-I-tI-c-fs¯ Ae-«n-s¡m­n-cn-¡p-t¼mÄ Ipd¨v t\c-t¯-s¡-¦nepw \½psS ]qÀÆn-I-·m-cpsS kt´m-j-{]-Z-amb Pohn-X-s¯-¸-ddn \msam-¶m-tem-Nn-¡-Ww. At¸mÄ Fs´´v aÕ-c-§-fp-­m-bmepw AsXÃmw hnkva-cn-¨p-sIm­p t]mIm³ \ap-¡p-t¯-P\w \ÂIpw. tIc-f-¯nsâ ktµiw hntZ-i-§fn-e-dn-b-s¸-«Xv Xs¶ Chn-Sps¯ adp-\m-S³ Xma-k-¡mÀ hgn-bm-Wv. \qddm-­p-IÄ¡pap¼v Xs¶ tIc-f-¯n¶v {]ikvXn kamÀÖn-¨p-sIm-Sp¡m³ km[n¨ \in-¡m¯ B skulmÀ±-_Ôw D¯-tcm-¯cw hfÀ¯p-hm³ \ap¡p Ign-b-s«. kpµ-c-amb Hcp Pohn-X-L-S\ tIc-f¯n-ep-b-cp-sa¶v hniz-kn-¡mw. A¡m-e-s¯-¦nepw HmWw \½psS tZiobm-tLm-j-ambn sIm­m-Sm\pw FÃm PmXo-a-X-ØÀ¡pw AXn klI-cn-¡m\pw kµÀ`w D­m-tI-­-Xm-Wv. tIc-f-¯nsâ B \in-¡m¯ skulrZw HmW-¡m-e-§-fn IqSp-X kpi-à-am-I-Ww. {]mNn-\-tI-cf-¯n k©m-cn-IÄ I­ HmWw Hcp bmYmÀ°y-ambn cq]w {]m]n¡p¶ kphÀ®-L«w kam-K-X-am-I-Ww. 10

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p. 12

Be-an-bpsS tIc-f-bm{X B[p-\nI ssN\bpw C´ybpw IqSp-X _Ô-s¸-«p-sIm-­n-cn¡p¶ kµÀ`-am-Wn-Xv. {]mNo-\-Im-e-¯p-Xs¶ C´y-bp-ambn ssN\¡p At`-Zy-amb _Ôw sI«n-bp-d-¸n-¡p-hm³ Ign-ªn-«p-­v. ^ml-bmsâbpw lpbm-§vkm-sâbpw Ncn{Xw krjvSn¨ `mc-X-]-cy-S-\-¯n-¶ptijw al-¯mb ]e ]cn-hÀ¯-\-§fpw C´y-bnepw ssN\-bn-ep-ap­m-bn. C´y-bp-ambn ssN\-¡p-ff _Ôw c­p-X-c-¯n-em-bn-cp-¶p. _p²-k-\ym-kn-I-fmb Hcp hn`m-K-¯nsâ Bßo-b-t\-XrXzw D¯-tc-´ybn hnP-b-s¡mSn \m«nb Hcp Ime-L-«-¯n-emWv ssN\okv k©m-cnI-fpsS Xn¡pw Xnc¡pw IqSp-X A\p-`-h-s¸-«-Xv. asd-dm¶p tIc-f-hp-ambpÅ hym]m-c-_-Ô-am-Wv. {]i-kvXn-bmÀÖn¨ sImSp-§-ÃqÀ Xpd-ap-Jhp-ambn ssN\-¡mÀ _Ôw Øm]n-¨Xv _n.-kn.2108emsW-¶mWv Nm¦nbm-lqan (Chaankiyahumi)-F-¶ ssN\okv Ncn-{X-Im-c³ ]d-bp-¶-Xv. {InkvXp-hn-\p-ap¼v 832þ tI¬S-Wn Pohn-¨n-cp¶ Nm¦n-bm-lqan ""ssN\-bpsS hnZq-c-tZ-i-_-Ô-§Ä'' F¶ {KÙ-¯n tIc-f-s¯-¸-ddnbpw hntÚ-b-§-fmb hnh-c-§Ä \evIp-¶p-­v. ssN\bpsS t\XrXzw \nc-h[n \qd-dm-­p-I-tfmfw kqbn cmP-hwi-¯nsâ I¿n-em-bn-cp-¶p. kqbn cmP-hw-i-P·m-cn aq¶mw-_m_ F¶dn-b-s¸-Sp¶ k©m-c-{]n-b-\mb N{I-hÀ¯n-bp-sS-Im-e¯v tIcfw kµÀin-¡p-hm³ Hcp skulmÀ±-{]-Xn-\n[nkwLw jnbm-\nÂ\n¶p ]pd-s¸-«p. {]mNo-\-tI-c-f-s¯-¸-ddn hf-sc-tb-sd-tI-«n-«p-ff {]Xn-\n-[n-kwLmw-K-§Ä `à-I-hn-bmb Xqf-ko-Zm-ksâ DÂIr-jvS-IrXn tIc-f-cm-Pmhn¶p kaÀ¸n-¨p. {]kvXp-X-IrXn hf-sc-s¡m-Ã-§-Ä¡p-ap¼v tIc-f¯nse Hcp cmPmhv ssN\m-¡mÀ¡v k½m-\n-¨-Xm-bn-cp-¶p. B IrXn k½m-\n¨ Ime-§Ä¡p-ap¼p Xs¶ ssN\bpw tIc-fhpw ]c-kv]cw 11

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p. 13

_Ô-s¸-«n-cp-¶p-sh¶p cmPm-hns\ {Kln-¸n-¡p-hm³ {]Xn-\n-[n-IÄ¡p Ign-ªp. {In:408þ ssN\okv hym]m-cn-IÄ tIc-f-¯n Hcp hym]m-ctI{µw Øm]n-¨p. sX¡³ ssN\-bn \ne-hn-ep-ff ""jmÀkq§v'' \mS³]m-«p-I-fn ISÂk-©m-cn-I-fpsS hntZ-i-bm-{X-sb-¸-ddnbpff hÀ®-\-IÄ tIÄ¡mw. Hcp \mS³]m-«nÂ\n¶p e`n¨ Ncn-{X-kw-_-Ôamb sNdnb hnh-cWw F¨v.-G.-sK-bn³kv F¶ Ncn-{X-Im-c³ Road to Ancient China (""]pcm-X-\-ssN-\-bn-te-¡pÅ amÀ¤w'')F¶ eLp-{K-Ù¯n tcJ-s¸-Sp-¯n-bn-cp-¡p-¶-Xn-§-s\-bmWv: ""N¦m-§n \n¶p-ff ISÂk-©m-cn-IÄ FXnÀ¯p-I-b-dp¶ Hmf-§sf apdn-¨p-sIm­v akq-enbn sN¶p hn{i-an-¡pw. ag-¡mew k©m-cn-I-fpsS Hgn-hp-Im-ew. em³Xo-§m-bpsS c£-bn-e-hÀ kt´m-j-t¯msS aS-§n-sb-¯pw.'' N¦m³ F¶-dn-b-s¸-«n-cp¶ jnbm-\nÂ\n¶p akqen (a-kq-en-sb¶ sImSp-§-ÃqÀ)-bn-te-¡pÅ bm{X em³Xo-§-sb¶ kap-{Z-tZ-h-X-bpsS c£-bn-em-bn-cp-¶p-sh¶p {]kvXpX Km\-¯nÂ\n¶p a\-Ên-em-¡mw. Atd-_y-bnÂ\n¶p aX-{]-N-c-WmÀ°w ssN\-bn-se-¯nb A_oI-_vi-bpsS kl-bm-{X-¡m-c-\mb hJq-_v-B-ean {InkvXm_vZw 687þ Hcp tIc-f-]-cy-S\w \S-¯n-b-Xmbn ImWp-¶p. hJq-_v-B-ean Hcp ssN\okv k©m-cn-bm-bn-cp-s¶¶v 1286þ tIc-f-¯n h¶ {^bÀ-HtUm-dnIv Xsâ {KÙ-¯n kwi-bm-kv]-Z-ambn ]d-ªn-«p-­v. Be-anbpsS k©m-c-Im-e-s¯-¡p-dn¨p Ad-_n-bn {]kn-²-s¸-Sp-¯n-bn-«pÅ {KÙ-§Ä HtUm-dn-¡nsâ tcJsb iàn-bpàw JWvUn-¡p-¶p. {]kn²-XpÀ¡n Ncn-{X-Im-c-\mb Al-½Zv d^o¡v BÄ«n-s\-bpsS Ncn-{X-Kth-jWw ]e ]pXnb kw`-h-§fpw \½psS ap¼n Ah-X-cn-¸n-¡p-¶p­v. BÄ«n-s\-bpsS {KÙ-§-fn-eqsS t\m¡p-t¼mÄ ssN\bpw tIcfhpw X½n kpZr-V-amb _Ôw Øm]n-¨Xv {InkvXm_vZw Adp-\q-dn¶p-ti-j-am-Wv. Cu _Ô-¯n¶p hym]m-cs¯ am{Xw Ah-ew-_n-¨pÅ {]m[m-\y-aà BÄ«ns\ ImWp-¶-Xv. ssN\-bn Atd-_y-cmb Ncn-{Xm12

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p. 14

t\z-j-Icpw kmaq-ly-{]-hÀ¯-Icpw {]hm-N-Isâ Ime-¯p-Xs¶ h¶pXp-S-§n. HSp-hn h¶ hJq^v Be-an-bmWv Ncn-{X-km-ln-Xys¯ ssN\-bn ]cn-t]m-jn-¸n-¨-Xv. Ad-_n-¡-¨-h-S-¡m-cn Hcp hn`mKw ssN\-bn aX-{]-N-c-W-hpw \S-¯n. hntZ-i-]-cy-S-\-¯n Atd-_y¡pÅ kl-P-amb DÕmlw Ahsc temI-¯nsâ FÃm `mK-§-fn-epw \njv{]-bmkw ]cn-N-b-s¸-Sp-¯m³ D]-bp-à-am-bn. ssN\-bnse Hcp {]_e apÉow-tI-{µ-amb tI³S-\nÂ\n¶p hJq^v Bean ssN\-¡mcpw Atd-_y-¡m-cp-a-S-§nb bm{Xm-kw-Ls¯ C´y-bn-te¡p \bn-¨p. Cu bm{Xm-kw-L-¯n Hcp ssP\-a-Xmw-Khpw DÄs¸-«n-cp-¶p. Sm³Ko-enbm§v F¶ Cu ssP\-a-X-¡m-c³ Hcp Ncn-{X-]-WvUn-X³Iq-Sn-bm-bn-cp¶p. aq¶p I¸-ep-I-fn-embn ]pd-s¸« bm{Xm-kwLw Hcp sImSp-¦m-d-dn-eI-s¸-«p. c­p I¸-ep-IÄ 687 HIvtSm-_-dn tIc-f-¯n-se-¯n. sImSp-§ÃqÀ Sm³Ko-en-bm-§n\pw hJq^v Be-an¡pw Kw`o-c-amb kzoI-c-W-amWv \ÂIn-b-Xv. Sm³Ko-en-bm-§nsâ aX-{]-N-cWw tIc-f-¯nsâ Z£n-W-`m-K-§fn \nÀ_m[w XpSÀ¶p. samtdm-s¡, SqWn-kv, CuPn]vXv XpS-§nb cmPy-§-fnÂ\n¶p I¨-h-S-¡mÀ sImSp-§-ÃqÀ h¶p Xmh-f-a-Sn-¨n-cp¶ Ime-am-bn-cp¶p AXv. hJq^v Be-an sImSp-§-ÃqÀ cmPm-hnsâ AXn-Ynbmbn Xma-kn-¨p. cmP-Ip-Spw-_-¯n s]« Hcp {]ap-J\v hnjw Xo­nbXmbn hJq^v Be-ansb At±-l-¯nsâ kplr-¯p-¡Ä Adnbn-¨p. hnj-ssh-Zy-¯n sshZKv²yw k¼m-Zn¨ Bean hnj-an-d-¡n. cmPmhv Be-ansb Xsâ kz´w sshZy-\mbn AwKo-I-cn-¨p. Bean sIm«m-c-ssh-Zy-\mbn tPmen-t\m-¡p-t¼mÄ At±-l-¯n\v Fgp-]-s¯«v hbÊv {]mb-ap-­m-bn-cp-¶p. Be-an-bpsS ssN\okv kplr-¯p-¡Ä¡v Xma-kn-¡m-\pÅ Øehpw sI«n-Shpw cmPmhv \evIn. ssN\bpw tIcfhpw X½n-epÅ hym]m-c-kw-_-Ô-amb FÃm _Ô-§fpw Be-an-bpsS taÂt\m-«-¯n \S-¶p. ]{´­p kwh-Õ-cs¯ tIc-f-¯nse Xma-k¯n-¶p-tijw {In:699 ssN\-bn-te¡p aS-§n. ssN\-bn-se-¯nb 13

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p. 15

DSs\ ssN\okv apÉow-I-fpsS \ymbm-[n-]-\mbn Be-ansb Xnc-sª-Sp¯p. ]s£ k©m-c-{]n-b-\mb Bean sXm®q-ddn H¶m-as¯ hb-Ên A´-cn-¨p. tI¬S-\nse Hcp XoÀ°m-S-\-Ø-e-ambn Be-an-bpsS ivaim\-a-WvU]w Ad-_n-I-sfbpw ssN\m-¡m-tcbpw BIÀjn-¨p-sIm-­n-cp¶p. Be-ansb Hcp ]cn-jv¡À¯m-hn-s\-t¸mse KWn-¨n-cp¶ Zm³Knen-bm§v ""Sm³Kn-en-bmkv t\m«vkv'' F¶ Ncn-{X-{K-Ù-¯n C§ns\ Fgp-Xn-bn-cn-¡p¶p: ""I¸Â Imd-dn-e-I-s¸-«n«pw [oc-\mb Bean FÃm-hscbpw kam-iz-kn¸n¨psIm-­n-§-s\-bmWv ]d-ª-Xv: "Bßm-hn\p ss[cyw \ÂIm³ kÀÆ-i-à-t\mSp {]mÀ°n-¡p-I, ss[cy-am-bn-cp-¶m sImSp-¦m-d-dns\ \ap¡p Iog-S-¡mw. FÃm-hcpw lq¡-h-en¨p ^enXw ]d-bp-I. I¸Â Ic-¡-W-bpw…' Bean IÀ½w sN¿p-¶-Xn Ft¸mgpw ipjv¡m-´n-bp-f-f-h-\m-bn-cp-¶p. ]I-bpw, Akq-b-bpw, Al-´bpw At±ls¯ Hcn-¡epw kv]Àin-¨n-Ã. k©m-c-th-f-bn CXn-lm-k-I-Y-IÄ hÀ®n-¨p-]-d-bp-Ibpw bm{Xm-hn-h-c-W-§Ä FgpXn kq£n-¡p-Ibpw sN¿p-¶-Xn Bean {]tXyIw {i²n-¨n-cp-¶p. ssN\-bnÂ\n¶p ae-_mdn-te¡p hcp¶ k©m-cn-I-fpsS F®w Hmtcm hÀj-¯nepw IqSn-¡qSn h¶p. Be-an-bpsS t{]c-Wm-iàn A{Xbpw iàn-a-¯m-bn-cp-¶p. C´ym ssN\ _Ôs¯ ZrV-X-c-am-¡nb Be-ansb Bßo-b-Kp-cp-hns\-t¸mse Rm³ _lp-am-\n-¡p-¶p."" Bean tIc-f-s¯-Êw-_-Ôn¨p Xsâ Ncn-{X-{K-Ù-¯n F´mWv ]d-ªn-«p-f-f-sX-¶-dn-bm³ \ap-¡m-{K-l-ap-­v. Be-an-bp-tS-Xmbn hnizkm-lo-Xy-¯n\p e`n-¨n-«p-ÅXv Ccp-]-t¯gv hnin-jvS-{K-Ù-§-fm-Wv. CXn ]Xn-\m-sd®w temI-¯nse CXc `mj-I-fn-te¡v ]Xn-\memw \qd-dm-­n-\p-ap-¼p-Xs¶ ]IÀ¯-s¸-«n-«p-­v. ssN\okv `mj-bn BZyambn JpÀ-Bsâ Hc-]qÀ®-hym-Jym\w Fgp-Xn-bXv Be-an-bm-Wv. a²y-Im14

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