Mughal Samrajyathilude oru Yathra

 

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Mughal Samrajyathilude oru Yathra by P A Sayed Mohammed

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p. 1

apKÄ k{amPy¯neqsS Hcp bm{X ]n. F. skbvXpapl½Zv

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p. 2

]n. G. skbvXpapl½Znsâ IrXnIÄ Ncn{XtIcfw k©mcnIÄ I­ tIcfw tIcfw \qäm­pIÄ¡v ap¼v tIcf Ncn{XNn´IÄ tIcf Ncn{Xho£Ww apKÄkm{amPy¯neqsS Hcp bm{X tIcf apÉow Ncn{Xw

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p. 3

apKÄ k{amPy¯neqsS Hcp bm{X ]n. F. skbvXpapl½Zv

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p. 4

Ipdn¸v apKÄ k{amPy¯neqsS Hcp bm{X sshhn[yapÅ GXm\pw teJ\§fpsS kamlmcamWv. tIcfIuapZn, {]`mXw, aebmf at\mca, kmlnXy ]cnj¯v N{µnI XpS§nb ]{X§fpsS hntijm {]XnIfn ]et¸mgmbn FgpXnbn«pÅ teJ\§Ä Iq«nt¨À¯XmWv, Ncn{Xt¯bpw k©mc kmlnXyt¯bpw kv]Àin¡p¶ {]IrXnteJ\§Ä. klrZcmb BkzmZIÀ¡nãs¸Spsa¶v IcpXs«, hfÀ¶phtc­Xmb c­pimJIfntebv¡v \ÂIp¶ Cu Ffnb kw`mh\ kmZcw kzoIcn¨mepw. kkvt\lw, ]n. G. skbvXpapl½Zv

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p. 5

Df-f-S¡w A¿¸\pw hmhcpw ................................................................................................. 5 apKÄ km{amPy¯neqsS Hcp bm{X ..................................................................... 11 Ncn{X¯nsâ apJy[mica ................................................................................... 16 `mjmkmlnXyNcn{X¯nse ImWm¯ I®nIÄ ................................................. 20 H«Ia\pjy³ ....................................................................................................... 26 Jm¯qWnsâ Ncn{XIY ................................................................................... 32 tIcf Ncn{Xhpw hntZi kwkvImchpw ............................................................... 35 tIcf Ncn{X]T\¯ns\mcp apJhpc ................................................................... 41 tIcf¯nsâ `qanimkv{Xw ................................................................................... 42

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p. 6

A¿¸\pw hmhcpw \qäm­pIÄ¡¸pd¯v [mÀ½nI {]NcWw \S¯nbncp¶psh¶v hnizkn¡s¸Sp¶ {io A¿¸sâ k¶n[nbn Bbnc¡W¡n\v A¿¸`à·mÀ ISp¯ XWp¸ns\ IqkmsX hÀjw tXmdpw sNs¶¯mdp­v. i_cnaebn \nÀÆmWaSªncn¡p¶ A¿¸³ tIcf¯n\p ]pd¯p\n¶pw XoÀ°mSIsc BIÀjn¨phcp¶p. `àtemI¯nse CXnlmk]pcpj\mbn¯oÀ¶ A¿¸t\bpw, hnizkvXan{Xamb hmhtcbpw `àymZcw a\Ên {]XnjvTn¨pv, Icn¼Ss¡«pambn tIcf¯nsâ imànItcJbmb Ing¡³ aeIÄ Ibdp¶ \njvIma{hXsc ImWpt¼mÄ lpbm§vkm§nsâ IqsS _p²Kb kµÀin¡m³ hcmdpÅ ]pcmX\ ssN\okv kmÀ°hmlIscbmWv HmÀ½hcnI. _u²kwkvImc¯nsâ btim[mhfyamWv No\sc C´ybntebv¡v BIÀ-jn-¨-sX-¦n AXp-t]m-se-X-s¶-bp-Å kmw-kvIm-cn-I-kn-²n-bm-Wv XoÀ-°m-SI-sc i-_-cn-a-e-bn-te-bv-¡m-IÀ-jn-¡p-¶-Xv. H-cp C-Xn-lm-k-]p-cpj-sâ B-²ym-ßn-I-kn-²n-I-sfÃmw i-_-cn-a-e A-¿-¸-\p-s­-¶m-Wv `-à-·m-cp-sS hn-izmkw. A-h-Xm-c-]p-cpj-·m-cp-sS A-Wn-bn-em-Wv A-¿-¸-\n-¶v Øm\w \ÂIn-bn-«p-Å-Xv. `àn-amÀ¤¯n hne-bw {]m-]n-¨ncn-¡p-¶ a-\p-jy-lr-Zb-s¯ A-¿-¸-N-cn-Xw Io-g-S-¡n-I-gn-ªn-cn-¡p-I-bmWv. tI-c-f-N-cn-{X-¯nse cmPm-[n-]-Xy-hm-gv-¨-¡me-s¯ kw-`-h-§-fp-am-bn A-¿-¸\pv _Ô - -ap-s­-¶m-Wv ]-g-b-N-cn-{X-Im-c-·m-cp-sS hn-izmkw. C-Xn-lm-k-]p-cp-j\m-b inh-sâ \m-a-hp-am-bn i-_-cn-a-e A-¿¸-s\ _-Ô-s¸-Sp-¯p-¶-h-cpap­v. A-Úm-X\m-b a-lm-i-àn-I-fp-sS A-XnÀ-¯n-¡-¸p-d-¯p- I-bd-dn hÀ-®n-¡p-¶-Xn \n¶v, Iptd-¡q-Sn- -am-dn-\n-¶v Nc - n-{X-¯n-¶v F-¯n-¸n-Sn-¡m-hp-¶ A-XnÀ-h-c-¼p-I-fn hn-c-eq-¶n-t\m-¡m-\m-Wv B-{K-ln-¡p-¶Xv. A-¿-¸-]p-cm-Ww a-²y Xn-cp-hn-Xmw-Iq-dn ]´-fw cm-Py-s¯ cm-Pm-hp-am-bn A-¿¸-\v _-Ô-ap-­m-bn-cp-¶-Xm-bn ]-d-bp¶p. ]-´-f¯pv ]p-en-¸m ti-J-cn-¡m³ t]m-b H-cp \m-tSm-Sn-¡-Y-bp­v. A-¿-¸-³ ]-cm-{Ianbm-b kn-²-\m-bXp-sIm-­v G-Xp h-\y-P-´phn-t\m-Spw, b-£n-K-ÔÀ-Æ-·m-tcmSpw G-d-dp-ap-«m³ X¿m-dm-bn-cp¶p. ]p-en-¸m A-t\z-jn-s¨¯n-b A-¿-¸³ F-cp-ta-en-bn-epw, t]-«-bn-epw hn-{i-an¨p. t]-«bn "hm-h-cpv" A-²ym-ß-\n-c-X-\m-bn-cn-¡p-¶ Im-e-¯m-Wv A-¿¸-sâ k-l-bm-{X-\-S-¯p-¶Xv. t]-«-bnse Xn-cp-hà `-h-\-I-¯n cm{Xn D-d-§n-¡n-S-¡p-t¼mÄ a-\p-jy-Po-h³ A-]-l-cn-¨p-\-S-¡p-¶ H-cp IpSn-e-cq-]w A-¿¸-s\ a-W¯p-t\m¡n. B ]n-im-Nn-s\ h-[n-¡m³ A-¿-¸\pv k-lm-bw \ÂIn-b hm-hcpw A-hn-Sp-¯p-Imcpw A-¿-¸-`-à-\m-bn-¯oÀ¶p. A-¿-¸³ `-b-NI - n-X-\m-Im-sX i-_c - n-a-e-bn-te-bv¡v {]-th-in¨p. A-¿¸-s\ hm-hcpw ]n-´p-SÀ¶p. A-¿-¸-t\bpw hm-h-tcbpw A-t\z-jn-¨v \m-«p-ImÀ Cd - §n. c-­m-fp-tSbpw hn-{i-a-k-t¦-X-§-fn-se¯n. A-¿-¸³ h-[n-¨ t{]-Xhpw sI-«n-sb-Sp¯vp "A-¿¸-¯n-´-I-t¯mw kzm-an-Xn-´-I-t¯mw" F-¶mÀ-¯p-hn-jn¨p-sIm-­v \m-«p-ImÀ a-e-I-bdn. Cu B5

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p. 7

tLm-j-t¯m-Sp-IqSn "t]-«-XpÅÂ" F-¶ B-Nm-cw \-S-¸n h¶p. F-cpa-sb _-en-I-gn-¨-Xp-sIm-­v B Ø-e-¯n\v 'F-cp-taen' F-¶p t]-cp-­mbn. apÉnw A-[n-hm-k-tI-{µam-b F-cp-ta-en-bn hm-h-cpsS-bpw, A-¿-¸-tâ-bpw c-­p-t£-{X-§-fp-­v. A-hn-sS-bp-Å ap-kv-en-an-§Ä hm-h-cp-sS ]n³-Km-an-I-fmsW-¶p ]-d-bp¶p. F-cp-a-bp-sS cq-]-¯n-end-§n a-\p-jy-sc t{Zm-ln-¨n-cp-¶ Zp-ã-P-´p-hn-s\ ho-c-a-WnI-WvT-s\-¶ A-¿-¸\pw _m-h F-¶ hm-h-cpw-Iq-Sn I-Y I-gn-¨-Xnâ kv-a-c-W-bn-¡m-bn C-¶p \n-d-¸-In«p-Å B-Nm-c-§-fm-Wv A-hn-sS \-S-¡p-¶Xv. a-ln-jo-h-[-¯n-¶p X-¿m-sd-Sp-¯ H-cp hnÃm-fn-hoc-sâ {]-Xn-jvT-bm-Wv t]-«-bn A-¿-¸-i-m-kv-Xm-hn-sâ-t]-cn ImWp¶Xv. Fcptaen tIm«¸Sn t£{X¯n \n¶mcw`n¡p¶ XpÅ ]gbImes¯ kw`h§Ä kvacn¸n¡p¶XmWv. A¿¸³ þ Ahkm\s¯ _p²³ A¿¸³ ]´fw cmPmhnsâ hnizkvX\mbncp¶psh¦n i_cnae {]XnjvTbv¡v Bbnc¯nsec hÀjs¯ ]g¡w ImWpIbnÃ. `mcXob ]pcmW§fnsem¶pw A¿¸s\¸än ]dªpImWp¶nÃ. hmhÀ A¿¸sâ iànhntijw.{Kln¨v `àn]chim\nbXoÀs¶¶mWv A¿¸`à·mcpsS A`n{]mbw. A¿¸kwkvImc¯nsâ Bßmhv _u² kwkvImc¯ntâXmWv. _p²aXXz§fnse FÃm hi§fpw Gsd¡psd A¿¸sâ CXnlmk§fn Is­¯m³ Ignbpw. tIcf¯nsâ CcpfSª GSpIfn i_cnae imkvXmhv F¶dnbs¸Sp¶ A¿¸\v Øm\ap­v. _p²aX {]Xm]w {io i¦cmNmcycpsS ImeL«t¯mSqIqSn tIcf¯n A[x]Xn¨p. _u²aXhnizmknbmb cmPmhv tIcfw hn«v ]emb\w sNbv-sX¶\pam\nt¡­nbncn-¡p¶p. ]ctZin {_mÒWcmb `«_mW³, `«mNmcy³, `«tKm]me³ XpS§nbhÀ Ahkm\s¯ _p²aXcmPmhmb ]Ån_mWs\ tXmev]n¨Xmbn tIctfmev]¯nbpw ]dbp¶p­v. {_mÒWyw hyàamb kzm[o\w tIcf¡cbn sNep¯nbXv G. Un. \memw \qäm­n\pw F«mw \qäm­n\pw CSbv¡mWv. ]Ån_mWcmPmhv Xncph©n¡pf¯v\n¶v \oet¼cqÀ¡pw AhnsS\n¶pw Xncphà `mKt¯bv¡pw amdnbXmbn ]dbp¶p. Cu ]emb\¯n ]´f¯v `q]³ A`b³ \ÂInbn«p­mIWw. ]pen¸men¶p t]msb¶ `mKw Hgn¨p\ndp¯nbm Ct¸mÄ C´ybnse¯nbncn¡p¶ Zembvemasbt¸mse _p²aX cmPmhv ]´f¯v A`bw tXSnsb¶v {Kln¡mw. A¿¸³ AhnsS\n¶v Ing¡³ `mK§fntebv¡v t]mbXmbncn¡Ww. F«mw \qäm­nemWo ]emb\w \S¶sX¦n _mh F¶ Hcp apÉow {]amWnIsâ klmbw Cu cmPmhn\v e`n¨ncn¡Ww. hmh F¶m ]men`mjbn t\Xmsh¶pw _mhsb¶m {]NmcIs\¶pw AÀ°ap­tÃm? _p²aX kmlnXyw ]men`mjbnemWv FgpXnbn«Xv. _mh _lpam\kqNIambn ‘hmhcv’ F¶mbn¯oÀ¶p. ‘hmhcv kzman’ t\Xmhmb bPam\\mbn¡gnªp. “Hcp apkvenw kn²³” F¶mWv A¿¸ Ncn{XIÀ¯m¡Ä hmhsc hntijn¸n¡p¶Xv. 6

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p. 8

hmhcpsS _Ôw _p²aX {]Xm]w \ndwa§nb ImeL«¯nemWv {_mÒWtcmsSm¸w {InkvXym\nIfpw apÉowIfpw kPohambn cwK¯ph¶Xv. _p²aX¯nsâ t\XrXz¯n hn«p]ncnª P\Xsb hÀ®{]iv\§Ä¡v {]m[m\yw \ÂInb {_mÒWy¯n\v th­hn[¯n Bizkn¸n¡phm³ IgnªnÃ. AXpsIm­v _p²aX hnizmknIfmb ]ecpw ss{IkvXhcmbpw, apÉoan§fmbpw cq]m´cs¸«p. A¡me¯v \nch[n _p²aX tZhmeb§Ä (]tKmUIÄ) ss{IkvXhcpsSbpw apÉoan§fpsSbpw ]ÅnIfmbn amdn “]Ån” F¶ t]cnemWv _p²t£{X§fpw tIcf¯nednbs¸«ncp¶Xv. ]Ån ]men`mjbmWv. Ipf¯p]pg, am¼g¯d, Bcy¦mhv, A¨³tImhnÂ, IpSamfqÀ, tNÀ¯e, ]mÞhw, sImS§ÃqÀ, tN¸mSv XpS§nb Øe§fnep­mbncp¶ _p²aXtI{µ§Ä {ItaW \mamhtijambn. A¡mes¯ _p²tZhm eb§fpsS I¯dIfn sslµh, ss{IkvXh, apÉow Bcm[\m tI{µ§Ä DbÀ¶ph¶p. XncphnÃm Xmeq¡nse Xr¡mIpSn t£{X¯n cq]w, tNäphm aW¸pd¯v kmln_nsâ ]Ån¡v hS¡phiw ImWp¶ cq]§Ä \ncWw {]tZit¯bpw ]pXpXmbn I­p]nSn¡s¸« \ne¡tebpw ss{IkvXhtZhmebw þ ChsbÃmw _p²aX Imes¯ kvamcI§fmWv. A¡met¯m AXn\Spt¯m tIcf¯n \n¶v Øew amdnb _p²aX{]Xm]hm\mbncp¶p C¶s¯ i_cnae imkvXmhv. At±ls¯ kzmKXw sNbvX hmhcpw Fcptaenbn hmkapd¸n¨ncn¡Ww. jd^n_n\pamen¡nsâbpw, amen¡n_v\pZo\mdmsâbpw hwi]mc¼cbnÂs¸« ]ecpw CÉmwaX {]NcWmÀ°w tIcf¯nsâ ]e`mK§fntebv¡pw \ntbmKn¡s¸«ncp¶p. AXnÂs¸« aX{]NmcI\mbncn¡pw hmhcvkzman. ]¯mw \qäm­nemWnXv kw`hns¨¦n apÉow kq^nIfpsS {]NmcWImeambncp¶Xv. hmhcpsS BØm\amb Fcptaenbn Xn§n¯makn¡p¶ apÉoan§Ä \qäm­pIÄ¡v aps¼ AhnsS Xmakam¡nbXmWv. AhnSs¯ ]Ånbpw apÉow ]mc¼cyw hyàam¡p¶p­v. ]s£ Ct¸mgpÅXnt\¡mÄ Hcp ]gb ]Ån AhnsS D­mbncp¶Xmbn ]dbp¶p. hmhsc¸änbpÅ sFXnly¯n Fcptaen¡mcpw Gsd¡psd hnizkn¡p¶p. hmhcpsS P·IY hnhcn¡p¶ A¿¸Km\§fn C§s\ImWpw. “XIrXn¯n³tXm«¯n ]m¯p½ s]sämcp hmhcv” hmhcpsS apÉow ]mc¼cyw \nÊtµlw {]Jym]n¡p¶ C¯cw Km\iIe§Ä A¿¸`à·mÀ Be]n¡mdp­v. hmhcpsS kt¦X¯n\v JzmPmapCu\p±o³jnjv¯nbpsS t]mse {]NcWw \ÂIn th­{X ]cnc£ \ÂIpIbmsW¦n XoÀ°mSIsc BIÀjn¡phm³ Ignbpambncp¶p. A¿¸`à·mtcbpw AÃm¯htcbpw BIÀjn¡m³ ]änb Fcptaen kt¦Xw KthjWaÀln¡p¶ tI{µamWv. 7

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p. 9

AactImi¯nse A¿¸³ AactImi¯n imkvXmhv _p²ap\nbmcp¶psh¶v Hcp ]cymb hnhcWwsIm­v kqNn¸n¡p¶p. lcnlckpXs\¸änbpÅ IoÀ¯\§fn “_p²w icWw, [À½w icWw” apg§nt¡Ä¡mw. Cu s_u² ap{ZmhmIyw tem]ns¨¦nepw i_cnae Ibdpt¼mÄ `à·mÀ D¨¯n CtXäphnfn¡mdp­v. _p²aX`àcmb A\pbmbnIÄ X§fpsS Bcm²y]pcpjt\mSpÅ AanXamb kvt\lw sIm­v imkvXmhns\ ]ethj¯nepw kzImcyt£{X§fp­m¡n {]XnjvTn¨n«p­v. AXn IncoS[mcnbmb imkvXmhpw, h\m´c¯n X]ÊnteÀs¸«ncn¡p¶ imkvXmhpw, A¼pw hnÃpambn ZpãarK\n{Kl¯n\v \n¡p¶ imkvXmhpw DÄs¸Sp¶p. _lpP\§fpsS kvt\l_lpam\mZnIÄ¡v ]m{Xo`qX\mbncp¶ {]PmhÕe\mb cmPmhv \mSphnt«mSn. At±lw tIcf¯n {_mÒWyw ]SÀ¶pIbdnbt¸mÄ A`bmÀ°nbmbn Xncn¨XmsW¦nepw k¼¶mb Fcptaenbnse apÉow t\Xmhv A`bw \ÂIn. CXmWv i_cnae A¿¸s\ kw_Ôn¨pÅ P\Iob sFXnlyambn ]cnKWnt¡­Xv. h\{]tZiambXpsIm­v Im«pt]m¯ns\ ChÀ Hcpan¨v th«bmSnbn«p­mIpw. kw`hn¡mhp¶ C¯cw Imcy§Ä¡v `àkaqlw AÛpX¯nsâ ]cnthjw AWnbn¨p. alm·mcmb P\t\Xm¡Ä P\XbpsS kmaqlyt_m[a\pkcn¨v hocmßm¡fpw kn²·mcpamIpw. Imew AXn\v AÛpXkn²nIfpsS BhcWw AWnbn¡mdp­v. _p²aXm\pbmbnIÄ¡v D­mbncp¶ _mh F¶ t]À PmXnaXt`{Zsat\y _lpam\\maambn tIcfobÀ kzoIcn¨p. BXnYyacymZbpw DbÀ¶ a\pjykvt\lhpw ]peÀ¯nbncp¶ hmhcv ]Xdm¯ lnµpþapÉow ssa{XnbpsS {]XoIambn¯oÀ¶ncn¡pIbmWv. k©mcamÀ¤§Ä tIcf¯nsâ ]e`mK§fn \ns¶¯p¶ A¿¸`à·mÀ ]mc¼cyambn Nne Nn«IÄ A\pjvTn¨pt]mcp¶hcmWv. I­ImIoÀ®ambn hgnIfneqsS lnw{kP´p¡fpsS B{IaWw `b¶mbncn¡pw A¿¸`à·mÀ \nÝnXkt¦X¯nse¯nt¨cpI. ImÂ\qäm­n\pap¼v _p²napt«dnb Hcp XoÀ°mSIbm{Xbmbncp¶psh¦n C¶v i_cobm{X A{X ZpjvIcaÃ. hml\kuIcyhpw, ]cnjvIrXamb aäm\pIqey§fpw bm{X¡mÀ¡v Bizmkw \ÂIp¶p­v. bm{X¡mÀ tIm«bw hgn Fcptaenbnse¯n BNmc§fn ]¦psIm­tijw t]cqÀ¡v t]mIp¶p. A¿¸·mÀ¡v kv\m\¯n¶p ]änb t]cqÀtXmSv \à \ocpdhbmWv. CSXn§n\n¡p¶ hr£§fpsS km{amPy¯ntebv¡mWv AhnsS\n¶v `à·mcpsS bm{X. Im\\`wKn Ia\ob`mhw IeÀ¶p\n¡p¶ Cu km\p{]tZi¯neqsS ImfsI«nsb¶ Xmgvhc{]tZi¯n sNs¶¯mw. aebpsS aSn¯«pt]mse ØnXnsN¿p¶ ImfsI«nbntebv¡v Fcptaenbn \n¶v F«p\mgnI bm{XsN¿Ww. ]pcmW§fn koXmt\zjW`mK¯v hÀ®n¡s¸«n«pÅ kpµtcmZym\§Ä ChnsS ImWmw. “kÀƯp 8

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p. 10

^eIpkpamVy]mZ]eXmkwhrXw, \m\marKk©b \nt£hnX”§fpsa¶v ]pcmWIhn hÀ®n¨ `mK§Ä ChnsS Ne¨n{X¯nse¶t]mse Xnf§n¡mWmw. ImfsI«nt]mse at\mlcamWv AgpXm\Zn¡c. kpKÔhmln\nbmb h\hÃnIfpw sN¼Ibv¡m¡peIÄ Xn§n\n¡p¶ Ihp§n³tXm«§fpw ChnsSbps­¶v {iocma³ koXtbmSv ]dªXmbn ImWp¶p. Cu \ZnbpsS CcpIcIfnepw A¿¸·mÀ XmhfaSn¡p¶p. ]mdIfn Nncn¨mÀ¯pÃkn¨phcp¶ ip²Pe¯n Ipfn¨v {]IrXnbpsS alXzs¯¸än AÛpXw]q­v ChnsS kpJ\n{Z {]m]n¡p¶p. shÅw IpSn¡m³ Nnet¸mÄ KPhoc·mÀ Cu aW¯n«nbn hcmdp­v. Iq«mb icWw hnfn Dbcpt¼mÄ CXn\Sp¯ h\m´À`mK¯v Xmakn¡p¶ KncnhmknIÄ F¯nt\m¡mdp­v. A¿¸t\¡mÄ ap¼v ChnsS ]mÀ¸pd¸n¨ AhÀ¡v ]cnjvIrXP\XbpsS Cu {]hmlw ImWpt¼mÄ F´ptXm¶psa¶dnªnÃ. AgpXm \µn¡sc \n¶v bm{X¡mÀ AgpXmtaSv Ip¶pIbdm³ X¿msd¡pIbmbn. A¿¸hnizmkt¯msS Cu Ip¶pIbdn IS¶m ASp¯ hn{iatI{µamb C©¸mdbn sNs¶mcp Ccn¸p­v. ChnsS A[nI kabw Ccp¶m h\yarK§fpambn IqSn¡mgvN th­nhcpw. AXv `b¶v Icnaet¯mSnse¯n H¶p \Sp\nhÀ¡p¶p. At¸mtg¡pw KncncmPmhmb KPhoc·mcpsS Øew hn«psImÅpI F¶ sskd¬ tIÄ¡mw. thKw `mÞw apdp¡n Icnae Ibdm³ X¿msdSp¡pIbmbn. “Icnae Ibäw ITn\sasâb¸m” F¶ thZ\ \ndª CuWt¯msS ap{ZmhmIyw apg¡n `à·mÀ apt¶m«mªpXpS§p. IcnaeIbän\v Bßss[cyhpw GIm{KXbpw BhiyamWv. Icnaebnd§nbm henb B\¯mhWw ImWmw. AhnsSbncps¶m¶v hnbÀ¸pXpS¨v \Sp\nhÀ¯mw. A[nIkabambm PeZpÀ`n£XmkabamsW¦n B\IÄ B Øes¯¯nsb¶pw hcmw. `mcXob ]pcmW§fn hÀ®n¡s¸«n«pÅ ]¼m\Zn at\mlcamb Hcp ZriyamWv. koXmt\zjWmÀ°w cmae£vaW·mÀ Cu hgnsb h¶n«ps­¶mWv ]pcmWw. koXtbbpw sIm­v cma³ aS§pt¼mÄ ]¼bpsS at\mlmcnX Nq­n¡m«nbpcp¶p. cmambWIÀ¯mhv “]pjv]eXmhcnthãnX]mZ]kÂ^e tkhnXw k´pãP´pIw” F¶p hntijn¸n¨n«pÅXv Cu {]IrXnZriys¯bmWv. A\´amb I®mSn¨nÃpt]mse sh«n¯nf§p¶ ]¼m\ZnbpsS Xoc§fn A¿¸`à·mÀ Iq«pambn h¶p\ndbpw. ]¼m\Zn¡cbn I¨hS¡mcpw F¯nt¨cpw. ]¼m\\Znsb BenwK\w sN¿p¶ {XnthWnbpw ChnsSbmWv. {XnthWnSnbnsem¶v kv\m\w sNbvXv ]¼m\Zn¡cnsb kZybn ]¦psIm­v A¿¸`à·mÀ cm{XnImew icWw hnfn¨v inhcm{Xnbm¡n¡gnbp¶p. hÀ®¸Int«dnb ]¼bnse cm{Xn Hcp almtafbpsS {]XoXn P\n¸n¡p¶p. ]¼bpsS ]cnkc§fn A¿¸\pw hmhcpw sskzchnlmcw \S¯nbncp¶p. amap\namÀ N{aw]Snªncp¶p temIImcy§Ä \nb{´n¨ncp¶Xv ]¼bpsS IcbnÂsh¨mbcp¶psh{Xw. ]©kmcaW \ndª at\mlcamb ]¼m{]tZiw a\pjykv]Ài\taäv ]pfIw sImÅp¶Xv A¿¸·mcpsS hcthmSpIqSnbmWv. ]¼bnse Xmak¯n\ptijw \oenae Ibdn A¸m¨ntaSpw IS¶p i_cn]oT¯nse¯p¶ A¿¸·mÀ 9

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p. 11

X§fpsS hgn]mSpIÄ \S¯p¶p. A¿¸s\ kao]n¡pwtXmdpw icWwhnfn¡v iànIqSp¶p. A¿¸ZÀi\¯n\mbn ]Xns\«mw]Sn Ibdns¨Ãp¶ `à·mÀ ]SnIfn \mfntIcw DSbv¡p¶p. ]Xns\«mw]Sn¡v apIfn ]ÅnsImÅp¶ A¿¸\v ASp¯pXs¶ hmhÀ kmln_nt\bpw {]XnjvTn¨n«p­v. ]Xns\«mw]SnbpsS ap³hiw A¿¸sâ hnizkvXan{Xamb hmhÀ CsXÃmw I­v \nÀÆnImc\mbncn¡pIbmWv. `àÀ hmhsc `b`àntbmsS hµn¨n«mWv ]S Ibdp¶Xv. X§sf ad¡m¯ P\§fpsS A\ptamZ\{]IS\w I­v A¿¸\pw hmhcpw aqI`mjbn ktµi§Ä ssIamdp¶p­mImw. GXm\pw hÀj§Ä¡v ap¼v Nne IpkrXnIÄ i_cnaebn Hcp Xosh¸v \S¯n. ]s£ AXn\ptijw `à·mcpsS hchv IqSpIbmWp­mbXv. Ct¸mÄ tZhkzw t_mÀUnsâ IognemWv i_cnae A¿¸\pw kvt\lnX³ hmhcpw hmgp¶Xv. AhpsS CwKnXm\pkcWw t_mÀUv kuIcy§tfÀs¸Sp¯pIbmWs{X. `à·mÀ h­ns¸cnbmÀ hgn¡pw i_cnae hs¶¯p¶p­v. bm{XmkuIcyw `à·msc B hgn¡mWv Xncn¨phnSp¶Xv. tIcf¯n C{Xtbsd Bcm[IÀ Hcpan¨pIqSp¶ Øew asäm¶nÃ. Ct¸mÄ ip²Pew, hnf¡v, ipNoIcWw, XpS§nb Imcy§en `cWm[nImcnIÄ IqSpX {i²sNep¯p¶p­v. hÀjwtXmdpw AhnsS hogp¶ hchnsâ IW¡v `oaamWv. hnizmknIÄ¡pw AÃm¯hÀ¡pw {]thin¡mhp¶ Hcp tIs{µsa¶ \nebn i_cnae {]kn²amWv. \qäm­pIÄ¡¸pd¯v kw`hns¨¶p ]dbp¶ Hcp ]pcmWhr¯w a\pjycpsS hnizmk§sf `cn¡p¶ ImgvNbmWv i_cnaebn ImWp¶Xv. sFXnlyamsW¦nepw imizXamb lnµp þ apkveow ssa{XnbpsS BZÀi]m{X§fmb A¿¸t\mSpw hmhtcmSpw IrXÚXcmbncn¡pI. 10

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p. 12

apKÄ km{amPy¯neqsS Hcp bm{X kuµcycm[mI·mcpsS BimtI{µamb SmPvalmfns\ amdneS¡n¸nSn¨v hn{ian¡p¶ B{Km\Kchpw ]cnkc{]tZi§fpw Ncn{Xmt\zjIsc AÛpXs¸Sp¯p¶ tI{µ§fmWv. a\pjy{]bXv\¯nsâ alXzt¯bpw, kpJtemep]·mcmb `cWm[nIcnIfpsS {]Xm]t¯bpw tXtPmab¡n¯oÀ¡p¶ B Ncn{Xkt¦X§Ä \qäm­pIsf ]n¶n«v tZim´c§fmb almÛpX§sf ]cmPbs¸Sp¯n C¶pw Kmw`ocyt¯msS XebpbÀ¯n \nev¡pIbmWv. C´ymNcn{X¯n IeIfpsS kphÀ®Imew Bcw`n¡p¶Xv apKnfcpsS B[n]Xyt¯mSpIqSnbmWv. sslµh kwkvImc¯n \n¶pSseSp¯ hnhn[ hÀ¤§Ä ]e {]bmWamÀ¤§fpw Is­¯n ]ncnªpt]mbn. sshZnI ImeL«w Ignªm AtimIsâ BKa\w htcbpw Iem\ntIX\§Ä Imcyam{X{]kàambn hfÀ¶nÃ. AtimIsâ \thm°m\t¯mSpIqSn IebpsS kÀ¤iàn ]qhn«v hncnbm³ XpS§n. B ImeL«¯nsâ khntijXIfmWv C´y³ IebpsS Bßmhns\ ssNX\yh¯m¡n¯oÀ¯Xv. B kwkvImcnI hn¹h¯nsâ Pbt`cn ZnK´§sf tcmam©w sImÅn¨pIgnªt¸mtgbv¡pw, hntZiobÀ ssI_ÀNpcw hgn I®©n¸n¡p¶ \½psS sslahX`qhn Ibdn¸än. {]bmW {]XymLmX§fn C´ybn ]ecptSbpw sNt¦mepIfpw In¶cns¯m¸nIfpw sXdn¨pt]mbn. P\hÀ¤§fpsS sshtZinIthgvNbpsS kzm[o\w ]SÀ¶p. apl½Zn_v\pImknansâ knÔm{IaWw ]«mf¡mtcmsSm¸w t]gvky³ Icbn \n¶v ]e PohnX k{¼Zmb§fpw ChnsS Cd¡paXn sNbvXp. t]gvky hmknIfptSbpw AbÂtZi¡mcptSbpw kzmÀ°hmlI kwL§Ä C´y³ kaXe¯n IqSmcaSn¨p. kacw, hym]mcw, kmwkvImcnI{]NcWw F¶o apJ§fneqsS Ahcn´ybn X§fpsS kzm[o\w sNep¯n. B kzm[o\hebw hnIkn¨p. cmPy`mcw AhÀ It¿äp. CXmWv t]gvky¡mcpw C´y¡mcpw X½nepÅ thgvNbpsS Ncn{Xw. {_n«ojv km{amPy¯ns\XnscbpÅ {]Xm]w \ne\nÀ¯n. {_n«ojv ssk\y¯nsâ A{]Xntcm[yamb B{IaWt¯msS X§fpsS al¯mb kwkvImcw kvamcIhkvXp¡fn Dt]£n¨hÀ A{]Xy£cmbn. kw`h_lpeamb B IYbmWv B \Kcnbnse Ncn{XkvamcI§Ä¡v ]dbm\pÅXv. apKÄ km{amPy¯nsâ {]Xm]hpw sFizcyhpw C´ymNcn{X¯nse anI¨ A²ymb§fmWv. im´Kw`oc\mb t__À N{IhÀ¯nbpsS Imew apXemcw`n¡p¶ B {]Xm]w _lZqÀjmbpsS Imet¯mSpIqSn \mamhtijamIpIbmWv. C¶s¯ UÂlnbS¡w Ccp¶qdne[nIw NXpc{issa apKÄkm{amPy¯nsâ D¶X tIm«Ifm kpc£nXambncp¶p. UÂlnbn Ahtijn¨n«pÅ Nph¸ptIm«bpw, PpamakvPnZpw aq¶v cmP¡·mcpsS Ime¯v sI«nbpbÀ¯nb Ip«_van\mdpw apÉow inev]IebptSbpw, `cW{]Xm]¯ntâbpw kvacWIÄ ImgvN¡mcn Dfhm¡p¶p. apKÄhwi¯nsâ BØm\hpw kpJhmktI{µhpw UÂlnbn \n¶v \qänbncp]¯nb©p\mgnI Zqsc ØnXnsN¿p¶ B{Kbnembncp¶p. hnizw ]d¸n¡p¶ 11

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p. 13

`cW¯eh·mÀt]mepw kµÀi\mhkc¯n \nÀ¶ntajcmbn t\m¡n\n¶v AÛpXw {]ISn¸n¡p¶ SmPvalmÄ Cu \KcnbnemWv. C´ym Ncn{X¯nse {]Xm]imenIfmb `cWIÀ¯m¡fpsS XeØm\w kµÀin¡p¶hÀ¡v al¯mb ]e A\p`h§fpap­mIpw. XIÀ¶ tKm]pc§fpw kvXq]§fpw amdneS¡n¸nSn¨v `qXImekvacWIsf ]pÂIn \nÈ_vZambn¡nS¡p¶ B {]tZiw PnÚmkp¡fn Fs´´p hnImc§fmWv DWÀ¯nhnSp¶Xv. B{Km sdbnÂthtÌj\n \n¶v c­p \mgnI ZqscbmWv Ncn{X{]kn²amb SmPvalmfpw aäv ZÀi\tI{µ§fpw. B{Km\Kcw ]ucmWnI C´ybpsS XeØm\ambncp¶p. {InkvXphn\v ap¼v 3000þ ¯nÂXs¶ Ncn{X¯n B{K Øm\w IcØam¡nbn«p­v. bap\bpsS BenwK\taäpInS¡p¶ B{Kbv¡Sp¯mWv alm`mcXbp²w Xs¶ \S¶sX¶v Hcp hn`mKw Ncn{XImc·mÀ ]dbp¶p. a[pcm \Kcw Ipcpt£{Xambncps¶¶mWv A\pam\w. ChnsS ImWp¶ ]g¡apÅ inem{]XnaIfpw XIÀ¶ sI«nS§fpw Ncn{X{]kn²nbpÅXmWv. AtimI³ Cu \Kcw `cn¨ncp¶psh¶v Ncn{XmXoImes¯ sFXolyw at\mckapfhm¡p¶ IYIfS§nbXmWv. temIs¯hntSbpw kwkvImcw \ms¼Sp¯n«pÅXv \ZnXoc§fnemWv. C´ybn bap\bpsS Xoc{]tZihpw B \nebn alXztadnbXmWv. AXpsIm­mWv `cWIqS§fpw kmwkvImcnI {]_p²XbpÅ P\Xbpw AhnsS \ne\n¶Xv. B[p\nI B{Km \Kc¯nsâ Øm]I³ kp¯m³ kn¡´dmWv. Xnaqdnsâ ImeL«s¯ sI«nS§Ä s]mfn¨pamän t]gvky³ inev]Iemsku[§Ä ]WnXpbÀ¯m³ kn¡´À {ian¨p. 1503 þ  B{Km\Kcw ]WnXpbÀ¯p¶ {]hr¯nbn Hcpe£w the¡mÀ hym]rXcmbncp¶p. H¶pw c­pw ]m\n¸¯pbp²§Ä¡ptijamWv t__À N{IhÀ¯n¡v Xsâ A`nemja\pkcn¨v B{Kbv¡p tamSnIq«phm³ IgnªXv. C{_mlnw temUnbpsS B{IaW§ÄsIm­v kw`hn¨ \jvS§Ä \nI¯m³ t__À A\hcXw bXv\n¨Xmbn apKÄ hwiNcn{Xw hyàam¡p¶p­v. Hcp Ihnbmbncp¶ t__À XeØm\\Kcnbn temI{]kn²amb Hcp ]qt´m«w \nÀ½n¨p. IemImc·mcpsS Hcp kZÊv ]qt´m«¯n cq]wsIm­p. AhnsS ImhyIesb¸än Kw`oc§fmb NÀ¨Ifpw Ihnbmb t__À GÀ¸Sp¯nbncp¶p. t__dn\ptijw lpabq¬ ]nXmhns\ ]n´pSÀ¶p Iemsku[§Ä ]WnXpbÀ¯n. jmPlmt\t¸mse lqabqWpw Hcp t{]aKÔÀh\mbncp¶p. Xsâ t{]a[maamb laoZm_m\phnsâ CwKnXw F´mbncp¶mepw AXn¶mbn Poh³ _enIgn¡phm³ lqabq¬N{IhÀ¯n X¿mdmbncp¶p. t]gvky³ IhnIfpw inev]nIfpw apKÄhwi¯n \n¶v ASn¯q¬ ]än¯pS§nbXp lqabq¬ N{IhÀ¯nbpsS Ime¯mWv. apKÄhwi{]Xm]¯nsâ DÄ¡\w F´msW¶v {]Jym]n¡p¶Xv B{Km tIm«bmWv. apKÄ hwiP·mcmb cmPm¡·mcptSbpw dmWnIfptSbpw hnlmc cwKambncp¶ B{Km tIm« ]gbImes¯ A\p`qXnIÄ Abhnd¡n kpjp]vXnbn ebn¨ncn¡pIbmtWm F¶v tXm¶nt¸mIpw. hfªp]pfsªmgpIp¶ bap\bpsS Xoc¯pXs¶bmWv Cu tIm« \nev¡p¶Xv. c­p\nebn ]WnXpbÀ¯nbncn¡p¶ Cu Iqä³ ZpÀ¤¯n\I¯v ap¶qänbdp]¯nc­v hÀj¡mew apKÄhwi Akqbmhlamb hn[¯n X§fpsS 12

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p. 14

BÀ`mSPnhnXw \bn¨p. i{Xphns\ tXmev]n¡phm\pÅ X{´{][m\§fmb FÃm amÀ¤§fpw tIm«bv¡v ]pd¯pw AI¯pw ImWmw. Npänepw ImWp¶ tKm]pc§fpw Kw`oc§fmb {]thi\Zzmc§fpw tIm«bpsS AP¿amb {]Xm]¯n¶p amäpIq«ns¡m­ncn¡p¶p. UÂln {]thi\Zzmcw AamÀknwKv IhmSw, bap\m apJ{]thiw XpS§nb \mep henb tIm«hmXnepIfmWv BgapÅ InS§pIÄ¡v apIfn ]WnXn«pÅXv. AamÀknwKv {]thi\ Zzmc¯neqsSbmWv Ct¸mÄ kµÀiIÀ {]thin¡p¶Xv. C´ym þ t]gvky³ kwkvImc¯nsâ k¦enXcq]w Cu tIm«bn FhntSbpw ImWmw. Ie{]hoW·mcmb N{IhÀ¯namcpsS at\mhnemkw amÀ_nÄ IÃpIfn cq]w sIm­n«pÅXv Cu tIm«bv¡pÅnemWv. N{IhÀ¯namcpsS IncoS[mcWw \S¶n«pÅXv Cu tIm«bv¡pÅnemWv. N{IhÀ¯namcpsS IncoS[mcWw \S¶n«pÅXpw Cu tIm«bpsS A´À`mK¯pImWp¶ UÀ_mÀlmfnemWv. tIm«bv¡pNpäpw A¼Xn\mbncw ]«mf¡mÀ¡v c£mkt¦X§fp­mbncp¶p. kµÀiIsc AÛpX]cX{´cm¡p¶ Ccp«dIfpw BgapÅ \nehdIfpw Cu tIm«bn ImWmw. Cu kt¦X§sfÃmw Nph¶ IÃpIÄsIm­mWv \nÀ½n¨n«pÅXv. Hmtcm N{IhÀ¯n¡pw {][m\ kpJhmktKl§fp­mbncp¶p tIm«bnÂ. PlmwKoÀ al apKÄhwi¯nsâ kmwkvImcnI tI{µambncp¶p. PlmwKoÀ alfnemWv Ihnbn{XnIfmbncp¶ epÂ^n¶kbpw sPl¶mcbpw Imhy\nÀ½nXnbnteÀs¸«ncp¶Xv. 288 ASn \ofhpw 268 ASn hoXnbpapÅ Cu lmÄ \ndsb ImgvNhkvXp¡fmWpÅXv. sh«n¯nf§p¶ amÀ_nÄIÃpIÄ, kzÀ®w ]qinb AdIÄ, cXv\JNnX§fmb NphcpIÄ (cXv\w {_n«ojpImÀ sIm­pt]mbn) cmPIpamcnIfpsS IpfnapdnIÄ, ]qt´m¸v XpS§nb ImgvNIfpw ChnsSbp­v. t]gvky³ inev]Iehninã amXrIIÄ Cu lmfn \ndsb ImWmw. bap\bn \n¶v At\Iw ASn Dbc¯n shÅw Ir{Xnaambn Ibän PlmwKoÀalfnse Ipfnapdnbn F¯n¨ncp¶p. C¶pw F©n\nbÀamÀ¡v ]nSnIn«msXbncn¡p¶ Hcp {]iv\amWnXv. A¡me¯v hnZyxOànbp­mbncp¶nÃ. ]s£, F§ns\bmWnXp kw`hn¨ncp¶sX¶v BtemNn¨m BÀ¡pw ]nSnIn«p¶nà \qÀPnlm\pw apwXkv_oKhpw kv\m¯n¶p]tbmKn¨ncp¶ Ipfnapdn Ct¸mgpw Hcp hninã ImgvNhkvXphmbn kq£n¡s¸Sp¶p. hnhn[ hÀ®mewIrXamb B Ipfnapdnbn Pe¯n ssIImen«Sn¡pt¼mgp­mIp¶ shfn¨w cXv\¡ÃpIfpsS {]Imihpambn kt½fn¡pIIbpw AhnsS hnf¡pIfpsS klmbanÃmsX kv\m\w \S¯pIbpw sNbvXncp¶pht{X. kzÀ®w ]qinb Cu Ipfnapdnbn Hcp Xos¸«nt¡mepc¨m tXtPmabambn¡mWmw. jmPlm³ N{IhÀ¯n, Dd§m³ D]tbmKn¨ncp¶ clkymtemN\IÄ ‘ImkvalmÂ’ \S¯m\pw CXn\Sp¯mWv. ‘ImkvalÂ’ cmPyImcy§sf¸än NÀ¨sN¿m\pw D]tbmKn¨ncp¶p. {]nb]p{Xn sk\m\_oKhpambn X{´{][m\§fmb cmPyImÀ¿§Ä ChnsS sh¨mWv N{IhÀ¯n NÀ¨ sNbvXncp¶Xv. Cu lmfn Hcp Nn{Ximebp­mbncp¶p. Nn{X Iebn AXohXev]c\mbncp¶ N{IhÀ¯nbpsS {]ZÀi\ime IqSnbmbncp¶p Imkval CXn\v ap¼n ‘AwKpcn_mKv’ F¶ Hcp ]qt´m¸v ImWmw. ]qt´m¸n\v \mepNpäpw hfsctbsd BgapÅ apdnIÄ ImWmw. bap\bpsS Xoc¯p\n¶v IpfnÀImäSn¨p ImemhØsb 13

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p. 15

{Ias¸Sp¯p¶ jojvalepw ImWp¶p­v. k{¼Zmbw CXn\Sp¯mWv. t{]a[\y\mb ChnsSbp­mbncp¶p. c­p lmfpIfpw I®mSnbpsS amÀ_nÄ 1666 tIm« F¶dnbs¸Sp¶p ‘jojvalenÂ’ ZpxJaqIambn Ipf§fpw “k½³_ÀPv” jmPnlm³ N{IhÀ¯n \nesImÅp¶Xv jojvalen\Sp¯mWv. PlmwKoÀ N{IhÀ¯n Xsâ t{]bkn¡mbn \nÀ½n¨ Cu caylÀ½yw jmPnlmsâ Zpc´amb t{]a\mSI¯n\pIqSn km£yw hln¨p. Cu lÀ½y¯nencp¶m bap\bpsS adpIcbn \nÈ_vZXsb ]pWÀ¶pIgnbp¶ SmPvalmÄ N{IhÀ¯n¡v ImWmambncp¶p. B t{]akvamcIw I­psIm­mWv jmPnlm³ N{IhÀ¯n Xsâ Ahkm\Ime§Ä XÅn\o¡nbXv. Xsâ PohnX¯nse al¯mb kw`h§Ä N{IhÀ¯n kvt\lk¼¶bmb ]p{Xn Pl¶mcbv¡v ]dªpsImSp¯ncp¶p. hnetbdnb amÀ_nÄ IÃpIfmWv apøqtKm]pcsa¶dnbs¸Sp¶ “k½³_ÀPn” ]Xn¨n«pÅXv. N{IhÀ¯n kmbmÓ hn{ia¯n\ncn¡p¶ aÞ]¯n t]gvky³ cXv\§Ä ]Xn¨ncp¶p. Cu tKm]pc¯nÂ\n¶v tIm«bpsS {][m\ `mK§fntebv¡v {]thin¡phm\pÅ IhmS§Ä \nÀ½n¨ncp¶p. Ahbn NneXv Ct¸mÄ AS¨p ]q«nbncn¡pIbmWv. UÀ_mdntebv¡v ]pds¸Sp¶Xn\p ap¼v Cu tKm]pcw kµÀin¨ncp¶p. hnip² tI{µambn Cu aÞ]w ]cnKWn¡s¸«p. Pl¶mc_oK¯nsâ IhnXbpw t{]ahpw s]m«nhnSÀ¶Xpw Cu aÞ]¯n sh¨mWv. jmPnlm³ Xsâ I\njvT]p{Xn tdmjv\mc_oK¯n\v ]Wnbn¨psImSp¯ kzÀ®aÞ]w asämcp ImgvNbmWv. Imkvalensâ Z£n]mÀiz¯n ØnXnsN¿p¶ Cu kzÀ®aÞ]¯nsâ \nÀ½mW¯n sIm«mc¯nse cmPIpamcnamcpw tXmgnIfpw ]s¦Sp¯ncp¶p. ]©teml§Ä sIm­v \nÀ½n¨ XqWpIfpw, amÀ_nfpw sN¼pwIqSn H«n¨ Xdbpw Cu aÞ]¯nsâ {]tXyIXbmWv. ChnsS {]kn² ]mcknI Ihnbmbcp¶ lm^nknsâ Ih\iIe§Ä sIm¯nsh¨ncp¶p. kzÀ®w ]qinb \ndw ]nSn¸n¨ncp¶ B ImhyiIe§Ä ]q\nemhn sh«n¯nf§nbncp¶phs{X. AXmhÀ¯n¨p ]mSp¶Xn tdmjv\mc Xmev]cyw {]ISn¸n¨ncp¶p. cmPIobmÚIÄ ]pds¸Sphn¨ncp¶ ‘Znhm\nImkn’sâ ASn¯dbv¡v henb tISpIsfm¶pw ]ämsX Ct¸mgpw ImWmw. 1637 þ  jmPnlm³ \nÀ½n¨ Cu X{´ImÀ¿meb¯nemWv XZ\´capÅ apKÄ`cW{]iv\§Ä¡v ]cnlmcw I­Xv. Znhm\nImknsâ ]Ýna]mÀiz¯n N{IhÀ¯n \akvIcn¨ncp¶ ‘an\mÀakvPnZv’ \nev-¡p¶p. D¯c]mÀiz¯n N{IhÀ¯nbpsS IpfnapdnbpsS \ãmhinã§Ä ImWmw. temÀUv s_³dn¡v B Ipfnapdnbnse hne]nSn¸pÅ s^u­³ teew sNbvXp hnäp. cmPIob{]Xm]s¯ hnfn¨dnbn¡p¶ CXnsâ aÞ]¯nep­mbncp¶ teml¯qWpIfpw {_n«ojpImÀ ]ngpXpsIm­p t]mbn«p­v. PlmwKoÀ N{IhÀ¯n \nÀ½n¨ cmPIob knwlmk\w hnimeamb ImgvNØeamWv. Cu knwlmkm¦W¯n \nch[n bp²§ÄXs¶ \S¶n«p­s{X. At\Iw kÔnbpw kachpw I­v Xg¼n¨ aÞ]amWnXv. CXn\Sp¯v cmPm¡·mÀ hnt\mZmÀ°w \S¯nbncp¶ ‘^njv]mekpw’ D­v. Nph¶ CãnIsIm­v \nÀ½n¨v shÅ\nd¯n cq]`wKnhcp¯nbn«pÅ ‘Znhm\nBw’ F¶ s]mXpaÞ]w {]tXyI 14

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