Charithravum Samskaravum

 

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Charithravum Samskaravum by P A Sayed Mohammed

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p. 1

Ncn-{Xhpw kwkv¡m-chpw ]n.- G. -sk-bvXp-ap-l-½Zv

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p. 2

Ncn-{Xhpw kwkv¡m-chpw (teJ-\-§Ä) ]n.- G. -sk-bvXp-ap-l-½Zv

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p. 3

Df-f-S¡w aXhpw kmln-Xyhpw ............................................................... 6 tZio-tbm-Xv{K-Y-\hpw \yq\-]-£-§fpw ................................. 13 Bkm-Znsâ I¯v .................................................................. 20 apkvenw tZin-tbm-Õ-h-§Ä ................................................. 29 Sn¸phpw Xncp-hn-Xmw-IqÀ bp²hpw ......................................... 35 kzmX-{´y-k-a-chpw tIcf apkveowao-§fpw .......................... 44 am¸n-f-¡-f-cn-IÄ .................................................................... 56 el-cn-bpsS IY..................................................................... 67 aXhpw aqey-kw-LÀjhpw .................................................... 75 Ad-_n`m-j-bnse hnNm-c-k-¼¯v.......................................... 85 tIc-f-¯nse apkvenw ]{X-§Ä ............................................ 90

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p. 4

]n.- G. -sk-bvXp-ap-l-½Znsâ IrXn-IÄ Ncn-{X-tI-cfw tI-cfNcn{X ho£Ww tIcfw \qd-dm-­p-IÄ¡p-ap¼v k©m-cn-IÄ I­ tIcfw apKÄkm-{am-Py¯n-eqsS Hcp bm{X tIcf apkvenw Ncn{Xw BZn-hm-kn-IÄ Ncn-{X-¯nse inem-Ip-kp-a-§Ä

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p. 5

]e L«-§-fn-embn hnti-jm {]Xn-I-fnepw kph-\o-dp-I-fnepw addpw Fgp-Xnb GXm\pw teJ-\-§-fpsS kam-lm-c-amWv Ncn-{Xhpw kwkv¡m-c-hpw. Ckveman-I-amb hnNm-c-[m-c-bpsS kmao-]yhpw kzm[o\hpw teJ-\-§-fn \ng-en-«p-\n¡p-¶-Xmbn ImWmw. ]e {]kn-²o-Ic-W-§-fn-embn NnX-dn-¡n-S-¡p¶ teJ-\-§-sfÃmw ]¯v {KÙ-§-fnembn kwtbm-Pn-¸n-¡-W-sa-¶m-{K-ln-¡p-¶p. AXnsâ {]mcw-`-am-Wo-{KÙw. sshhn-²y-apÅ Cu teJ-\-§Ä hmb-\-¡mÀ¡p ck-I-c-am-bn¯o-cs« F¶v {]mÀ°n-¡p-¶p. 1-þ5þ70 Kncn-\-KÀ sIm¨n³ þ20 ]n. G. skbvXp-ap-l-½Zv

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p. 6

kaÀ¸Ww hnNm-c-[-\y-amb Hcp kap-Zmbw sI«n-¸-Sp-¡p¶Xn A`n-Im-ay-amb \nÀ½m-Wm-ß-I-{]-hÀ¯-\-¯n-te-À-s¸-«n-«p-ff A`n-h-µy-\mb P\m_v Sn.]n.- Ip-«n-b½p kmln-_n\v.

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p. 7

aXhpw kmln-Xyhpw ""tJmP-cm-Pm-hmb X¼p-cm-s\, \à ae-bmfw ]d-bp-¶-h-cm \o R§sf B¡sà X¼p-cms\.'' Ac \qd-dm-­n-\-¸p-d¯v tIc-f-¯nse apkvenw kmam-\y-P-\-§-fp-sS-bn-S-bn aX-{]-t_m-[\w \S-¯n-bn-cp-¶Xnsâ "al-¯mb amXrI' \½psS kmap-Zm-bnI ]cn-jv¡-c-W-{]-Øm-\¯nsâ tXcm-fn-I-fn {]mam-Wn-I-Øm\w hln-¡p¶ P: C.- sI.- auehn kmln_v HmÀ½-I-fnÂ\n¶v (\yq A³km-cn, hnti-jm {]Xn þ 1955, t]Pv 49) ]IÀ¯nb `mKw {]mcw-`-ambn ChnsS D²-cn-¡p-I-bm-Wv. ae-bm-f-`m-j-bnepw AXnÂ\n-¶p-Öo-h\w t\Sp¶ kmwkv¡m-cnI aWvU-e-§-fnepw tIc-fob apkvenwIÄ¡v {]mXn-\n[yw t\Sm³ Ign- ª-Xnsâ Imc-W-§Ä Hgp-¡n-ÃmsX Xfw sI«n-¡n-S-¶n-cp¶ ""tX«§fn''\n¶v hyà-am-Wv. ss{IkvXh aX-{]-N-c-W-¯n-\mbn ae-bmf `mjsb k¼-¶-amb D]-I-c-W-am-¡m³ anjy-\-dn-am-cmb AÀtWmkv ]mXn-cnbpw KohÀ¤okv I¯-\mcpw PohnXw kaÀ¸n-¨-t¸mÄ CÉmansâ \nXy-ku-µcyw ktlm-Z-c-§Ä¡n-S-bn ]IÀ¶p-sIm-Sp-¡m³ _m[y-Ø-\mb \½psS apk-eymÀ JÂ_v Xpd-¶p -t\-Sn-bXv \à aebmfw ]d-bp-¶-h-cm R§sf B¡sà X¼p-cms\' sb¶m-Wv. Cu tX«-¯nsâ Kuchw DÄs¡m­ kmam-\y-P-\-§Ä hf-sc-¡mew A\pk-c-W-bp-f-f-h-sc-t¸mse Pohn-¨p. CXn-s\-Xn-cmbn i_vZ-ap-bÀ¯nb ]cn-jv¡-c-W-hm-Zn-IÄ cwK¯p h¶-t¸m-gmWv apk-eym-cpsS XS-h-dbnÂ\n¶v Ipsd-t¸-sc-¦nepw kzmX{´yw t\Sn-b-Xv. temI-hn-Úm-\¯nsâ hnIm-k-]-cn-Wm-a-§Ä a\-Ên-em¡n `uXn-I-km-l-N-cy-a-\p-kcn¨v Pohn-¡m-\pÅ B{Klw ]gb Xe-ap-d-bn NneÀs¡-¦nepw D­mb-Xnsâ ^e-amWv C¶p ImWp¶ kmam-\y-]p-tcm-KXn t\Sn-sb-Sp-¡m³ Ign-ª-Xv. Hcp P\-X-sb-¶Xv tZio-b-Po-hn-X-¯nse khn-ti-j-X-IÄ 6 DÄs¡m-Åp-¶-Xm-Wv. tZi-hpw-þ-`m-jbpw P\-X-bpsS kmaq-ly-Po-hn-X-

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p. 8

¯n sNep-¯p¶ kzm[o\w hnkva-cn-¡m³ Ign-bp-¶-X-Ã. amXr-`m-jbn-eqsS \pW-ªn-d-¡m³ Ign-bm¯ GXp kwkv¡m-c-¯n\pw s]mXpPo-hn-X-¯n henb ]cn-K-W\ e`n-¡m-¯-Xnsâ ImcWw hyà-am-Wv. hnÚm\n Fhn-sS-¡-­mepw hos­-Sp-¡m-\pÅ DÂIr-jvSm- lzm\w apg-¡nb apÉo-an-§Ä¡p F´mWv tIc-f-¯n `mjm-]-c-amb sshap-Jy-ap-­m-Im³ Imc-Ww. _mly-tem-I-hp-ambn _Ô-s¸-Sm³ Ignbm¯ kml-N-cyhpw s]mXp-ta-J-em-k-¼À¡-¯n-epÅ ssha-\-ky-hpam-bn-cn-¡Ww ae-bm-f-`m-j-bn Xm¸-cy-an-Ãm-Xm-¡n-b-sX¶v A\p-am\n-¡-Ww. ae-bmfw {Zmhn-U-aq-ey-¯nÂ\n¶p ]ncn-ªp, sN´-an-gnsâbpw kwkvIr-X-¯n-sâbpw kzm[o-\-¯nÂs¸« a²y-Im-e-L-«-¯n tIc-fob apÉo-§Ä amXr-`mjm taJ-e-bn-te¡v {i²n-¨n-cp-¶n-Ã. aX-]-camb IÀ½m-\p-jvTm-\-§fpw {]t_m-[-\-§fpw Ad-_n-bn Xs¶ \nÀÆ-ln-¡p-Ibpw X§-fpsS ]cn-an-X-amb {Kmay-`m-jb - n aäp-Å-hsc {Kln-¸n-¡p-Ibpw sNbvXn-cp¶ B ]gb Imew apÉow P\-Xsb Hd-ds¸-Sp¯n \nÀ¯n-bn-cp-¶p. hnizm-kn-I-fp-sSXpw Ahn-izm-kn-I-fp-sS-Xpamb c­v aWvU-e-§-fnÂ\n¶v kmaq-ly-Po-hn-Xs¯ hne-bn-cp-¯n-bncp¶ B Ime-L-«-¯nsâ {]tXy-I-X-bmbn ]cn-K-Wn-¡-s¸-tS­ Hcp bmYmÀ°y-am-Wn-Xv. ]c-ssZ-h-§fpw A\m-Nm-c-§fpw \ndªp \n¡p¶ Hcp aWvU-e-¯nse P\-X-bpsS `mj-sb-¸-ddn Nne ap³D]m[n-IÄ ]peÀ¯n-t¸m-¶n-cp-¶-Xp-sIm-­mWv ]Xn-t\gmw \qd-dm-­nsâ a²y-L«w hscbpw ae-bm-f-`mjmkmlnXyw kzX{´ambn ssIImcyw sN¿m³ tIc-fo-b-cmb apÉo-§Ä¡v Ign-bmsX h¶-Xv. ]Xn-\©mw iX-I-¯nse Ihn-{]-h-c-\mb sNdp-tÈ-cn-bpsS Ime¯v Hcp ]cn-[n-hsc Ad_n ae-bmf kmlnXyw hfÀ¶p Ign-ªn-cp-¶p. Xangpw Aev]w kwkvIr-Xhpw XpSÀ¶pÅ Ime-L-«-§-fn Ad_n ae-bm-f-¯n IS¶p-Iq-Sn. CkvemanI {]N-cWw hym]-I-am-bn-¯oÀ¶ F«p-ap-X ]Xn\memw \qd-dm-­p-h-sc-bpÅ Ime-§-fn aX-{]-t_m-[-I-·mÀ ae-bmfw kzmb-¯-am-¡n-bn-cps¶¦n \à kzm[o\w sNep-¯p-hm³ Ign-bp-ambn-cp-¶p. en]n cq]-¯n-epÅ ae-bmf `mj-bn Ad-_n-`m-j-bpsS 7

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p. 9

kzm[o\w I\-¯-Xmbn amdn-bn-cp-s¶-¦n Xan-gn\v Iev]n-¡p¶ {]m[m\yw t]mse ae-bmfw Ad-_n-bn \n-¶p-h-¶-X-sÃ-sb-¶pt]mepw kaÀ°n-¡p¶ Kth-jWw hf-cp-am-bn-cp-¶p. ae-bmf `mj-bn Hgp-Int¨À¶n-«pÅ ]Xn-\mev iX-am-\-t¯mfw \ntXym-]-tbmK {]tbm-K§Ä¡v Ah-ew_w \ÂIm³ Ipsd¡me-§Ä¡v ap¼v aX-]-WvUn-X·mÀ amXr-`m-j-bn {i²n-¨n-cp-s¶-¦n `mjm-km-ln-Xy-N-cn-{X-¯nse Hcp alm-kw-`-h-am-Ip-am-bn-cp-¶p. C¶v CÉm-anI kw`m-h\ FSp¯p ImWn-¡m³ Ad_n ]Z-§Ä s]dp¡n t_m²y-s¸-Sp-t¯-­n-h-¶n-cn-¡pI-bm-Wv. Fgp-¯-Ñsâ `àn-Im-hy-{]-Øm-\-¯n\pv tijamWv Xan-gv, kwkvIrX _lp-eX A\p-`-h-s¸-Sp¶ GXm\pw am¸n-f-¸m-«p-IÄ shfn¨w ImWp-¶-Xv. B[p-\nI ae-bmf ]Zy-km-ln-Xy-¯nsâ Bcw-`Im-e-¯p-Xs¶ am¸n-f-km-lnXyw \ms¼-Sp¯p Ign-ªn-«p-­m-bn-cp-¶psh-¦nepw Hc-XnÀ¯n-hsc am{Xta AXnsâ kzm[o-\X \ng-en-¨n-cp-¶pÅp. \qd-dm-­p-IÄ¡v tij-amWv am¸nf kmln-Xys¯ k¼p-jvS-am¡nb tambnÂIp«n sshZycpw tNd-dp-hmbn ]co-¡p-«nbpw cwK-¯p-h-cp¶-Xv. Ch-cpsS Ime-L«w BkvXn-Iy-t_m-[-¯n\v Bß-{]-Xn-^emß-Iamb {]tNm-Z\w \ÂIn-b-Xm-bn-¡-mWmw. \jvS-sku-`m-Ky-¯n-tâXmb kphÀ®-Im-e-§-sf-¸-ddn kvacn-¨n«n\n Imcy-an-Ã. \mev]Xp hÀj-¯n-\p-apt¼ X¿m-dm-¡nb Imt\-jvam-cn¡-W-¡n tIcf apkv eowI-fpsS km£-cXzw F«p iX-am-\-am-bn-cp¶p. CXn¶v amddw h¶n-«p-­v. km£-c-Xz-¯n amddw h¶m aebmf `mj ]cn-N-b-¯n kap-Zm-b-¯nsâ Øm\w Db-cp-I-bn-Ã. aebmf `mj tIc-f-¯nsâ HutZym-KnI `mj-bmbn amdn-s¡m-­n-cn-¡p-Ibm-Wv. FÃm Ne-\-§fpw tcJ-s¸-Sp-¯p¶ `mj-bmbn amdp¶ ae-bm-f¯n kaÀl-amb Øm\w t\Sn-sb-Sp-t¡-­Xv Bh-iy-am-bn-cn-¡p-¶p. kmK-cw-t]mse hnkvXr-X-amb Ckvemansâ kmwkv¡m-cnI aWvUes¯ ae-bmf `mj-bn ]cn-N-b-s¸-Sp-¯p-¶-tXm-sSm¸w ae-bmf `mjbpsS FÃm L«-§-sf-¸-d-dnbpw {Kln-¡p-hm-\p-ff bXv\hpw Bh-iy-ambn-cn-¡p-¶p. Ad-_n-`m-jm-]m-WvUn-Xy-apÅ aX-]-WvUn-X-·mÀ sFÑn-I8

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p. 10

sa-t¶mWw ae-bmf `mj ]Tn-¡-Ww. ""\½psS amXr-`m-j-bsà AsX´p ]Tn-¡m-\n-cn-¡p¶p?'' F¶ Ae-£y-`mhw Dt]-£n-¡-Ww. kwkm-c-`mj ae-bm-f-am-b-Xp-sIm­v `mj-sbbpw kmln-Xy-s¯bpw AXpÄs¡m-Åp¶ kwkv¡m-c-s¯bpw kw_-Ôn-¨-dn-ªp-sIm-Å-Wsa-¶n-Ã. ]pcm-W-§Ä hmbn-¡p-t¼mÄ I­p-ap-«m-\n-S-bpÅ _lp-ssZ-h§-sfbpw a\z-´-c-§-sfbpw, `qX-K-W-§-sfbpw lrZ-b-¯n IpSn-bn-cp¯msX Xs¶ AXnse `mh-`wKn Bkz-Zn-¡m³ Ign-bpw. sXuloZn\p Hcn-f-¡hpw X«msX Bkz-Zn-¡m³ Ign-bpw. adn-¨pÅ {]N-cWw sXd-dm-Wv. kmln-Xy-c-N\ No«p-I-fn-t]m-ep-ff ss\an-jnI hnt\m-Z-a-Ã. {]XyX Bib {]N-c-W-¯n\p P\Io-bamb Hcp D]m-[n-bm-bn-cn-¡p-IbmWv kmln-Xyw. t_m[-]qÀÆhpw tkmt±-i-]qÀÆ-hp-amb {]N-c-W¯n¶p kmln-Xy-s¯-¡mÄ asd-dm-¶n\p ]¦p \nÀÆ-ln-¡p-hm³ Ignbp-I-bn-Ã. amXr-`m-jsb H¶p \Ã-h®w ]cn-N-b-s¸-Sm³ ae-bm-f-`m-jbpsS {]mIr-X-Z-i-bnse kvtXm{X-§Ä, hoc-Km-\-§Ä, ]g-s©m-Ãp-IÄ, ]n¶oSv ImWp¶ sN´-angv kzm[o\w Bcy-kw-kv¡m-c-hym]vXn ImWn¡p¶ kwkvIr-X-_-Ô-Im-ew, XZ-\-´cw cq]w sIm­ an{i-`m-jm-Im-eL-«w, aWn-{]-hm-f-Imew, ktµ-i-Im-hy-{]-tNm-Z-\w, I®-È-Ir-Xn-If - psS BK-a-\w, \mS³]m-«p-I-fpsS cN-\m-Im-ew, P\-Iob `àn-Km-\-sa¶v hnti-jn--¡-s¸-Sp¶ IrjvW-Km-Y-bpsS {]tbm-Kw, N¼p-¡-fpsS \nÀ½mWw F¶nh tImÀ¯n-W¡n \nev¡p¶ {]mcw-`-L«w {Kln-¡msXbpw lrZn-kvX-am-¡m-sXbpw Xc-an-Ã. kmaq-ly-Po-hn-X-¯nse KXn-hnK-Xn-IÄ {Kln-¡m\pw tIcf kwkv¡mcw cq]w sImÅp-¶-Xnsâ \nehmcw Adn-bp-¶-Xn\pw {]kvXpX Ime-L-«-s¯-¸-ddn Adn-b-Ww. asddmcp Ime-L«w B[p-\nI ae-bm-f-¯nsâ hn[m-Xm-sh-¶-dn-b-s¸-Sp¶ Fgp-¯-Ñ-tâ-Xm-Wv. `àn-km-ln-Xy-{]-Øm\w Ihn-X-bn-eqsS X·-b-Xzambn {]N-cn-¸n¨ Fgp-¯-Ñ-s\-¸-ddn ]Tn-¡msX ae-bmf `mj-bpsS at\m-lm-cnX a\-Ên-em-¡m-sa¶v ]d-bp-¶-Xn-eÀ°-an-Ã. ]pcm-W-§fmWv Fgp-¯-Ñsâ Imhy-ta-J-e-bn Ib-dn-¸-d-dn-bn-«p-Å-sX-¦nepw P\-Io-bamb emfn-Xy-`m-h-¯n Fgp-¯-ѳ AsXÃmw ]cn-N-b-s¸-Sp-¯p-¶p, 9

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p. 11

`ànbpw XXz-Nn-´bpw ssItImÀ¯p-\n-ev¡p¶ tIc-fob Pohn-X¯nsâ Hcp Ime-L«w Fgp-¯-Ñsâ IrXn-I-fn ImWmw. ]Zy-¯nsâ Øm\w kmln-Xy-¯n B[p-\nI KZy-ta-sd-d-Sp-¯Xpw anjy-\-dn-amcpsS BK-a-\-t¯m-sS-bm-Wv. t]mÀ¯p-Ko-kv, kpdn-bm-\n, emddn³ F¶o `mj-I-fnÂam{Xw thZw ]Tn-¸n-¨m t]msc¶v a\-Ên-em-¡nb ]mXn-cnamÀ 1580 ]pXnb {KÙ-§Ä Xs¶ tIc-f-¯n A¨-Sn-¨n-d-¡n. `mc-Xob kwkv¡mcw {Kln-¡m³ `mc-Xob `mj-IÄ ]Tn-¡m³ AhÀ X¿m-dm-bn. tIc-f-¯nse P\-§Ä¡v BZy-ambn ae-bm-f-hym-I-cWw \nÀ½n-¨Xv 1700 þmw-am-­n hntZ-io-b-\mb At®mkv ]mXn-cn-bm-bn-cp¶p. At±-ls¯ ]n³Xp-SÀ¶v At\Iw ]mXn-cnamÀ `mjm-t]m-j-W-{]hÀ¯-\-¯n hym]r-X-cm-bn. IY-Ifn kmln-Xy-hpw, Ip©³ \¼ymcpsS ^en-X-tem-Ihpw Hmtcm Ime-L-«-¯nsâ I®m-Sn-I-fm-Wv. Ignª \qd-dm-­nsâ BZy-L-«-t¯m-Sp-IqSn Cw¥ojv kmln-Xy-¯nsâ A{]-Xntcm-[y-amb thgvN ae-bmf `mjsb F{X-I­p hfÀ¯n-sb-¶-dn-bm³ BJym-bn-I-Ifpw imkv{X-{K-Ù-§fpw t\m¡n-bm-e-dn-bmw. ]pcm-W-§fpsS Xncp-ap-d-d-¯p-\n¶v Hcp sXd-dn-am-d-emWv Cw¥ojv kw_À¡t¯msS kw`-hn-¨-Xv. ho£-W-¯nepw {]Xn-]m-Z-¯nepw ssien-bn-epw ]pXnb amXr-I-IÄ h¶p. Cµp-te-J, imc-Z, amÀ¯m-WvU-hÀ½, [À½cmPm cma-cm-P-_-l-ZqÀ `qX-cm-bÀ XpS-§nb t\mh-ep-I-fpsS DS-bm-S-IÄ ]eXpw tIc-tf-X-c-am-Wv. `mh-Zo-]vX-amb kz`m-h-c-N-\m-in-ev]hpw ckm\p-P-\y-amb IÂ]-\m-ssh-`hpw Cu Ime-L-«-¯nse t\mh-ep-I-fn DS-\ofw ZÀin-¡mw. Bkzm-Zy-amb Cu kmln-Xy-kr-jvSn-Ifpw AXnthKw hfÀ¶ aWn-{]-hmf Imhy-§fpw kmaq-ly-hn-aÀi\ {][m-\-§fmb \mS-I-§fpw ae-bmf `mj-bpsS hfÀ¨sb ImWn-¡p-¶-h-bm-Wv. JWvU-Im-hy-§Ä, `mjm-im-kv{X-]-c-amb e£-W-{KÙ§Ä, sdmamânIv dnb-en-kvd-dnIv hn`m-K-§-fnÂs¸-Sp¶ kmln-Xy-kr-jvSn-IÄ, Ch-sbÃmw hmbn-¨m `mj-bnÂ- F§ns\ Bibw ]I-cm³ Ign-bpsa¶v a\-Ên-em-Ipw. aX-{]-N-c-W-cw-K¯v {]hÀ¯n-¨-hÀ Ign-ª-Ime¯v \jvS-s¸-Sp-¯nb kµÀ`-§Ä, sNdp-X-söv ]pXnb Xe-ap-d-sb10

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p. 12

¦nepw [cn-¡-Ww. hymI-c-Whpw kmln-Xyhpw Hcn-¡epw \jvS-s¸-Sp¯m-Xn-cn-¡m³ bph-sauehn-amÀ _²-{i-²-cm-I-Ww. AXp-sIm­v henb t\«-ap-­v., Ignª aq¶p hymg-h-«-¡m-e-¯n-\n-S¡pw ae-bm-f-`mj-bn hfÀ¶p-h-¶n-«pÅ D]-\ym-kw, \ncq-]-Ww, imk{Xo-b-te-J-\§Ä, Poh-N-cn-{Xw, Bß-I-Y, Kth-j-W-{]-_-Ô-§Ä, Ncn-{X-km-lnXyw, `mjm-imkv{Xw Ch-sbÃmw ]cn-N-b-s¸-tS-­Xv Bh-iy-am-Wv. cN\m-inÂ]w kw_-Ô-amb ta[m-iàn ImWn-¡p¶ kmln-Xy-Ir-Xn-Itfm-sSm¸w ]cn-N-b-s¸-tS­ asd-dmcp taJ-e-bmWv hymI-c-W-{]m-[m-\yta-dnb `mjm-im-kv{X-hn-`m-Kw. \à ]Zyhpw \à KZyhpw Fgp-Xp-¶-Xn\v Nne e£-W-im-kv{X-{K-Ù-§Ä hmbn-¡p-¶Xv DNn-X-am-bn-cn-¡pw,. ]Zw, ckw, Ae-¦m-cw, Bi-bw, ^en-Xw, at\m-[À½w, hmIy-ip-²n, kv^pSX, {]tbm-K-`wKn Ch-sbÃmw hi-am-¡n-bm lrZy-amb coXn-bn ]dbm-\p-Å-sXÃmw {]kw-K-cq-]-¯n Ah-X-cn-¸n-¡mw. BZn-a-²ym-´-§Ä {]uVhpw, lrZy-hpw, kc-f-hp-amb {]`m-j-W-§Ä¡p-Xs¶ `mj apJy-L-S-I-am-Wv. \½psS DÂ]-XnjvWp¡-fmb aX-]-WvUn-X-·m-cn NneÀ `mj-bpsS {]tbm-K-¯n [z\n-Kmw-`o-cy-¯n\p A\-h-k-c-¯n {]m[m\yw \ÂIn-¡m-Wp-¶p-­v. Ad_n hymI-c-W-im-kv{X-¯nse kmt¦-Xn-I-coXn ae-bm-f-¯n sNep-¯p-¶-Xp-sIm-­mImw C§ns\ kw`-hn-¡p-¶-Xv. [, J, Z, O, _, À XpS-§nb A£-c-§-fpsS kzcw {]tbm-K-co-Xn-bn A]-kz-c-am-bn-Xo-cp¶ kµÀ`-§-fn-Ãm-Xn-Ã, Ffp-¸¯n ]cn-l-cn-¡m³ Ign-bp¶ hogvN-I-fm-Wn-sX-Ãmw. Ad-_n-tIm-tf-PpI-fn ae-bmfw sFOn-I-hn-j-b-am-sb-Sp-t¯m, sht¡-j³ ¢mÊp-IÄ hgn ]cn-io-en-¸nt¨m ae-bm-f-¯nsâ \ne-hmcw DbÀ¯-Ww. N{µn-I, {]t_m-[-\w, addv B\p-Im-enI {]kn-²o-I-c-W-§Ä hgn amd-d-§Ä Zriy-am-bn-¯p-S-§n-bn-«p-s­-¦nepw th­{X ]ptcm-KXn t\Sm³ Ignsª¶v ]d-bm³ {]bm-k-am-Wv. ae-bmfw kmln-Xy-hn-im-c-Zv, hnZzm³, _n.-F, Fw.F XpS-§nb ]co-£-IÄ¡n-cn-¡p-hm³ t{]mÕm-l\w \ÂIp-Ibpw thWw. ae-bm-f-`mjm ]co-£-IÄ¡v tNcp-¶-h-cn 11

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p. 13

apkveowIÄ C¶pw Hcp iX-am-\-am-bn-«n-sö \á-kXyw hnkva-cn-¡-cpXv. emfn-Xy-kp-µ-c-amb Êp-IÄ kwL-Sn-¸n¨v ae-bm-f-`m-j-bn CkvemanI kzm[o-\X \à t\Sp-¶-Xn\v \ne-bn {KÙ-]m-cm-bWw IqSp-X {]tbm-P-\-s¸-Spw. CS-¡n-S¡v kmln-Xy-k-Zhnj-b-§Ä ssIImcyw sN¿p-¶Xpw klm-b-I-c-am-bn-cn-¡pw. hfÀ¶p-hn-I-kn-¨psIm-­n-cn-¡p¶ ae-bm-f-`m-j-bpsS al-¯mb Ign-hp-IÄ IW-¡n-se-Sp¯m IqSp-X IqSp-X Xmev]cyw P\n-¡m-Xn-cn-¡-bn-Ã. addp `mj-Ifnse hnÚm-\-im-J-IÄ ]eXpw ae-bm-fs¯ k¼-¶-am-¡n-s¡m-­n-cn¡p-I-bm-Wv. ip`m-]vXn-hn-izmkw Df-hm-¡p¶ amd-d-§Ä kap-Zm-b-¯nep-­m-bn-s¡m-­n-cn-¡p-¶p-s­-¦nepw B hgn-¡p-ff {]bm-W-¯n\p C\nbpw Du¡p-Iq-SmsX Xc-an-Ã. "tJmP-cmPm'hns\ hnfn¨v \à ae-bmf-s¯ i]n¨ ]mXn-cm-{]-Nm-c-I-cnÂ\n¶v apkveow kap-Zmbw Ipsdsbms¡ hntam-Nn-¡-s¸-«n-«p-­v. Cu amdnb Ime-L-«-¯n ""at\m-l-camb \à ae-bm-f-`mj ssIImcyw sN¿m³ AÃmlp A\p-{K-ln-t¡Wta'' F¶m-bn-cn-¡s« \½psS {]mÀ°-\. 12

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p. 14

tZio-tbm-Xv{K-Y-\hpw \yq\-]-£-§fpw kmaq-ly-Po-hn-X-¯n \nÀ½m-Wm-ß-I-amb ka-Nn-¯X ]Sp-¯pbÀ¯p-hm³ tZio-tbm-Xv{K-Y-\]cn-]mSn \½psS cmPyw kzoI-cn-¡p-Ibm-W-tÃm. tZio-b-amb sI«p-d-¸n\v hnIm-c-]-c-amb sFIyw A\p-t]-£Wo-b-am-Wv. cmPy-]p-tcm-K-Xn¡v sshPm-Xy-apÅ hÀ¤-§-fp-sS-bpw, LSI-§-fp-sSbpw B´-cn-I-amb Bi-b-kw-tbm-P\w ]e-hn-[-¯nepw sh¨p-]pklm-b-I-am-Ipw. hn`n-¶-§-fmb kmaq-ly-{]-h-W-X-IÄ eÀ¯p¶ `mc-X-¯n tZio-tbm-Xv{K-Y-\w hnP-b-{]-Z-am-bm a\p-jyhÀ¤-¯n\pw temI-k-ap-Zm-b-¯n\pw AsXmcp amXr-I-bm-bn-¯o-cpw. PmXn, aXw, hÀ¤w, `mj F¶n-hsb kw_-Ôn¨ `n¶-kz-`mhw h¨p-]peÀ¯p¶ Hcp cmPy¯v P\-X-bpsS sFIy-¯n-¶p-th-­n-bp-ff {]bXv\w Ft¸mgpw kzmK-XmÀl-am-Wv. cmPy-¯nsâ B`y-´-c-k-am[m\w \ne-\n-ev¡p-¶-Xp-Xs¶ Akw-Xr-]vX-P-\-hn-`m-K-t¯m-Sp-ff `c-WIq-S-¯nsâ \oXn-]qÀÆ-amb kao-]\w sIm­m-Wv. `qcn-]£ \yq\-]-£{]-iv\-§Ä Ft¸mgpw Gd-dhpw henb {]iv\-§-fmbn GXp cmPy¯pw Ah-ti-jn-¡p-¶p. cmjv{So-b-hpw, km¼-¯n-I-hp-amb iàn ssIbn-epff hn`mKw Ah-cpsS B[n-]Xyw Øm]n-¡p-hm-³ `c-W-b{- ´w Xncn¡p-t¼mÄ AhnsS Akw-Xr-]vX-hn-`mKw {]iv\-ambn Xe-bp-bÀ¯p-¶p. Ncn-{X-¯nsâ Ignª Ime-§-fn Cu {]iv\-§-tfmSv Gd-dp-ap-«msX Hcp cmPy-¯n\pw `c-W-b{´w apt¶m-«p-\o-¡p-hm³ km[n-¨n-«n-Ã. C´ybn Cu {]iv\w hym]-I-amb \ne-bn A`n-ap-Jo-I-cn-¨p-sIm-­n-cn-¡p¶p. tZio-b-kw-kv¡m-c-¯nsâ Dd-hn-S-§-fmb {]mNo-\-cm-jv{S-§-fn aX-]-c-amb \yq\-]-£-§Ä Ah-cpsS {]iv\-§-fp-ambn hÀ¤-kn-²m-´§-tfmSv Gd-dp-ap-«n-b-Xmbn ImWmw. hÀ¤-ta-[m-hnXzw ]peÀ¯n-t¸m¶ tZio-b-cm-jv{S-§Ä \qd-dm-­p-I-tfmfw \odn-¸n-Sn¨ ]e kw`-h-§fpw DÂLm-S\w sNbvXp. `qcn-]-£-¯nsâ A[n-Im-c-§Ä X§Ä¡pw Ah13

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p. 15

Im-i-s¸-«-Xm-sW¶p hmZn-¡p-Ibpw \yq\-]-£-kw-c-£Ww sauenIm-hIm-i-am-sW¶p kaÀ°n-¡p-Ibpw sN¿p-t¼mÄ {]iv\-§Ä AXnsâ hyà-amb cq]-¯n F¯p-¶p. bqtdm-¸n 13-þmw \qd-dm-­p-ap-X aX-]-c-amb \yq\-]-£-{]iv\w ]e tImfn-f-¡-§fpw krjvSn-¨p. tZiob Pohn-X-¯n hymh-km-bnI hn¹-h-¯n\p ap³]p-Xs¶ Cu {]iv\§Ä P\-X-bn kzm[o\w sNep-¯n. 1660þ kzoU\pw t]mf-­pambn \S¶ 'Henhv' kÔn-bnepw 1678þ {^©v DS-¼-Sn-bnepw aX-]-camb \yq\-]-£-¯nsâ cmjv{So-bm-h-Im-i-§Ä¡v \n_-Ô-\-IÄ D­m¡n-bn-cp-¶p. {]jy-bnepw ad-d-b cmPy-§-fnepw \yq\-]-£-§-fpsS aX-]-c-amb hnizm-k-§-tfbpw hnIm-c-§-tfbpw am\n-¨n-cp-¶p. 1798þ {^©p-hn-¹-hs¯ XpSÀ¶p-­mb kw`-h-hn-Im-k-§-fn cmjv{Sob Imcy-§-fn aX-\yq\-]-£-§Ä¡p ]¦p-­m-bn-cp-¶p. cmjv{So-b-kz-`m-hIt¯m-en-¡m-aXw hnip-²-tdm-am-km-{am-Py-¯nsâ t¯m-Sp-Iq-Snb FÃm BÚ-Ifpw a²y-Im-e-bq-tdm-¸n kzoI-cn-¨n-cp¶p. {]Pm-b-¯-`-cWw kaq-l-¯nsâ hnIm-c-§sf am\n-¨-t¸mÄ cmPy¯nse `qcn-]-£-hn-`m-K-¯n\p Ah-cpsS iàn {]I-Sn-¸n-¡p-hm³ Hc-hkcw D­m-¡n-s¡m-Sp-¯p. `qcn-]-£-¯nsâ A`n-aXw A\p-k-cn¨v cmjv{S-b{´w Xncn-ªp-sIm-­n-cp-¶-t¸mÄ \yq\-]-£w X§-fpsS hyànXzw hos­-Sp-¡p-hm³ {ia-§Ä Bcw-`n-¨p. CXn-eqsS hfÀ¶ AI¨ hnIm-c-]-c-amb sFIy-¯n\p hnLmXw D­m-¡n-bn-«p-­v. Cu L«-§-fn-seÃmw tZiob sFIy-¯n-\p-th-­n-bp-ff Ahn-cm-a-amb {ia§Ä Hmtcm cmjv{S-¯nepw \S-¶n-«p-­v. C´y-bn DÂ{K-Y-\-{]-[m-\amb XXz-hn-Nmcw ]qÀÆ-Im-e-§-fnepw DbÀ¶n-«p-­v. Ct¸mÄ amdnb ]cnX:ØnXn-bn tZiob sFIyw Hcp cmjv{S-{]-am-W-ambn AwKo-I-cn¡m³ \nÀ_-Ôn-X-cm-bn-cn-¡p-I-bm-Wv. hnZym-`ym-khpw DWÀhpw \yq\]-£§sf kz´w ]mc-¼-cy-¯nepw hnizm-k-¯nepw aXn-¸p-ffhcm-¡n¯oÀ¡p-¶-Xp-sIm­v ad-dp-f-f-hÀ \n¡p¶ Xmh-f-§-fn \n¸p-d-¸n¡p-hm³ Ahcpw hy{KX ImWn-¡p-I-bm-Wv. aX-]-c-hpw km¼-¯n-Ihpamb ]nt¶m-¡-hn-`m-K-§-fpsS bYmÀ° \ne {Kln-¡m-sXbpw, Ah14

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