Year 5 Curriculum Information

 

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Year 5 Curriculum Information

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1 www.risingstars-uk.com The new national curriculum A guide for parents Introduction For generations, parents have found themselves visiting primary schools with their children only to hear themselves saying, “It’s not like when I was at school.” Things change quickly in education, and at no time in the past 25 years has that been truer than September 2014 when the whole school curriculum changes for maintained schools throughout England. This guide is intended to support parents of primary school children. Obviously it would be impossible to set out in detail everything your child would learn during their six years of statutory primary education, but by providing an outline of typical content and some background information about how the curriculum and assessment works, hopefully it will help parents support their children in making the most of their education. High Achievers If your child is achieving well, rather than moving on to the following year group’s work many schools will encourage more in-depth and investigative work to allow a greater mastery and understanding of concepts and ideas. The new curriculum begins in schools from September 2014. However, for children in Year 2 and Year 6, the new curriculum won’t become statutory until 2015. This is because these children are in the last year of the Key Stages. At this age, children are formally assessed to judge their progress against the requirements of the curriculum. Because the 2014 curriculum will only have been in place for nine months, these children will be assessed against the requirements of the old curriculum in the National Curriculum Tests. New tests will be produced for the summer of 2016 to assess work from the new curriculum. What’s changed? English, Maths and Science remain very important and are considered the core subjects in both primary and secondary education. The National Curriculum sets out in some detail what must be taught in each of these subjects, and they will take up a substantial part of your child’s learning week. Alongside these are the familiar foundation subjects: Art, Computing, Design & Technology, Foreign Languages (age 7+ only), Geography, History, Music, and Physical Education. For these foundation subjects, the details in the curriculum are significantly briefer: schools have much more flexibility regarding what they cover in these subjects. Much of the publicity about the changes to the curriculum has focussed on ‘higher expectations’ in various subjects, and it is certainly the case that in some areas the content of the new primary curriculum is significantly more demanding than in the past. For example, in mathematics there is now much greater focus on the skills of arithmetic and also on working with fractions. In science, a new unit of work on evolution is introduced for Year 6; work which would have previously been studied in secondary school. In English lessons there will now be more attention paid to the study of grammar and spelling; an area which was far less notable in previous curricula. Tests your child will take Lots of schools use tests at all stages of their work. For the most part, these are part of a normal classroom routine, and support teachers’ assessment. However, at certain stages of schooling there are also national tests which must be taken by all children in state schools. Often informally known as ‘SATs’, the National Curriculum Tests are compulsory for children at the end of Year 2 and Year 6. Children in these year groups will undertake tests in Reading, Mathematics, and Grammar, Punctuation & Spelling. The tests will be sent away for marking, and results will be reported to schools and parents at the end of the year. The new National Curriculum Tests for children in Year 2 and Year 6 will take place each summer from 2016. Schools may also choose to have internal tests for other year groups around the same time. Where previously these tests – and other teacher assessments – were graded in levels (normally numbering between Level 1 and Level 6 in primary school), from 2016 the tests will be reported as a scaled score, with a score of 100 representing the expected level for each age group. It will be up to teachers and schools to decide how to measure progress in the intervening years. Schools will then provide accompanying information to parents to explain how children are progressing – it makes attending those parents’ evenings all the more important!

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14 The new national curriculum – Mathematics in Year 5 During the years of upper Key Stage 2 (Year 5 and Year 6), children use their knowledge of number bonds and multiplication tables to tackle more complex problems, including larger multiplication and division, and meeting new material. In Year 5, this includes more work on calculations with fractions and decimals, and using considerably larger numbers than previously. UÊÊ Add and subtract simple fractions with related denominators, for 2 1 5 example 3 + 6 = 6 UÊÊ Convert decimals to fractions, for example converting 0.71 to 71 100 UÊRound decimals to the nearest tenth UÊÊ Put decimals with up to three decimal places into size order UÊÊ Begin to use the % symbol to relate to the ‘number of parts per hundred’ In a fraction, the numerator is the number on top; the denominator is the number on the bottom. Number and Place Value UÊÊ Recognise and use the place value of digits in numbers up to 1 million (1,000,000) UÊÊ Use negative numbers, including in contexts such as temperature UÊÊ Round any number to the nearest 10, 100, 1,000, 10,000 or 100,000 UÊÊ Read Roman numerals, including years Measurements UÊÊ Convert between metric units, such as centimetres to metres or grams to kilograms UÊÊ Use common approximate equivalences for imperial measures, such as 2.5cm ≈ 1 inch UÊÊ Calculate the area of rectangles using square centimetres or square metres UÊCalculate the area of shapes made up of rectangles UÊEstimate volume (in cm3) and capacity (in ml) Calculations UÊÊ Carry out addition and subtraction with numbers larger than four digits UÊÊ Use rounding to estimate calculations and check answers are of a reasonable size UÊÊ Find factors of multiples of numbers, including finding common factors of two numbers UÊÊ Know the prime numbers up to 19 by heart, and find primes up to 100 UÊÊ Use the standard methods of long multiplication and short division UÊÊ Multiply and divide numbers mentally by 10, 100 or 1,000 UÊÊ Recognise and use square numbers and cube numbers Factors are numbers which multiply to make a product, for example 2 and 9 are factors of 18. Common factors are numbers which are factors of two other numbers, for example 3 is a factor of both 6 and 18. Shape and Position UÊÊ Estimate and compare angles, and measure them to the nearest degree UÊÊ Know that angles on a straight line add up to 180°, and angles around a point add up to 360° UÊÊ Use reflection and translation to change the position of a shape Graphs and Data UÊÊ Read and understand information presented in tables, including timetables UÊSolve problems by finding information from a line graph Parent Tip Much of the knowledge in Year 5 relies on number facts being easily recalled. For example, to find common factors or to make simple conversions, knowledge of multiplication tables is essential. Any practice at home to keep these skills sharp will certainly be appreciated by your child’s class teacher! Fractions and Decimals UÊÊ Put fractions with the same denominator into size order, for 3 2 example recognising that 5 is larger than 5 UÊFind equivalents of common fractions UÊÊ Convert between improper fractions and mixed numbers, for 5 1 example recognising that 4 is equal to 1 4 Using this guide Schools are allowed to reorganise content between year groups as long as the material is covered by the end of primary school. Your school may therefore make some changes to the teaching sequence – check your child’s school’s website for details on how they organise their curriculum.

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15 The new national curriculum – Science in Year 5 As children get older, they begin to meet more abstract concepts in science – things which are not so easily tested in the classroom, such as the bodies of the solar system, or changes of state. They will continue to carry out experiments but may also use more secondary resources for research or investigation. UÊÊ Use knowledge of solids, liquids and gases to separate mixtures and solutions through filtering or evaporation UÊÊ Know that dissolving, mixing and changes of state are reversible changes UÊÊ Know that some changes cannot be reversed, such as burning, rusting or chemical reactions Scientific Investigation Investigation work should form part of the broader science curriculum. During Year 5, some of the skills your child might focus on include: UÊÊ Plan different types of scientific investigation, including controlling variables UÊÊ Take measurements with increasing accuracy and precision UÊÊ Record data and results using diagrams, labels, keys, tables and graphs UÊÊ Use test results to make predictions and to set up more testing UÊÊ Identify the evidence that has been used to support or refute ideas Earth and Space UÊÊ Describe the movement of the planets, including Earth, around the Sun UÊDescribe the movement of the Moon around the Earth UÊÊ Use these ideas to explain how day and night occur, and why the Sun appears to move across the sky Since 2006, scientists have defined Pluto as only a dwarf planet. Consequently, children are now taught that there are only eight planets orbiting the Sun (Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune), although many will also explain the history of Pluto’s past. Living Things and their Habitats UÊÊ Describe the differences in the life cycles of a mammal, an amphibian, an insect and a bird UÊÊ Describe the life processes of reproduction in some plants and animals Life cycles include different stages for the main vertebrate groups, such as eggs, larvae and pupae. These can be seen in tadpoles and frogs, caterpillars and butterflies, and of course the chicken and the egg. Forces UÊÊ Explain that gravity is a force which acts on objects pulling them towards the Earth UÊÊ Identify the effects of air resistance, water resistance and friction UÊÊ Recognise that some mechanisms, such as levers, pulleys and gears, can be used to increase the work of a force Animals including Humans UÊÊ Describe the changes as humans develop to old age, including puberty Parent Tip Plenty of exciting experiments can take place at home looking at reversible and irreversible changes. Try searching online for the ‘vinegar bomb’ experiment, or the now-famous ‘Coke and Mentos’ experiment. Properties and Changes of Materials UÊÊ Compare the various properties of materials such as hardness, solubility and conductivity Using this guide Schools are allowed to reorganise content between year groups as long as the material is covered by the end of primary school. Your school may therefore make some changes to the teaching sequence – check your child’s school’s website for details on how they organise their curriculum.

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16 The new national curriculum – English in Year 5 and Year 6 In upper Key Stage 2 your child will increasingly meet a wider range of texts and types of writing, and will be encouraged to use their skills in a broader range of contexts. Their knowledge of grammar will also increase as they prepare for the National Curriculum Tests to be taken in the summer term of Year 6. Year 6 children will take a reading test of about one hour, a grammar and punctuation test of about forty-five minutes, and a spelling test of twenty words. These will be sent away for marking, with the results coming back before the end of the year. Your child’s teacher will also make an assessment of whether or not your child has reached the expected standard by the end of the Key Stage. UÊÊ Identify and discuss themes and conventions across a wide range of writing UÊÊ Discuss understanding of texts, including exploring the meaning of words in context UÊAsk questions to improve understanding of texts UÊÊ Summarise ideas drawn from more than one paragraph, identifying key details UÊÊ Predict future events from details either written in a text or by ‘reading between the lines’ UÊÊ Identify how language, structure and presentation contribute to meaning UÊÊ Discuss how authors use language, including figurative language, to affect the reader UÊÊ Make book recommendations, giving reasons for choices UÊÊ Participate in discussions about books, building on and challenging ideas UÊExplain and discuss understanding of reading UÊÊ Participate in formal presentations and debates about reading UÊProvide reasoned justifications for views Figurative language includes metaphorical phrases such as ‘raining cats and dogs’ or ‘an iron fist’, as well as using language to convey meaning, for example by describing the Sun as ‘gazing down’ upon a scene. Themes & Conventions As children’s experience of a range of texts broadens, they may begin to notice conventions, such as the use of first person for diary-writing, or themes such as heroism or quests. Speaking and Listening The Spoken Language objectives are set out for the whole of primary school, and teachers will cover many of them every year as children’s spoken language skills develop. In Years 5 and 6, some focuses may include: UÊÊ Speak clearly in a range of contexts, using Standard English where appropriate UÊMonitor the reactions of listeners and react accordingly UÊÊ Consider different viewpoints, listening to others and responding with relevant views UÊÊ Use appropriate language, tone and vocabulary for different purposes Reading Skills UÊÊ Read a wide range of fiction, non-fiction, poetry, plays and reference books UÊLearn a range of poetry by heart UÊÊ Perform plays and poems using tone, volume and intonation to convey meaning UÊÊ Use knowledge of spelling patterns and related words to read aloud and understand new words UÊÊ Make comparisons between different books, or parts of the same book UÊÊ Read a range of modern fiction, classic fiction and books from other cultures and traditions Writing Skills UÊÊ Write with increasing speed, maintaining legibility and style UÊÊ Spell some words with silent letters, such as knight and solemn UÊÊ Recognise and use spellings for homophones and other often-confused words from the Y5/6 list Using this guide Schools are allowed to reorganise content between year groups as long as the material is covered by the end of primary school. Your school may therefore make some changes to the teaching sequence – check your child’s school’s website for details on how they organise their curriculum.

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17 English in Year 5 and Year 6 continued UÊUse a dictionary to check spelling and meaning UÊÊ Identify the audience and purpose before writing, and adapt accordingly UÊÊ Select appropriate grammar and vocabulary to change or enhance meaning UÊÊ Develop setting, atmosphere and character, including through dialogue UÊWrite a summary of longer passages of writing UÊUse a range of cohesive devices UÊÊ Use advanced organisational and presentational devices, such as bullet points UÊÊ Use the correct tense consistently throughout a piece of writing UÊEnsure correct subject and verb agreement UÊÊ Perform compositions using appropriate intonation, volume and movement UÊUse a thesaurus UÊÊ Use expanded noun phrases to convey complicated information concisely UÊÊ Use modal verbs or adverbs to indicate degrees of possibility UÊUse relative clauses UÊÊ Recognise vocabulary and structures that are appropriate for formal use UÊÊ Use passive verbs to affect the presentation of information UÊÊ Use the perfect form of verbs to mark relationships of time and cause UÊÊ Recognise the difference in informal and formal language UÊÊ Use grammatical connections and adverbials for cohesion UÊUse ellipses, commas, brackets and dashes in writing UÊUse hyphens to avoid ambiguity UÊÊ Use semi-colons, colons and dashes between independent clauses UÊUse a colon to introduce a list UÊPunctuate bullet points consistently Cohesive devices are words or phrases used to link different parts of writing together. These may be pronouns such as ‘he’ or ‘it’ to avoid repeating a name, or phrases such as ‘After that...’ or ‘Meanwhile’ to guide the reader through the text. Grammar Help For many parents, the grammatical terminology used in schools may not be familiar. Here are some useful reminders of some of the terms used: UÊÊ Noun phrase: a group of words which takes the place of a single noun. Example: The big brown dog with the fluffy ears. UÊÊ Modal verb: a verb that indicates possibility. These are often used alongside other verbs. Example: will, may, should, can. UÊÊ Relative clause: a clause which adds extra information or detail. Example: The boy who was holding the golden ticket won the prize. UÊÊ Passive verb: a form of verb that implies an action being done to, rather than by, the subject. Example: The boy was bitten by the dog. UÊÊ Perfect form: a form of verb that implies than an action is completed. Example: The boy has walked home. Parent Tip As children get older, they will increasingly take responsibility for their own work and homework tasks. That’s not to say that parents can’t help though. Encourage your child to work independently on their homework, but also take the opportunity to discuss it with them and to have them explain their understanding to you. Using this guide Schools are allowed to reorganise content between year groups as long as the material is covered by the end of primary school. Your school may therefore make some changes to the teaching sequence – check your child’s school’s website for details on how they organise their curriculum.

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20 The new national curriculum – The Foundation Subjects At primary school, English, Maths and Science are the core subjects which make up the bulk of the timetable. That said, the other foundation subjects play a key part in providing a broad and balanced curriculum. All eight of these subjects are a compulsory part of the National Curriculum. In addition, all schools are required to include some Religious Education in their broader curriculum, although the content of this is agreed locally. Here is a very brief outline of what will be covered in the foundation subjects during primary school: All schools will also include regular teaching of e-safety to ensure that children feel confident when using computers and the Internet, and know what to do if they come across something either inappropriate or uncomfortable. Many schools will also invite parents to work with them on this aspect of the curriculum. Design and Technology This subject includes cooking, which will be taught in all primary schools from 2014, with children finding out about a healthy diet and preparing simple meals. It also includes the more traditional design elements in which children will design, make and evaluate products while learning to use a range of tools and techniques for construction. There may also be some cross-over with Science here as children incorporate levers, pulleys or electrical circuits into their designs for finished products. Art Schools will be largely free to design their own curriculum in Art, while providing a broad experience for their students. Children will explore a range of different techniques such as drawing, painting and sculpture, and will use a variety of materials, from pencil and paint to charcoal and clay, to create their own art pieces. In addition, during Key Stage 2, children will study the works of some great artists, architects and designers from history. Geography Across primary school, children will find out about different places in the UK, Europe and the Americas through studying small regions in each, and comparing these to other areas, including their own locality. In Key Stage 1, children will learn the names of the continents and oceans as well as the names of the four home nations and their respective capital cities. They will use the four main compass directions and simple maps and photographs to explore the local area. In Key Stage 2, the children will locate the countries of the world, focussing particularly on Europe and the Americas, as well as naming the counties, regions and major cities of the United Kingdom. They will begin to explore geographical features such as volcanoes and tectonic plates, as well as features of human geography such as trade links and land use. They will also learn to use grid references on Ordnance Survey maps to describe locations. Computing There are three main strands of the new Computing curriculum: information technology, digital literacy and computer science. Information technology is about the use of computers for functional purposes, such as collecting and presenting information, or using search technology. Digital literacy is about the safe and responsible use of technology, including recognising its advantages for collaboration or communication. Finally, computer science will introduce children of all ages to understanding how computers and networks work. It will also give all children the opportunity to learn basic computer programming, from simple floor robots in Years 1 and 2, right up to creating on-screen computer games and programmes by Year 6. Many schools will use programming software which is freely available online, such as Scratch or Kodu. Using this guide Schools are allowed to reorganise content between year groups as long as the material is covered by the end of primary school. Your school may therefore make some changes to the teaching sequence – check your child’s school’s website for details on how they organise their curriculum.

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21 The new national curriculum – The Foundation Subjects History In Key Stage 1, the focus of history is very much on locally significant events or events within their own memories, as well as key events of great significance such as Bonfire Night. In addition, children will find out about important historical people and events, such as Florence Nightingale or The Great Fire of London. In Key Stage 2, there are nine main areas of study that are required, some of which have optional strands. The first four are units relating to British history and are intended to begin the development of a clear chronological understanding. In many schools these will be taught in chronological order. 1. Britain in the Stone, Bronze and Iron Ages 2. Roman Britain 3. Anglo-Saxons and Scots in Britain 4. Anglo-Saxons and Vikings 5. Local history 6. A study of a period after 1066 of the school’s choice 7. Ancient Greece 8. A choice from Ancient Egypt, Ancient Sumer, Ancient Egypt, or the Shang Dynasty of Ancient China 9. A choice from 10th-century early Islamic civilisation, Mayan civilisation or Benin in West Africa Music Over the course of primary school, children will listen to and perform a range of music. In the first years of schooling this will often include singing songs and rhymes, and playing untuned instruments such as tambourines or rainmaker sticks. In Key Stage 2, children will perform pieces both alone and as part of a group using their own voice and a range of musical instruments, including those with tuning such as glockenspiels or keyboards. They will both improvise and compose pieces using their knowledge of the different dimensions of music such as rhythm and pitch. During the later years they will also begin to use musical notation, and to learn about the history of music. Physical Education Physical Education lessons will continue to include a range of individual disciplines such as dance and athletics, with team sports and games. Through these sports, children should learn the skills of both cooperation and competition. During Key Stage 2, the range of games and sports taught will be broader, and the children will also take part in outdoor and adventurous activities such as orienteering. They will perform dances, take part in athletics and gymnastics, and attempt to achieve personal bests in various activities. In addition, all children should learn to swim at some point during their primary school career. Languages For the first time, foreign languages will be compulsory in schools for children in Key Stage 2 (Years 3 to 6). Schools can choose any language to study, although they should bear in mind the languages available in partner secondary schools. Over the course of their four years in Key Stage 2, children will be expected to make good progress in the main language chosen, learning to ask and answer questions, present ideas to an audience both in speaking and writing, read a range of words, phrases and sentences, and write simple phrases, sentences and descriptions. If the school chooses a modern language, such as French or Spanish, then children will also learn about the appropriate intonation and pronunciation of the language. This guide has been developed for schools by Michael Tidd and Rising Stars © Rising Stars 2014 For more information on the National Curriculum please visit www.gov.uk/government/collections/national-curriculum Using this guide Schools are allowed to reorganise content between year groups as long as the material is covered by the end of primary school. Your school may therefore make some changes to the teaching sequence – check your child’s school’s website for details on how they organise their curriculum.

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