Adhivasikal

 

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About Adhivasis in Malayalam by P A Sayed Mohammed

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p. 1

BZnhmknIÄ ]n. G. skbvXpapl½Zv

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{KÙ-IÀ¯m-hnsâ IrXn-IÄ tIcfw \qd-dm-­p-IÄ¡pap¼v tIc-f-¯nse hntZ-i-a-X-§Ä k©mcn-IÄ I­ tIcfw Ip«n-I-fpsS tIc-f-N-cn{Xw tIcfNcn-{X-ho-£Ww tIcf apÉow Ncn{Xw BZn-hm-kn-IÄ Ncn-{X-tIcfw

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BZnhmknIÄ (teJ\§Ä) ]n.G.skbvXpapl½Zv

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DÅS¡w e¼mSnIÄ .............................................. 5 I¡me]pcmhr¯w ................................ 8 BZnhmknIÄ ...................................... 10 adh³................................................... 13 ]mÀPmcnIÄ ......................................... 15 Ccp­ hÀ¤§Ä ................................. 17 aebmfnIÄ .......................................... 19 KncnP\X .............................................. 21 tIm-bn .................................................. 25 Ip-i-hÀ ................................................ 27

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- \chwiimkv{X]T\kw_Ôamb GXm\pw teJ\§fpsS kamlmcamWv BZnhmknIÄ.C´ybnse \mamhtijambns¡m­ncn¡p¶ {]mNo\\chÀ¤§sfkw_Ôn¨v At\zjW¯nteÀ¸«t¸mÄ,AhcpsS BNmchntij§sf¡pdns¨gpXm³ t{]cWe`n¨p.Cu kamlmc¯nse teJ\§Ä X¿mdm¡p¶Xn\v `mcXob \chwi]T\¯n\v t{]mÕmIl\w\evInb sXgv̳,Im¡mIteev¡À,A\´IrjvW¿À, tkmaÀskäv s¹bn\n,F.F.Un. eqbnkv F¶nhcpsS {KÙ§Ä klmbIambn«p­v.aebmf`mjbn {]mNo\\chÀ¤§sf¡pdn¡pÅ {KÙ§Ä Bhiyambncn¡pIbmWv.Ncn{Xmt\zjW¯nteÀs¸Sp¶ GsXmcmÄ¡pw \chwiimkv{X]T\w Hgn¨pIqSm¯ imJbmWv.Cu {KÙw Npcp§nb tXmXnse¦nepw AXn\p]Icn¡psa¦n IrXmÀ°\mbncn¡pw. 3-8-1967. þ -{KÙIÀ¯m

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e¼mSnIÄ C´ybnse {]mNo\P\hÀ¤§fn ]cnjvImc¯nsâ shfn¨¯nte¡v IS¶phcm³ ssha\kyapÅ PmXnItfbpw D]PmXnItfbpw C¶pw ImWmw.kmaqly{Ia§fpw AXn\v ]cnthjaWnbn¡p¶ {]mNo\mNmcm§fpw ]ptcmKXnbpsS amÀ¤¯n \n¶v Ahsc AIän \nÀ¯nbncn¡pIbmWv. PohImcpWy{]hÀ¯\¯n {i²mep¡fmbncp¶ ss{IkvXhanjy\dnamcpw a\pjyhÀ¤imkv{X¯n HuÕpIyapÅ ]mÝmXy]ÞnX·mcpw {]mNo\hÀ¤§fpsS CSbnte¡v BZyw IS¶psN¶ tkht\mÕpIcmWv.AhcpsS PohnX¯nsâ Ccp«nte¡v shfn¨hpw PohnXcoXn¡v Ne\hpw \ÂIm³ Cu tkh\\ncX·mÀ¡v Ignªp.C´y sshhn[yapÅ kmwkvImcnI{]Xn`mk§fpsS \mSmbXpsIm­v Bbnc¡W¡n\v PmXnIfptSbpw D]PmXnIfptSbpw BNmc{Ia§Ä ChnsS CgpInt¨À¶Xmbn¡mWmw.\in¨psIm­ncn¡pIbpw imtJm]imJIfmbn hfÀ¶psIm­ncn¡pIbpw sN¿p¶ hÀ¤§fnÂs¸Sp¶ e£¡W¡n\v a\pjyÀIqSn DÄs¸Sp¶XmWtÃm \½psS P\k¼¯v. ]pcmX\\chÀ¤§fn s]Sp¶hÀ¡v hnizmkmNmc§fpsS shfn¨¯n ]pcmW§fnse CXnlmk]pcpj·mcpambn _Ôaps­¶p ]dbmw. CXnlmk{]]©¯nse AXnam\pjcpsS hwiamsW¶v A`nam\n¡m¯ KncnhmknIsf ImWpIbnÃ. Z£ntW´ybnse ]pcmX\\chÀ¤¡mÀ ]pcmW§fn hÀ®n¡s¸«hcmsW¶pIqSn `mh\mimenIfmb Ncn{XkmlnXyImc·mÀ kaÀ°n¡mdp­v. Z£ntW´y³]pcmhr¯¯n Xmhfapd¸n¨ncn¡p¶ Hcp hÀ¤amWs{X sXep¦p\m«nse e¼mSnIÄ. _menkp{Koh·mcpsS ]n´pSÀ¨¡mcmsW¶v AhImis¸Sp¶ e¼mSnIÄ A]cnjvIrX§fmb BNmc§sf apdpsI¸nSn¡p¶hcmWv. tIcf¯nse \mbmSnIsft]msetbm, Ipdhsct]msetbm _lnjvIcn¡s¸« hwiPcmsW¶v e¼mSnIÄ ]dbpIbnÃ. Ignª ImeL«§fnse Imt\jpamcnIWs¡gp¯nepw, \chwi]T\kÀtÆbnepw e¼mSnIfpsS F®w Ipdªphcp¶Xmbn kqNn¸n¨ncn¡p¶p. e¼mSnIÄ B{Ôbnepw ssakqcnepw Xangv\m«nepw, Ip{Kma§fnepw aetbmc§fnepw \nhkn¡p¶p. e¼ymWn, {_n©mcn, _memhpep F¶ot]cpIfnepw Cu hÀ¤w Adnbs¸Sp¶p. AenJnXamb Km\k¼¯pw BNmc{Ia§fpw e¼mSnIÄ ]cnc£n¡p¶p­v. hS¡³BÀ¡mSnepw, A\´]qcnepw GtXm \hm_pamcpsS Ime¯v aXw amdnb e¼mSnIsf ImWp¶p­v. ]s£ apÉow BNmc{Ia§Ä AhÀ AwKoIcn¨pImWp¶nÃ. ip²e¼mSnIfpsS hÀ¤hpambn sXän¸ncnªhtcbpw ImWmw. PohnX{Ia§fn e¼mSnIÄ A\phÀ¯n¡p¶ BNmc§Ä CXccnÂ\n¶v hyXyØamWv. hnhmlmNmcw I¶pImen k¼¯pÅ e¼mSn hnhmlnX\mIp¶psh¦n kv{Xo[\w Imfbmbncn¡pw. h[phnsâ ho«pImÀ¡v hc\mWv hnhml[\ambn ImfIsf sImSpt¡­Xv. IqSpX arK§sf \ÂInbn«ps­¦n Hcp ImfbpsS ]n¶mse h[p hcsâ ho«n h¶pIbdpw. {_mÒWÀ¡v hnhmlImcy§fn {]mapJyaps­¦nepw Ahsc e¼mSnh\nXIÄ tZtlm]{Zhw Gev]n¡psa¶mWv \chwiimkv{XÚ\mb sXgv̳ ]dbp¶Xv. hnlmlw Ignªm IÀ½w \S¯nb ]ptcmlnX{_mÒWs\ kv{XoIÄ ssIsIm­v Ip¯n thZ\n¸n¡pw. thZ\sIm­v ]pfbp¶ {_mÒW\v {]Xn^eambn ]Ww \evIpw. Cu bmX\mthX\¯n\mbn ]ptcmlnX³ F´p XymKhpw kln¡pw; iÐmbam\amb A´co£¯n hnhmlw Ignªm kÀ¸ {]oXn¡mbn Nne IÀ½§Ä \S¯pw. Z¼XnIsf apdnbneS¨v ImhÂ\nev¡p¶ ]ptcmlnX\pw, e¼mSnh\nXIÄ¡pw kZysImSp¡p¶p. ssakqcnse e¼mSnIÄ _menkp{Koh·mcpsS hwiNcn{XKm\w sNmÃnXoÀ¶mWv hnhmlw Ign¡p¶Xv. ImfbpsS ]pd¯v hnhmlbm{X]pds¸Sp¶ kv{Xo timI]À¿hkmbnbmb hnShm§Â Km\ame]n¡p¶p. H¶ne[nIw hnhmlw Ign¡p¶Xv IpäIcamb Hcp ImcyaÃ. hnhmltamN\w t\Snb kv{Xo¡v asämcmsf kzoIcn¡mw. hn[hmhnhmlw \S¸ps­¦nepw kapZmb¯n AhcpsS Øm\w ]n³]´nbnembncn¡pw. PmckwkÀ¤wsIm­p­mb Ip«nIsf 'DucnÂ' ]ptcmlnX{_mÒWÀ hfÀ¯pw. `À¯mhnsâ hnhml¨nehv \ÂInbm `mcysb asämcmÄ¡v sIm­pt]mImw. IpSpw__Ôw `{Zambn \ne\nÀ¯Wsa¶ \nÀ_Ôw e¼mSnIÄ¡nÃ. hnhml¯nsâ t]cn \nch[n ]mgvsNehpIÄ e¼mSnIÄ¡p­v. hnizkn¡p¶ tZhXItfbpw, tZh·mtcbpw {]oWn¸n¡m³ henb kZyIÄ \S¯pIbpw, bmKw Ign¡pIbpw sN¿pw. F¶m am{Xsa Zm¼XyPohnXw kpJ{]Zambn XocpIbpÅphs{X. C¯cw Imcy§Ä¡v bYmÀ° ]ptcmlnX{_mÒWs\ In«nbnsæn e¼mSnIfn HcmÄ ]qWp\q [cn¨v Hcp ]ptcmlnX\mIpw. 5

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p. 7

acWNS§pIÄ e¼mSnhÀ¤¯n HcmÄ acn¨m {Kmaw apgph\pw XÂkw_Ôamb NS§n `mK`m¡mIpw. hnhmlnXcpsS ihw Zln¸n¡p¶p. acWm\´cIÀ½§Ä¡mbn ]mgvs¨ehpIÄ sN¿mdnÃ. tPjvTktlmZc\mWv acn¨sX¦n hn[hsb A\pP³ hnhmlw Ign¡Ww. AXnep­mIp¶ k´m\§Ä tPjvTsâ t]cn hfcp¶p. _menbpsS hn[hsb kp{Koh³ hnhmlw Ign¨XpsIm­mWv C¡mcy¯n \nÀ_ÔapÅsX¶mWv ]dbs¸Sp¶Xv. \Kv\cmbn Dd§p¶hcmWv. e¼mSnIÄ. kv{XoIÄ ]pcpj·mcpsS hkv{XsaÃmw Agn¨phm§p¶p. A§ns\bmbm AhcpsS cm{Xnbm{X Ipdbpsa¶pw ]nimNnsâ D]{Zhw \o§psa¶pw IcpXp¶p. e¼mSnIfnÂ\n¶pw PmXn{`ãvsIm­v ]pd¯m¡s¸« enwK h¶v D]PmXnbpsS ihw Ccp¯nIpgn¨nSp¶p. s]utcmlnXys¯ AÔambn Bcm[n¡p¶ enwKh\À ]ptcmlnXsâ ]mZ§Ä IgpIn shÅw IpSn¡pw. acn¡mdmb tcmKn¡v Cu shÅw ]m]tZmj¯n\v \ÃXmsW¶hÀ hnizkn¡p¶p. inh`àcmbn«mWv ChÀ Adnbs¸Sp¶Xv. e¼mSnIfpambn Ipsd Ime§fmbn ChÀ¡v hnhml_Ô§fnÃ. acn¨pIgnªm kZy \S¯p¶p. acn¨bmÄ ssIemk¯nte¡v bm{Xbmsb¶mWv hnizmkw. e¼mSnIfpsS Zmkyhr¯n sN¿p¶ D]PmXnbmb cmhpep acn¨m aÕyw Iq«nbpÅ kZybp­mIpw. `À¯mhnsâ acWt¯mSpIqSn hnhmltamN\hpambn. e¼mSnIÄ¡v kz¯hImi{Ia§Ä ]eXc¯nemWv. `À¯mhnsâ kz¯n\v `mcy¡v AhImiaps­¦nepw `mcybpsS kz¯n\v `À¯mhn\v AhImianÃ. hn[hbmbn Ignªm asämcp hnhml¯n\v AhÄ ]qÀÆImekz¯v IcpXnhbv¡pw. `À¯mhv acn¨m sI«pXmen s]m«ns¨dnªm _Ôw hn«p. BÀ¡m«v \hm_v FÃm e¼mSnIÄ¡pw Hmtcm Imfsb Zm\w sNbvXXmbn ]dbp¶p. hnhmlNS§n \hm_n\v kvXpXn ]dbp¶ e¼mSnIfp­v. acn¨pIgnªm ]ptcmlnX³ P\¡q«¯nÂh¨v Bßmhns\ `kvacq]¯nÂ]d¸n¨pIfbp¶p. 'HcmÄ Ipdªp' F¶ a{´hpw P]n¡p¶p. {Kma`cWw _menkp{Koh·mÀ \ÂInb `cWm[nImcw ]mc¼cyambn \ne\nÀ¯nbncp¶ e¼mSnIfp­v. Hcp {Kma¯n\v Hcp Xeh\pw AXns\mcp ]©mb¯pw sXep¦ptZi¯p e¼mSnIfpsS `cW{Ias¯ \nb{´n¨ncp¶p. \hm_pamcpsS `cWw h¶t¸mÄ D­mbncps¶¶p k¦ev¸n¨ncp¶ `cWm[nImcw e¼mSnIÄ¡v \ãs¸«p. {Kma¯nep­mIp¶ Ipg¸§Ä¡v ]cnlmcw ImWpI, Ifhn\p in£n¡pI, Ipä§Ä¡v in£bmbn I¶pImenIsf ]ngsb¶ \nebn CuSm¡pI apXemb A[nImc§Ä e¼mSn Xeh\pw `cWkanXn¡pap­mbncp¶p. AenJnXamb `cWLS\bmWhÀ¡pÅXv. XncsªSp¸nsâ iey§fnÃm¯ `cWkanXnbmWhcpsS ]cam[nImck`. Nne D]PmXnIÄ e¼mSnIfpsS {Kma§ÄsImÅsN¿ms\¯nbm {Kma¯eh³ Ipg hnfn¡p¶p. A§s\ B{IaW¯n \n¶pw c£s]Sm\pÅ apt¶äw krãn¡p¶p. I¶pImenIsf I«psIm­pt]mIp¶XmWv {][m\ Ifhv. £maw hÀ²n¡pt¼mÄ {Kmam´c§fn Gäpap«epIÄ km[mcWamWv.GXp kwL«\¯nepw ]ptcmlnX{_mÒW\v c£\ÂIm\pÅ ]qÀÆIme\bw {]m_ey¯nep­v.e¼mSnIfpsS BNmc{Ia§Ä AwKoIcn¡m¯ D]PmXnIÄ ]et¸mgpw {Kma¯eh\v AhcpsS \nthZ\§Ä kaÀ¸n¡mdp­v. kam[m\]camb {Kma`cWw \S¸nÂhcp¯p¶Xn {i²mephmb ]ptcmlnX³ k¦S]cnlmcmÀ°w I¶pImenIsf AhÀ¡v hm§nsImSp¡pw.hÀj¯n Hcp {]mhiyw {Kma¯eh³ ]ptcmlnXt\msSm¸w AbÂ{Kma§fnse kpJhpw t£ahpw At\zjn¡m³ ]pds¸Spw. Ifhp sXmgnem¡nbn«pÅ D]PmXnXeh·msc¡­v kt´mjn¡pw. A§s\ `ojWns¸Sp¯p¶hÀ¡v \nIpXn AS¨mWv {Kma`cWw sIm­pt]mIp¶Xv. _men kp{Koh·mcpsS t]cn elf\S¯n e¼mSnIsf sImÃn¡p¶ ]gb kw{¼Zmbw {Kma¯eh³amÀ Dt]£n¨p. im´amb Hcp A´co£w {Kma¯nep­m¡m\pÅ t{]cWIÄ Ignª \qäm­n Xs¶ cmP`cWm[nImcnIÄ AhÀ¡v \evIn. a{Zmkv ayqknb¯nsâ taeptZymKØ\pw \chwiimkv{XÚ\pambncp¶ sXgv̳ e¼mSnIfpsS {Kma`cWs¯ C§s\bmWv hntijn¸n¡p¶Xv. "]pcmW]pcpj·mcpsS t]cn {Kma`cWw \S¯nb e¼mSnIÄ sh«nbpw sIm¶pw {]Xm]w \ne\nÀ¯nbncp¶XpsIm­v AhcpsS {Kma`cW¯n CSs]tS­n h¶p. ià·mcn Hcp `mKw {Kma`cW¯n \n¶v thÀs]«p. AtXmsS BNmc§fnepw Ipsd hyXymkw hcp¯n. \à {Kma`cWw \S¸m¡p¶Xn AhÀ {ian¨t¸mÄ Ahsc A\pkcn¡m\pw {KmaoWÀ X¿mdmbn. ]n¶Wnbn \nev¡p¶ ]ptcmlnX\mWv `cW¯nsâ KXnsb \nb{´n¨ncp¶Xv". B{Ômbnepw Xangv\m«nepw ssakqcnepw NnXdnInS¡p¶ e¼mSnIÄ HcpIme¯v {Kma`cW¯n\v t]scSp¯hcmbncp¶p. KncnhmknIfpsS taem[nImcw ssI¿S¡nh¨ncp¶ 6

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p. 8

B{Ôbnse e¼mSnIsf aetbmc§fn \n¶v AhÀ Xpc¯n. sslZcmenbpsS Ime¯v e¼mSnhÀ¤¡mÀ X§fpsS A[nImc§Â hos­Sp¯v XcWsa¶`yÀ°n¨ncp¶p. \mbv¡·mÀ F¶dnbs¸Sp¶ {]Xm]imenIsf hnfn¨v e¼mSnIÄ¡v sskzcPohnXw \bn¡m³ klmbklIcWw \ÂIWsa¶pw sslZÀ Iev]n¨p. {Kma¯n Hcp {]iv\w h¶pIgnªm ]cnlmcw ImWp¶Xn\v {Kmaw apgph\pw Cd§n Xncn¡p¶p. B]¯n kv{XoIÄ ap¶Wnbn \nev¡p¶p. {Kma]©mb¯nsâ hn[n tIÄ¡m³ e¼mSnIÄ A_mehr²w k¶nlnXcmIpw. almßPnbpsS kl{]hÀ¯I\mbncp¶ Xm¡À _m¸m KncnhÀ¤¡mcpsS Imcy¯n IqSpX {i²n¨ncp¶p. At±lw At\zjn¨dnª hnhc§Ä KmÔnPnsb [cn¸n¡mdp­mbncp¶p. Z£nW C³Uybn ]cyS\¯ns\¯nb KmÔnPntbmSv Xm¡À_m¸m ]dªXnXmWv. "lcnP\§tf¡mÄ ]nt¶m¡w \nev¡p¶ ]pcmWhmknIfpsS \ne \¶mbm am{Xsa cmPyw \¶mhpIbpÅp. A]cnjvIrXcmb e¼mSnhÀ¤¡mcpsS {KmaoWPohnXhpw hnizmk§fpw sFIyt_m[hpw ]Tnt¡­ hnjb§fmWv. e¼mSnIsft¸mse \qdpIW¡n\v hÀ¤¡mcmWv Z£ntW´ybnepÅXv.AhcpsS PohnXw \¶m¡p¶ am\knIamb kao]\w \S¯Ww.tkht\mÕpIcmb a\pjykvt\lnIÄ¡nd§nsNÃm³ km[n¨m e¼mSnIÄt]mepÅ hÀ¤§fpsS \ne \¶m¡mw. PmXnIÄ CÃmXm¡m\pÅ {iaw \S¸m¡p¶ps­¦nepw \nbaZÞpsIm­v AXp apgph³ hnPbn¡phm³ {]bmkambncn¡pw. a\pjyhÀ¤¯nse k¦oÀ®§fmb {]iv\§fpambn IqSn Ipgªp InS¡p¶ HchØbmWv PmXnIsf hnImc]cambn \nb{´n¡p¶Xv. B \nb{´W¯n\v hnZym`ymk¯n³tdbpw am\knIhnImk¯ntâbpw hfÀ¨¡v A\pkcnt¨ AbhphcnIbpÅp. a\pjyhÀ¤¯nse Ahm´c hn`mK§fpsS {]tXyIXIÄ amdp¶Xn\v Ahtcbpw AhcpsS kwkvImct¯bpw ]än ]Tn¡msX XcanÃ. \chwiimkv{Xkz`mht¯mSpIqSnb B ]T\w \½psS cmPy¯v hfcWw. F¶m am{Xsa C³Uybnse a\pjyhÀ¤¯nsâ \navt\m¶X {Kln¡m³ km[n¡bpÅp 7

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p. 9

I¡me]pcmhr¯w kaqlLS\bpsS ]cnhÀ¯\§Ä¡\pkcn¨v \in¨psIm­ncn¡p¶ \chÀ¤§fnÂs]«XmWv tIcf¯nse Im¡me·mÀ.Z£ntW´ybnse ]pcmX\ am\pjyhÀ¤§fnÂs¸Sp¶ ImIbm·mcpsS ]qÀÆnIcmWv Im¡me·msc¶v sXep¦cpw Xangcpw hnizkn¡p¶p. {]mIrXmNmc§sf]pWÀ¶v \msSm«p¡pw Ae£yambn k©cn¡p¶ Im¡me·mÀ {ZmhnUhÀ¤]mc¼cyw AhImis¸Sp¶hcmsW¶v \chwiimkv{XÚ·mÀ ]dbp¶p. cma\m«pcmPmhn\m _lnjvIcn¡s¸« B hwiamWv I¡me·mcpsSsX¶v tKmZmhcn, hnimJ]«Ww, IS¸, I®qÀ F¶o PnÃIfnse BZnhmkn ]T\dnt¸mÀ«n Nq­n¡m«p¶p. tIcf¯nse Nne `mK§fn I­pap«mdpÅ I¡me·mÀ CS¡me¯v Xangv\m«n \n¶pw B{Ôbn \n¶pw h¶hcmsW¶v hyàamWv. Ipdh³, thS³, DÅmS³, Ducmfn XpS§nb BZnhmknhÀ¤§fpsS kmaqlymNmc§fpambn At`Zyamb _ÔapÅ Im¡me·mÀ ]pcmW§fn hÀÖn¡s¸«n«pÅ hÀ¤amsW¶v Hcp ]£ap­v. thSthjaWnªv hÅntbmSv t{]abmN\ \S¯p¶ kp{_aWy³ Im¡mecmPmhmbncps¶¶pIqSn sFXolyap­v. Im¡me·mcpsS ]mc¼cyw F´msW¶p tNmZn¨m hÅnb½Ncn{Xw Ah³ ]c¯n ]dª`nam\n¡pw. Im¡sb ]nSn¡p¶hcmbXpsIm­mWv aebmf¡cbn Im¡me·mÀ F¶dnbs¸Sp¶sX¶v A\pam\ap­v. ]s£ Z£ntW´ybnsem«p¡p 'Im¡meÀ' F¶ t]cn Xs¶bmWhÀ Adnbs¸Sp¶Xv. a{Zmkv ayqknbw taeptZymØ\pw \chwiimkv{XÚ\pambncp¶ sXgv̳ aebmf¡cbnseb "Z£ntW´ybnse PmXnIÄ" F¶ {KÙ¯n Im¡me·msc ]än ]dbp¶Xn§s\bmWv:-þ “ImXpIp¯pI, ssIt\m¡pI, Im¡sb ]nSn¡pI F¶nhbmWv apJy{]hr¯n. Hcp Im¡me\v ]{´­phsc `mcyamcp­mImw. ]Ww, shäne, ASbv¡, Acn apXemb km[\§Ä aWhmfsâ `mK¡mÀ ]´enÄ F¯n¡Ww. Xnc­m HcmgvN BtLmjap­v. hn[hsb `À¯rktlmZc·mÀs¡Sp¡mw.kv{XoIÄ ]pcpj·msc t]mäp¶ kw{¼Zmbhpw Chcnep­v.”sXgvÌsâ A`n{]mb¯n Im¡me·mÀ \mbmSnhwi¯nÂs]«hcmsW¶mWv. ]pcmWthZ§Ä CuW¯n ]mSp¶ ae\m«pIpdh·mcpsS hÀ¤hpambn Im¡me·mÀ¡v _Ôaps­¶pImWmw. Im¡me·mcpsS IpeI\yIIÄ hoSptXmdpw \S¶v “]mIye£Ww” ]dbp¶coXn Gsd¡psd Ipdhcn \n¶v ]IÀ¯s¸«XmWv. Xangv\m«nepw B{Ôbnepw Im¡me·mÀ hÅnb½Ncn{Xw ]mSn \r¯w shbv¡p¶p. tIcf¯nse¯nbt¸mÄ Im¡me¯n ssIt\m«¡mcnbmbn amdn. AhcpsS ssIt\m«¯n\p \nZm\w hÅnb½bptSbpw kp{_aWytâbpw apJe£W§fpw sku`mKyPohnXhpamWv. Im¡me ssIt\m«¯n\v AenJnX{]amW§fp­v. Z£ntW´y³ cmPm¡·mcpsS A´x]pc§fn {]thin¡m³ A\paXn D­mbncp¶p Im¡me·mÀ¡v. PmehnZy, \r¯w, RmWnt·Â Ifn, a{´hmZw F¶nhbn sshZKv²yap­mbncp¶p. s]cpamÄ`cWtijw Xangv\m«nÂ\n¶v tIcf¯nte¡v {]hln¨ BZnhmknIfn Im¡me·mcpw DÄs¸Sp¶p. NneÀ aeIfn Ibdn¡qSnbt¸mÄ aäp NneÀ Bimcnbmbpw aqimcnbmbpw, \mbm«pImcmbpw ]ncnªpt]mbn. ae_mdnse s]cp¼S¸pa¶\pw XncphnXmwIqdnse sN¼ItÈcn cmPmhpw Xangv\m«nse BZnhmknIÄ¡v PohnXskuIcy§Ä \ÂInbhcmbn ]dbs¸Sp¶p. Im¡me·mÀ¡v Hcp cmPmhpw `cWIqShpw D­mbncps¶¶p ]dbp¶p. Ipdh·mÀ¡v Hcp cmPmhv sX¡³XncphnXmwIqdnep­mbncps¶¶v Ncn{X{]kvXmh\Ifp­tÃm? tIcfs¯ kw_Ôn¨v Im¡me·mÀ AhImis¸Sp¶ cmPmhpw CXpXs¶ Bbncn¡mw. Im¡mehÀ¤w `n¶{Kq¸pIfmbn a²yXncphnXmwIqdnepw, ae_mdnepw k©nXp¶Â, ssIt\m«w, RmWnt·ÂIfn XpS§nb sXmgnepIfpambn AeªpXncnbpIbmWv. ae_mÀ `mK§fn ]pÅph·msc¶t]cnepw Im¡me·mÀ Adnbs¸Sp¶p­v. ]pÅh·mÀ DÕhØe§fn CuW¯n ]m«p]mSn \mKmcm[\ \S¯pw. ]pÅphscs¡m­v kÀ¸¸m«p]mSn¨v kwXr]vXnt\Sp¶hÀ `àP\§fn hfsct¸scImWpw, ]pÅph\pw ]mW\pw Im¡mehÀ¤¯nse D]PmXnIfmWv. sN­sIm«p¶Xnepw at\mlcambn Ifw hcbv¡p¶Xnepw ]pÅphcpw ]mWcpw hnZKv²cmWv. PohnXw apgph\pw ]mSnbpw Ifw hc¨pw Ign¨pIq«p¶ {]mNo\hÀ¤§fnÂs]« ChÀ¡v t£{X§fn Nne Øe§fn Øm\§fp­v. \m«pIm¡me·mcn NneÀ \ne¼qÀ `mK§fn Ipc§ns\ ]nSn¡phm³ Hcp Ime¯v \ntbmKn¡s¸«ncp¶p. ]£nItfbpw arK§tfbpw 8

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p. 10

\njv{]bmkw _Ôn¡m³ km[n¡p¶ Im¡me·mÀsXm« hkvXp¡Ä taÂPmXn¡mÀ Dt]£n¨ncp¶p. shÅIm¡me·msc B\]nSp¯¯n¶pw B\sb ]cnioen¸n¡p¶Xn¶pw ssakqcnepw ae_mdnepw D]tbmKs¸Sp¯nbncp¶p. 1891þ-se Imt\jpamcn dnt¸mÀ«p{]Imcw Im¡me·mÀ Ahm´chn`mK§fn ebn¨phcp¶Xmbn Nq­n¡mWn¨ncp¶p. ]s£ Iq«w Iq«ambpw Häbmbpw sXep¦pcmPy§fnepw Xangv\m«nepw tIcf¯nepw AhÀ Bbnc¡W¡n\p­mbncp¶p. Im¡me·mcn {]bXv\imenIfmb Hcp hn`mKw ‘IpfwtImcnIÄ' F¶ t]cnednbs¸«ncp¶p. tIcf¯nse Im¡mehÀ¤¯n adh³, ]pÅph³, ]mW³, IpfwtImcn XpS§nb ]¯v D]PmXnIfps­¶p ImWmw. ChcpsS PmXymNmc§Ä¡v henb hyXymk§Ä ImWpIbnÃ. ]peb\pw, th«h\pw, ]Wnb\pw X½n ImWp¶ Nne hyXymk§Ä Is­¶phcmw. {]mIrX sXep¦pw Xangpw Xpfphpw kwkmcn¡p¶ Im¡me·mÀ Xo{h{ia§Ä \S¯n Imebm]\w sN¶hcmWv. ae_mdnse BZyIme kÀ¡kv A`ymknIÄ¡v Im¡me·mcpsS kÀ¡kv hnZyIfmWv amXrItbmKyambn tXm¶nbsX¶v kÀ¡kv Kpcp¡·mÀ ]dbp¶p. tdmUcpIn aªpw agbpw shbnepw Hcp hnLv\ambn IW¡m¡msX Im¡me³ C¶pw Hcp Iehpw N«nbpambn Øew ]nSn¡pw. cmPy¯v hcp¶ s`uXnI amä§Ä t\m¡n¡­p Ignbp¶ Im¡me·mÀ tIcf¯nse aäp P\XtbmsSm¸w hnZyb`ykn¡mt\m Dbcmt\m B{Kln¡p¶nÃ. hÅnb½bpsS ]pcmWhpw sNmÃn IenImes¯¸gn¨v AhÀ \o§pIbmWv. Im¡meap¯È·msc I­m AhÀ¡n¶s¯ ]cnjvImcw A{X ]nSn¡p¶nsöv AhÀ ]dbpw. Np«nIp¯n AwKemhWyw hcp¯nb Im¡me¯n ]pXnb ssItcJmimkv{XImc·msc ]gn ]dªv apJw hoÀ¸n¡pw. ]£nIsfbnW¡n Iq«nem¡n `mKyw ]co£n¡phm³ InfnIqSpambn \S¡p¶ Im¡me\n¶v ]gbIme{]Xm]w Abhnd¡pIbmWv. P\§fpsS hnNmcaÞew bpàn]qÀÆw hnIkn¡p¶tXmsSm¸w Im¡mesâ ]mc\v]cy AhImi§fpw sXmgnepw ]n³XÅs¸Sp¶p. Im¡me¯n `n£mS\¯n\mbn Xncnbm³ \nÀ_Ôn¡s¸Sp¶p. \qäm­pIÄ¡vap¼p Hcp kphÀ®Ime¯nsâ sku`mKyk´XnIfmbn Pohn¨ncp¶ Hcp P\XbpsS ]n´pSÀ¨¡mcmWv Im¡me·mÀ. k©cn¡p¶ Cu hÀ¤w kwkvImctIZmc§fn \n¶v Cd§nXncn¨hcmImw. sNt¦men¶pth­n \S¶ kwL«\§fn ]cmPbs¸«v A`bmÀ°nIfmbn \mSphn«hcmImw. C³Uybnse Hcp tImSnbn Xmsg hcp¶ BZnhmknIfnÂs¸« Im¡me·mÀ efnXNn¯cpw IemIpXnInIfpamWv. kwLSnXbXv\¯nsâ A`mhwsIm­v Im¡meIemkt¦Xw AhKWn¡s¸«XmWv. ]cnjvImc¯nsâ apIÄ]c¸neqsS AsX´msW¶p {Kln¡msX ]Zbm{X \S¯n Hä Xncnªv \in¨psIm­ncn¡p¶ Im¡me·mÀ AhcpsS \ãs¸« Imew hos­Sp¡psa¶pw tXm¶p¶nÃ. 9

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p. 11

BZnhmknIÄ \chwiimkv{X]T\¯n Xmev]cyapÅhÀ¡v sIuXpIapfhm¡p¶ \nch[n hÀ¤§fpw D]PmXnIfpw Ccp­ \qäm­nse BNmc§fpambn C¶pw \½psS C³Uysb A[nhkn¡p¶p­v. AhcpsS CcpfSª at\mKplIfn ]pXnb kmaqly]cnhÀ¯\¯nsâ shfn¨w ]IÀ¶psImSp¡m³ Ignbm¯ Imet¯mfw P\m[n]Xy¯n hnImc]camb sFIytam hnNmc]camb DÂIÀjtam ]qÀ®ambn D­mIpsa¶v Bin¡m³ \nÀhmlanÃ. `qcn]£ ]nt¶m¡kapZmb§Ä AhImi§Ä t\Sn ap¶Wnbnse¯nbmepw ]nt¶bpw ]n¶Wnbn InS¡p¶ P\e£§Ä C³Uybn ImWmw.AhcmWv lnameb{]tZi§fnepw Bkmw aebnSp¡pIfnepw cmPØm\nepw A[nhkn¡p¶ BZnhmknhÀ¤§Ä. AhcpsS kwJy Hcp tImSntbmfw hcpsa¶v IW¡m¡s¸Sp¶p. a\pjyhÀ¤imk{X¯n Xev]ccmb sXgvÌ\pw tamÀK\pw A\´IrjvW¿cpamWv BZnhmknhÀ¤§fpsS AÛpXPohnXs¯¸än {]Xn]mZn¨ BZyImeKthjI·mÀ. Ncn{Xhpw ]pcmX\hkvXp]T\hpw Aev]w ]ptcmKans¨¦nepw Ncn{XhnÚm\¯nsâ Ahn`mPyLSIamb \chwi]T\w th­{X ]ptcmKan¨nÃ. kmlknIcmb hnÚm\ZmlnIfpsS A£oWbXv\¯n\v am{XamWv h\m´chÀ¤§sf¸än ]T\w \S¯m³ IgnbpI. Z£ntW´ybnÂXs¶ \qdne[nIw BZnhmknhÀ¤§fp­v. Ahbn hwim[]X\w h¶psIm­ncn¡p¶ hn`mK§fnÂs]«XmWv B{Ôbnse hmecpw, s_m´p¡cpw, tb\mZnIfpw hSpI\pw aäpw. Nne hÀ¤§Ä Ipes¯mgnenÂ\n¶p thÀs]«v aäpÅhcn ebn¡pItbm ISp¯ A\mNmcwsIm­v kzbw \in¡pItbm sN¿p¶p. ]Xns\«pw ]s¯m³]Xpw \qäm­pIfn {Kma`cW¯n Øm\hen¸ap­mbncp¶hcpw 1921 se IWs¡Sp¸n \in¨pXpS§nbXmbn¡­p. F¶mepw Bbnc¯ne[nIw BZnhmknhÀ¤w C³Uybn Ahtijn¡p¶p. ameÀ B{Ôbnse A[xIrXhÀ¤¯nÂs¸« AÔhnizmknIfmWv ameÀ. ]iphntâbpw FcpabptSbpw amwkw `£n¡p¶ aZy]m\hÀ¤sa¶mWv sXgv̳ Chsc hntijn¸n¡p¶Xv. ImÀjnIhr¯nbnteÀs¸«n«pÅ ameÀ ihwXo\nIfmsW¶v ]dbp¶hcpap­v. Hcp {]mIrXhÀ¤¯sâ BNmc§f\pjvTn¡p¶ ameÀ P\\kab¯v £p{ZPohnIsf \mbmSp¶p. Ip«nbpsS Ahbh§fn kqNn ]gp¸n¨v NqSphbv¡pIbpw sN¿p¶p. {]khn¨ kv{Xo¡v GgpZnhkw NqSpshÅw am{Xw \ÂIp¶p. KÀ`nWnbpsS ssI¿n Ccp¼nsâ Bbp[w ]nSn¸n¡pw. kpJ{]khamsW¦n shäne DgnªpsImSp¡pw. AkpJ{]khamsW¦n XWp¯ shÅw tImcnsbmgn¨v Xm]w XoÀ¡pw. s]¬IpªmsW¦n Np­pw XmSnbpw \ne¯pc¨v ]m]w XoÀ¡pw. kv{XoIÄ¡v apJ¯v tcmaw hcmXncn¡p¶Xv Cu Dcbv¡ÂsIm­msW¶v ameÀ hnizkn¡p¶p. hnhml¯n\v s]®ns\ XncsªSp¡m³ A½mh\mWv A[nImcw. aWhmf³ \Jhpw I¬]oenIfpw ]pcnIhpw apdn¨v I¿n kq£n¡p¶p. hnhmlthfbn Hcp sN¼v \mWbpIqSn hdp¯ Acnbn Iq«n Ipg¨v aWhmf\pw aWhm«nbpw Aev]w cpNn t\m¡p¶p. Cu {Iob \S¯p¶Xv ]ptcmlnX\mWv. \qsäm¶ngbpÅ aªÄ ]pc«nb \qev Xmenbmbn sI«p¶p. Z¼XnIfpsS icoc¯n {KmahmknIÄ ]m Xfn¡p¶tXmsS hnhmlw AwKoIcn¡s¸«Xmbn ]ptcmlnX³ {]Jym]n¡p¶p. hnhmlkZysb¶dnbs¸Sp¶ "{`aÃ" F¶ NS§n Ielw s]m«n¸pds¸Smdp­v. IelanÃmXncn¡m³ kZyhnf¼p¶ kab¯v ho«pImÀ ]ptcmlnXs\ IW¡äp {]oXns¸Sp¯Ww. _lp`mcymXzw km[mcWamsW¦nepw kv{Xo¡v c­mw hnhmlw ]mSnÃ. Zmknbmbn Ignbmw. "]pSh«" F¶dnbs¸Sp¶ hn[hmhnhmlw km[mcWbmWv. acn¨m ih¯nsâ hm]nfÀ¶v shäne \nd¨phbv¡pw. acn¨bpS³ sNhnbpw I®pw aqSnsI«pw. acn¨m ]ptcmlnX³ BZyw hn`hkar²amb kZy Ign¨v NS§pIÄ Bcw`n¡pw. ih¯nsâ Imen ]ptcmlnX³ BZyw hn`hkar²ambn kZy Ign¨v NS§pIÄ Bcw`n¡pw. ih¯nsâ Imen ]ptcmlnX³ Hgn¡p¶ shÅw IpS¯n kw`cn¨v Gsd \mÄ ho«n kq£n¡pw. hy`nNmcw in£mÀlamsW¦nepw {Kma¯eh\pw ]ptcmlnX\pw {]bÝn¯w sN¿n¨m Ahsf Zmknbmbn ]pd´Åpw. a¡¯mbnIfmb ameÀ ]nXrktlmZcnItfbpw hnhmlw Ign¡pw. Nne PmXymNmc§Ä ImcWw ameÀ sXep¦\m«n Häs¸«pIgnbp¶p. 10

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p. 12

s_m´p¡mÀ IrjvW tKmZmhcn Xoc§fn aÕyw ]nSn¨p Ignbp¶ s_m´p¡mÀ ]¶namwkw hninãmlmcambn IcpXp¶ BZnhmkn hÀ¤amWv. hnhmlmSnb´nc¯n\v ]¶nsb sh«n aWhmf³ aWhm«nbpsS hkXnbnse¯n¡Ww. ]¶nt¨mcbn ]n¨f\mWbw ap¡n {Kma¯ehsâ t\XrXz¯n s]mXp Øe¯ph¨v ssIamdp¶tXmsS hnhmlmtLmjambn. kv{Xo[\¯nsâ Htcmlcn '_m¸mSn'sb¶ {Kma¯eh\pÅXmIp¶p. A©p Znhkw \o­p\nev¡p¶ hnhmlNS§n \n¶v \sÃmtcmlcn ]ptcmlnX\pw {Kma¯eh\pw In«p¶p. Z¼XnIfpsS IW¦§Ä ]ptcmlnX\mWv k½m\n¡pI. P\n¨m Ip«nIÄ¡v ]e t]cpIfpanSmdp­v. ImäpÅ kabamsW¦n Imsä¶pw agbpÅ kabamsW¦n agsb¶pw arK§Ä ZriyamIp¶ kµÀ`amsW¦n arK§fpsS t]cpw Ip«nbv¡nSp¶p. DbcapÅ aebptSbpw ImthcnbptSbpw IrjvWbptSbpw t]cpIÄ kÀÆkm[mcWamWv. kv{Xo EXpaXnbmbm IpSpw_w apgph\pw Aip²nbmWv. GgpZnhkw Ignªm henb kZybpw \S¯pw. ]¶n \mbm«v s_m´p¡mcpsS henb hnt\mZamWv. kv{Xo ]pcpj t`Zat\y Idp¯hmhn Hcpan¨v \r¯w sN¿mdp­v. acn¨pIgnªm baZqX·mÀ¡v {]tXyIw kZybp­v. AXnepw ]¶namwk¯n\pw aÕy¯n\pw Øm\ap­v. ihw CSXp`mKt¯¡v Ncn¨pInS¯n Ipgn¨nSpw. ]cp´pIÄ¡v ihw Im¡m³ ]¶namwkw GgpZnhkw sImSp¡pw. ssiihhnhmlw \njn²aÃ. s_m«S F¶ DbÀ¶ BZnhmknIfn \n¶pw \njn²amb Ipä§Ä¡v _lnjnIcn¡s¸«hcmWv s_m´p¡mÀ F¶ hÀ¤w. ]qWp\q s]m«ns¨dnª ChÀ ]m]nIfmsW¶v s_m«hÀ¤¡mÀ ]dbpw. Chsc ]qWp\q [mcnIfmb s_m«S¡mÀ¡v `bamWv. ZpãcmbIrjvW\nc¡mcmbn Chsc hntijn¸n¡p¶p. {]bXv\imenIfmb s_m´p¡mÀ B{Ômbnse \ZoXShmknIfn IpdªphcnIbmWv. tb\mZnIÄ {]mIrX sXep¦p`mj kwkmcn¡p¶ £pcIhÀ¤amWv tb\mZnIfptSXv. DbÀ¶hsc dÍn tb\mZnsb¶phnfn¡pw . hnhmlImcy¯n HcmNmcapdbnÃ. Cãs¸« kv{Xob X«nsIm­pt]mbn Xmakn¸n¡mw. hy`nNmcw Hcp Ipäambn tb\mZnIÄ IW¡m¡p¶nÃ. Ggpt]sc hsc `À¯m¡·mcmbn kzoIcn¡mw. ]pcmX\ tIcf¯nse `ÀXr]mc¼cyhpw acpa¡¯mb k{¼Zmbhpw tb\mZnIÄ ]peÀ¯nt]mcp¶p­v. EXpaXnIsf {]tXyIw IpSnepIfn Xmakn¸n¡p¶p. ip²nbmbm IpSn Np«pIfbp¶p. F{XhnjapÅ kÀ¸ambmepw tb\mZnIÄ ]nSn¡pw. ]m¼ns\ tXmepcn¨v aªÄt¸mSn thhn¨v HcpXcw ssXew D­m¡p¶hcpw tb\mZnIfn D­v. HSn. a{´hmZw, hnjsshZyw F¶nhbn G\mZnIÄ {]kn²cmWv. ihwIagv¯n Ipgn¨nSpIbpw ASnb´ncIÀ½§Ä¡v aZyhpw ]¶nbnd¨nbpw kpe`ambn D]tbmKn¡pIbpw sN¿pw. tb\mZn kv{XoIÄ Iq«IhÀ¨¡v ]pcpj·mtcmsSm¸w k©cn¨ncp¶p. Ihnfnepw ssI¯­bnepw ]¨ Ip¯n hnIrXam¡nb tb\mZnkv{XoIÄ¡v ssIap«phsc Hm«phfbp­mImw. aÕyw ]nSn¡p¶hcpw ap­e¡p¶hcpw tb\mZnIfn ImWmw. sXep¦p\m«n tb\mZnhÀ¤¯n \n¶v tIma«n apckp XpS§nb BZn\nhmknIÄ hnhml_Ô¯nteÀs¸«n«p­v. ip²tb\mZnhÀ¤w A§s\ adªphcnIbmWv. `oIc·mcmbn Nn{XoIcn¡s¸«n«pÅ tb\mZnIfn amap\nIfpw k¶ymknamcpap­v. Ahsc hµn¡msX Hcp tb\mZnbpw IS¶pt]mImdnÃ. hSpI³ _ÔpI³ F¶ t]cnednbs¸Sp¶ hSpI³ I¶pImen hfÀ¯p¶Xnepw Irjn¸Wnbnepw hnZKv²\mWv. hmÀjnItafbmtLmjn¡pt¼mÄ XobneqsS \S¡p¶XmWv hSpIsâ kXykÔXbv¡v am\ZÞambn IW¡m¡s¸Sp¶Xv. ]Xns\«v D]PmXnIÄ hSpIcn ImWmw. sF¯amNcn¡p¶hcpw ]qWp\q [cn¡p¶hcpw CXnepÄs¸Spw. kv{XoIÄ¡v CãapÅ `À¯mhns\ kzoIcn¡mw. eLphmb IpSpw_hg¡p­mbmÄ `À¯mhns\ amäm³ `mcy aSn¡mdnÃ. `À¯mhnsâ Akm¶n²y¯n `À¯rktlmZcs\ kzoIcn¡mw. `mcy `À¯mhnt\¡mÄ {]mbIqSpXepÅhfmbncn¡pw. ihZml¯n\pap¼v Fcpasb {]Z£nWw sh¸n¡pw. ihw s]mXpØe¯v {]ZÀ¸n¨tijw Fcpa¸m ih¯nsâ hmbn Hmgn¡pw. ih¡«nen\pNpäpw hSpI ]ptcmlnX·mcpw knÂ_ÔnIfpw a{´w P]n¨p BwKyw ImWn¡pw. XeapSn, B`cWw, Acn F¶nh ih¯nsâ ]pShbn sI«nbnSpw. hSpIsâ acWw Adnªm kv{XoIÄ am{Xsa Icbm³ ]mSpÅp. ]pcpj·mÀ im]tam£¯n\mbn {KmaoWKm\w Be]n¡pw. baZqXt\mSv t\cn«p]dbp¶ {]kvXpX Km\¯n acn¨ hSpI³ sNbvX Ipä§Ä Gäp]dbpw. iha©saSp¡pwt¼mÄ Hcp Fcpa¡p«nsb Ibdgn¨v \SXÅpw. ihw Zln¸n¡p¶ hSpIcps­¦nepw Nne D]PmXnIÄ Ccp¯nIpgn¨nSpIbpw 11

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p. 13

sN¿pw. sXmdbs\sIm­v s£ucwsN¿n¨tijw am{Xsa ih¡«nseSp¡bpÅp. hSpIsc B{Ian¡p¶ Ipdp_sc hSpIÀ `bs¸Sp¶p. b£nbptSbpw NmapÞnbptSbpw AIw]SntbmsS \S¡p¶ Ipdpw]À hSpI kv{XoIfpsS IcsfSp¯v acp¶p­m¡p¶hcmsW¶hÀ `bs¸Sp¶p. hSpIcpsS hnhmlNS§v I¶p]q«temsSbmWhkm\n¡pI. Zw¼XnIÄ Irjn]mS¯v I¶p]q«n a[phn[p Bcw`n¡p¶p. hSpIÀ B{Ôm{]tZi¯pw ssakqcnepw 1951þ-se Imt\jpamcn¡me¯v F®w Ipdªphcp¶Xmbn I­ncn¡p¶p. Z£ntW´ybnse kmaqlymNmc§fn kzm[o\w sNep¯nbn«pÅ \qäpIW¡n\v BZnhmknIfp­v. Ahcn \n¶v sXän¸ncnªhcmWn¶s¯ ]cnjvIrXÀ. {]mNo\ {ZmhnUkwkvImc¯nsâ hntijXIÄ PohnX¯n kq£n¡p¶ BZnhmknIsf ]cnjvIrXNn¯cm¡nbmse kmaqly\oXn A\zÀ°amIpIbpÅp. 12

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p. 14

adh³ {]Xm]hm\mb amÀ¯mÞhÀ½bpsS hotcm]mZ\§sf¸än {]Xn]mZn¡p¶ kmlnXy\n]pW·mÀ Hcn¡epw hnkvacn¨n«nÃm¯ hÀ¤amWv adhcptSXv. adh¸SbpsS B{IaWhpw, adhcpsS Kp­m{]hÀ¯\hpw XncphnXmwIqÀ Ncn{XsagpXnbhsc§ns\ hnkvacn¡pw: sX¡³XncphnXmwIqdpambn _Ôs¸«n«pÅ adhÀ Z£ntW´ybnse {]mNo\]nt¶m¡ hÀ¤§fn s]«hcmWv. 1891-tebpw 1901-tebpw Imt\jpamcn¡me¯v adhcpsS P\kwJybpw AtXmsSm¸w AhcpsS BNmchnizmk§fpw kmaqlyPohnXhpw hntZinIfmb \chwiimkv{XÚ·msc BIÀjn¨p. aebmf¯nse cmPIobmJymbnIIfnse¶t]mse a\pjyhÀ¤imkv{XimJbnepw adhÀ kvacWobcmbn. aebmf`mjbn adhsc HcpXcw Kp­Ifmbn«mWv Nn{XoIcn¨n«pÅXv. ]s£ B Nn{XoIcW¯n\v {]tNmZ\w \evInb kmaqly\oXnbpw IW¡nseSpt¡­Xp­v. `cn¡p¶ hÀ¤hpw AhcpsS NmÀ¨¡mcpsamgn¨v _m¡nbpÅhscÃmw lo\·msc¶v KWn¡p¶ Imeambncp¶p AXv. sskzcyPohnXw Aet¦mes¸Sp¯phm³ amÀ¯mÞhÀ½bpsS Ime¯v adhtcbpw D]tbmKn¨ncp¶p. \nÀ`mKyhm·mcmb Ahsc Imcyw I­t¸mÄ B«nbIäpIbpw sNbvXp. ]eXpw ad¶pt]mb B adhÀ¡v Ncn{X¯n Øm\ap­v. adh]pcmhr¯w cmacmhWbp²Imes¯ ]mcw]cyamWv adhÀ AhImis¸Sp¶Xv. {iocmasâ hnPb¯n\mbn adhÀ ' Acbpw Xebpw apdp¡n' s]mcpXnbs{X. hnPb{ioemfnX\mb {iocma³ IrXÚXm]qÀÆw adhtcmSv A¶s¯ ip² Xangn ]dªphs{X "adth³" Hcn¡epw ad¡pIbnà F¶À°amWXn\pffXv. A§s\ cmacmhWImes¯ sFXnlmknI alXzhpw Abhnd¡nbmWv adh³ C¶pw Pohn¡p¶Xv. 'adh³' F¶ hm¡n \n¶pw adhcmbn amdn. "³dp¸m¸mbvs¡mcms\­mÀ¶p" F¶ kz]m\m\p`qXntbmsS a[pc cma\mSv XrÈn\m¸nÅn XpS§nb Øe§fn AXnhkn¡p¶ adhÀ Xangv\m«nse cmPm¡·mÀ¡v {]XnkÔn L«¯n D]Imcw sNbvXn«pÅhcmWv. ]­s¯ cma\mSv cmPmhv tkXp]Xnbpw \mbv¡À cmPmhpw adhcpsS t\XrXzw GsäSp¯ncp¶p. tkXp]Xn adh\mbncp¶psh¶pw ]dbp¶p. BZn]Xyw t]mb cmPm¡·mcpw {]Xm]w \in¨ kaoµÀamcpw adh kapZmb¯n HXp§nIgnbp¶p­v. Hcp Ime¯v \mSns\ InSnew sImÅn¨ncp¶ adhcpsS In¶cnXe¸mhpIÄ Ime{]hml¯n Hen¨pt]mbn. \chwiimJbnse A]cnjvIrXmNmc§fpw sXämb \ShSn{Ia§fpw ]peÀ¯nt]m¶ncp¶hcpsS Iq«¯n adhsc DÄs¸Sp¯nImWp¶p. Xncp\Âthen PnÃbn \n¶v XncphnXmwIqdnte¡v XÅn¡bdnb adh¸cnjsb \nb{´n¨p\nÀ¯m³ hfsctbsd ]Wns¸tS­n h¶p. Irjnbpw tamjWhpw Irjn{]hr¯nbnemWv adhÀ {]mtbW hym]rXcmbn ImWp¶Xv. ]mc¼cysXmgn F´msW¶p tNmZn¨m bp²w sN¿epw IrjnbpamsW¶v ]dbpw. bp²w ]gb Ime¯v hÃt¸mgpsamcn¡ep­mbm adh¸Ssb Xangv\mSv cmPm¡·mÀ Iqens¡Sp¡pw. Iqen In«nbm c­p`mK¯pw tNÀ¶v adhÀ bp²w sNbvXncp¶p. AhÀs¡m¶v ssI¯cn¸v amäWw Iqenbpw In«Ww F¶ÃmsX GXp cmPmhv Pbn¡Wsa¶v \nÀ_Ôap­mbncp¶nÃ. A§s\ IqdnÃmsX bp²w sNbvX adh¸Ssb tkXp]Xn cmPmhv PmXn`rãv Iev]n¨v Ipdhcmbn Xcw Xmgv¯nbXmbpw ]dbp¶p. A`bmÀ°nIfmbnXoÀ¶ adhÀ N«w]nIfmbn \m«nend§nb Imeap­mbncp¶p. I¶pImenIsf tamãn¡pI, hgnt]m¡sc A{Ian¡pI, \nÀ_Ôambn sNdnb \nIpXnIÄ ]ncn¡pI ChsbÃmw \nÀ_m[w \S¯nbt¸mÄ cma\m«pcmPmhn\v adhsc \nb{´n¡m³ \nÀÆmlanÃmXmbn. tamjWw Hcp sXmgnembn hfÀ¶pIgnªt¸mÄ adhsc ]m«nem¡m³ cmPmhv {ian¨p. Btcbpw in£n¡msX AbÂ\m«pcmPm¡·mÀ¡v bp²¯n\v sImSp¯p. Iptds¸sc anj\dn{]hÀ¯IÀ am\km´cs¸Sp¯n. {ItaW kmaqlyhncp²{]hr¯nIfn \n¶v adhÀ Hgnªpamdn. hnhmlmNmcw Ccp]¯nsb«v tKm{X§fmbn Nn¶n NnXdn¡nS¡p¶ adhcpsS hnhmlmNmc§Ä¡v Nne {]tXyIXIfp­v. `mcybpw `À¯mhpw Hcp tKm{X¡mcmIm³ ]mSnÃ. hnhmlaplqÀ¯ambm s]®nsâ A½mh³ Ahsf s]m¡nsbSp¯v, ]´en sIm­phcpw. I®ps]m¯n¸nSn¨ncn¡p¶ aWhm«n¡v Npäpw kv{XoIÄ XncnsImfp¯nb Xmehpambn {]Z£nWw sN¿pw. h[phc·mÀ Xme¯n Xp¸Ww. AtXmsS hnhmlNS§pIÄ Bcw`n¡pIbmbn. 13

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p. 15

hnhml¯n\v hÃhnLv\hpw h¶m Xmen s]®nsâ ho«nte¡v sImSp¯bbv¡pw. hcs\ Cãs¸«nsæn A¶pXs¶ Dt]£n¡mw. s]®v ]n´ncnªp t\m¡msX Øew hn«psImÅWw F¶pam{Xw. ]pcpj\v kv{Xosb Cãs¸«nsæn Xmen Agns¨Sp¡mw. hnhml¯n\v XmensI«v BZyw Xs¶ thWsa¶nÃ. \mev k´m\§Ä D­mbtijhpamImw. [\mVycmb adhÀ hnhml¸´en Xsâ {]Xn]pcpjs\ Ab¨v XmensI«n¡pw. henb [\mVycmb adh{]amWnIÄ ]ánÂIbdn h[phnsâ hoSn\pNpäpw Xsâ {]Xm]w {]ISn¸n¡m³ {]Z£nWw sh¨v aS§pw. ]n¶mse s]®pw Cd§nXncn¡pw. Nne adhtKm{X¡mÀ h[phnsâ ]mZ¯n aªÄ ]qin P]n¨ NcSpsI«pw. KÀ`[mcWap­mbm ]ctZhXbv¡v B ]miw ImgvNh¨v {]mÀ°\\S¯pw. KÀ`hXnbmbm AbÂhmknIÄ a[pc]elmcw sImSp¡pw. ]Icw AhscÃmw t`Zamb Hcp kZybpw \ÂIpw. acWNS§Piä adhcpsS ihw Ccp¯n Ipgn¨nSpw. NneÀ Zln¸n¡pIbpw sN¿pw. Im]menadhÀ acn¨m XetbmSn Hcp Zzmcap­mIpw. B Zzmc¯neqsS Bßmhv {iocma]mZ¯nse¯psa¶mWv adhhnizmkw. kv{Xo acns¨¦n XeapSn apdn¨pIfbpw. ivaim\¯n \h[m\y§Ä hnXdn Hm«¡pS¯n shÅsamgn¡pw. [m\y§Ä apf¨pIgnªm ASnb´ncambn, NmWIshůn ImÂap¡n¡cªp ivaim\{Iob \S¯pIbmbn. acn¨bmfpsS ]tÃm, apSntbm hfsc¡mew ho«nÂkq£n¡pw. NcahmÀjnIZnhkw \mept]scsb¦nepw hnfn¨v IÅv sImSp¯v Icbn¸n¡pw.BßlXysNbvXhcptSbpw, ]ng¨ kv{XoIfptSbpw arXtZl§Ä Bg¯n Ipgnam´n Ipgn¨nSpw. AhcpsS t{]X§Ä {Kmam´c§fn AeªpXncnbmXncn¡m³ {]tXyI tlmahpw kZybpw \S¯pw. henb adh{]amWnamÀ acn¨m {_mÒWÀ¡v \à hchmbncn¡pw. adhcpsS FÃm NS§pIÄ¡pw cma`à·mcmb {_mÒWÀ ap³]´nbnÂImWmw.adhcpsS im]tam£w \o§p¶Xn\v hÀj¯nsemcn¡se¦nepw {_mÒWÀ¡v kZybpw ]mcntXmjnI§fpap­mIpw. adhÀ amdnb ]cnXØnXnbn \qäm­pIfmbn "Nmthäp]N"Isft¸mse aäpÅhÀ¡mbn " N¯pw sIm¶pw" Pohn¨ncp¶ adhÀ kmaqlyPohnX¯n ]eamä§Ä¡pw hnt[bcmbn«p­v. ss{IkvXhanjy\dn {]hÀ¯Icmbpw Xangv\m«nse ]W¡mcmb "\m«psIm«sN«n"bm·mcmbpw adhcn NneÀ hfÀ¶n«p­v. kmlknIfpw ap³tIm]nIfpambncp¶ adhÀ cmacmhWbp²¡mes¯ {]Xm]w Abhnd¡n¡gnbp¶ps­¦nepw ]pXnb PohnXkmlNcy§fpambn CW§nt¨cm\pw {ian¡p¶p­v.X\n{ZmhnUÀ X§fmsW¶v A`yØhnZycmb adhÀ ]dªpXpS§nbncn¡p¶p.'{ZmhnUadhÀ' {]tXyIhn`mKambn¯ncWsa¶pw B{Kln¡p¶hcp­v. Kp­¯eh·mÀ am{XaÃ, \oXnam·mcmb cmPm¡·mcpw adhcnep­mbncp¶psh¶`nam\wsImÅp¶p.sXgvÌ\pw tdm_À«vk\pw I­ A]cnjvIrX adhtKm{X§fpsS Øm\¯v ]cnjvIrXNn¯cmbhÀ DbÀ¶v hcnIbmWv.HcpIme¯v aX§fptSsX¶v AhImis¸«ncp¶ Xangv\mSv amdnb ]cnXØnXnbn ho­pw adhcptSXmIpIbnsömÀ¡dnbmw. 14

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