"The Living Heritage"

 

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Summary report on the research phase of the intangible cultural heritage of regions involved in "The Living Heritage" project.

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This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This publication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. Summary report on the research phase “The Living Heritage” project 2013-2015; “Lifelong Learning Programme” by „Stowarzyszenie Inicjatyw Lokalnych w Żeszczynce” (Local Initiatives Association in Żeszczynka) 2014 Stowarzyszenie Inicjatyw Lokalnych w Żeszczynce (SILWZ) Local Initiatives Association in Zeszczynka Żeszczynka 41, 21 – 518 Sosnówka http://zeszczynka.wordpress.com +48 511 366 426, email: silwz@wp.pl NIP: 537-25-16-814 REGON: 060376508

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This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This publication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. Table of Contents: Introduction............................................................................................................................................. 5 I. Poland, Stowarzyszenie Inicjatyw Lokalnych w Żeszczynce (SILWZ), Local Initiatives Association in Żeszczynka ............................................................................................................................................... 6 Buttermaker ........................................................................................................................................ 6 Cheesemaker ....................................................................................................................................... 6 Miller ................................................................................................................................................... 7 Breadmaking........................................................................................................................................ 8 Making of „Sękacz”.............................................................................................................................. 8 Herbalism ............................................................................................................................................ 9 Weaving ............................................................................................................................................... 9 Shoemaking ......................................................................................................................................... 9 Woodworking .................................................................................................................................... 10 Smithery ............................................................................................................................................ 10 II. THE NETHERLANDS; P.C.T Research and identification of focus groups ...................................... 11 Introduction....................................................................................................................................... 11 Wooden shoe making........................................................................................................................ 12 Reed wikery (roofs, chairs, baskets etc) ............................................................................................ 12 Beekeeper ......................................................................................................................................... 13 Military traditions .............................................................................................................................. 15 Sailing, ship building on old (new)wharfs.......................................................................................... 16 Traditional events .............................................................................................................................. 18 Sinterklaas ......................................................................................................................................... 18 Queens or Kings’ day ......................................................................................................................... 19 Liberation day and the Grebbelinie ................................................................................................... 19 Lantern makers’ walk ........................................................................................................................ 20 St. Martin ........................................................................................................................................... 20 Meals ................................................................................................................................................. 21 1 Stowarzyszenie Inicjatyw Lokalnych w Żeszczynce (SILWZ) Local Initiatives Association in Zeszczynka Żeszczynka 41, 21 – 518 Sosnówka http://zeszczynka.wordpress.com +48 511 366 426, email: silwz@wp.pl NIP: 537-25-16-814 REGON: 060376508

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This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This publication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. III. INTANGIBLE CULTURAL HERITAGE IN ITALY ..................................................................................... 24 CHRISTMAS and THE CRIB ................................................................................................................. 25 THE NATIVITY SCENE ..................................................................................................................... 25 Living Nativity Scene in Custonaci ................................................................................................. 26 THE EPIPHANY ................................................................................................................................... 27 The Feast of the Epiphany ............................................................................................................. 27 ALMOND BLOSSOM FESTIVAL ........................................................................................................... 28 The Almond Blossom Festival in Agrigento ................................................................................... 28 CARNIVAL .......................................................................................................................................... 29 Carnival and the popular celebrations .......................................................................................... 29 ST. JOSEPH’S DAY............................................................................................................................... 31 St. Joseph’s Day and the tradition of the altars of decorative bread ............................................ 31 PALM SUNDAY ................................................................................................................................... 33 Palm Sunday and palms braided into different shapes................................................................. 33 HOLY WEEK ........................................................................................................................................ 34 The Holy Week and the Procession of the Mysteries of Trapani .................................................. 34 EASTER ARCHES ................................................................................................................................. 35 The Easter Arches in San Biagio Platani ........................................................................................ 35 EASTER ............................................................................................................................................... 36 Easter, the Resurrection Day ......................................................................................................... 36 FLOWER FESTIVAL ............................................................................................................................. 37 The Flower Festival in Noto ........................................................................................................... 37 CLASSICAL PERFORMANCES .............................................................................................................. 38 Classical performances at the Greek Theatre in Syracuse ............................................................ 38 FERRAGOSTO ..................................................................................................................................... 39 Mid-August Holiday and the Assumption of the Virgin Mary ....................................................... 39 ALL SAINTS’ DAY & ALL SOULS’ DAY .................................................................................................. 40 All Saints’ Day and the Commemoration of All the Faithful Departed ......................................... 40 FEAST OF THE IMMACULATE CONCEPTION ...................................................................................... 41 ST. LUCY’S DAY .................................................................................................................................. 42 2 Stowarzyszenie Inicjatyw Lokalnych w Żeszczynce (SILWZ) Local Initiatives Association in Zeszczynka Żeszczynka 41, 21 – 518 Sosnówka http://zeszczynka.wordpress.com +48 511 366 426, email: silwz@wp.pl NIP: 537-25-16-814 REGON: 060376508

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This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This publication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. Traditions between the sacred and the profane........................................................................... 42 SAGRA ................................................................................................................................................ 43 The Festival of Prickly Pears in St. Margherita of the Belìce ......................................................... 43 COUS-COUS FEST ............................................................................................................................... 44 The Cous-Cous Fest in San Vito Lo Capo ....................................................................................... 44 KITE FESTIVAL .................................................................................................................................... 46 The Kite Festival in San Vito Lo Capo............................................................................................. 46 OPERA OF THE PUPPETS .................................................................................................................... 47 marionette theatrical representations .......................................................................................... 47 IV. Greece, Folklore Company of Varnava............................................................................................. 49 Society Museums and Immaterial Cultural Heritage ........................................................................ 49 Μουσεία Κοινωνίας & Άυλη Πολιτιστική Κληρονομιά ..................................................................... 50 The Greek Partner Organization: Folklore Company of Varnavas .................................................... 52 H Οργάνωση του Έλληνα Εταίρου: Λαογραφική Εταιρεία Βαρνάβα ............................................... 53 Τhe art of weaving ............................................................................................................................. 54 Η τέχνη της υφαντικής ...................................................................................................................... 54 The art of pottery .............................................................................................................................. 55 Η τέχνη της κεραμικής....................................................................................................................... 56 Traditional Bread ............................................................................................................................... 56 Παραδοσιακό Κεντημένο Ψωμί ........................................................................................................ 57 The game ........................................................................................................................................... 57 Το παιχνίδι......................................................................................................................................... 58 Topi-ball ......................................................................................................................................... 58 Τόπι................................................................................................................................................ 58 Doll................................................................................................................................................. 58 Κούκλα........................................................................................................................................... 59 Koutsithi ........................................................................................................................................ 59 Κούτσιθι......................................................................................................................................... 60 V. Malta, Paragon Europe. .................................................................................................................... 60 National Strategy for Cultural Heritage ............................................................................................. 60 3 Stowarzyszenie Inicjatyw Lokalnych w Żeszczynce (SILWZ) Local Initiatives Association in Zeszczynka Żeszczynka 41, 21 – 518 Sosnówka http://zeszczynka.wordpress.com +48 511 366 426, email: silwz@wp.pl NIP: 537-25-16-814 REGON: 060376508

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This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This publication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. Craft Villages...................................................................................................................................... 61 Traditional Maltese Crafts ................................................................................................................. 62 Lace-making................................................................................................................................... 62 The Lace Making Programme and Gozo Lace Day ........................................................................ 63 The Malta Lace Competition ......................................................................................................... 63 Silverware and Filigree .................................................................................................................. 64 Religious Heritage.............................................................................................................................. 64 Holy Week and Easter ....................................................................................................................... 65 VI. Latvia, Society “Creative ideas”........................................................................................................ 67 Safeguarding of Intangible Cultural Heritage in Latvia...................................................................... 67 The rituals and songs ......................................................................................................................... 71 Talka (farm work done jointly by neighbours) .................................................................................. 72 GAMES AND PLAY .............................................................................................................................. 73 Family tree as a means of maintaining collective memory ............................................................... 73 MAY OPEN-AIR SERVICES IN LATGALIA AND AUGŠZEME AND OFFICIUM FOR THE DEAD IN LATGALIA AND AUGŠZEME................................................................................................................ 77 MAY OPEN-AIR SERVICES IN LATGALIA AND AUGŠZEME .............................................................. 77 OFFICIUM FOR THE DEAD IN LATGALIA AND AUGŠZEME ............................................................. 78 GRAVE TENDING AND CEMETERY FESTIVALS .................................................................................... 79 LATGALIAN POTTERY ......................................................................................................................... 80 RYE BREAD ......................................................................................................................................... 81 LATVIAN TRADITIONAL COSTUME..................................................................................................... 85 THE SONG AND DANCE CELEBRATION ...................................................................................... 86 SONG RECITING IN VOCAL DRONE POLYPHONY ............................................................................... 88 KOKLE AND KOKLE PLAYING .............................................................................................................. 89 JĀŅI (St. John’s Eve) .......................................................................................................................... 90 4 Stowarzyszenie Inicjatyw Lokalnych w Żeszczynce (SILWZ) Local Initiatives Association in Zeszczynka Żeszczynka 41, 21 – 518 Sosnówka http://zeszczynka.wordpress.com +48 511 366 426, email: silwz@wp.pl NIP: 537-25-16-814 REGON: 060376508

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This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This publication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. Introduction The Living Heritage project is implemented within the framework of The Lifelong Learning Programme; Grundtvig Learning Partnership action. It is funded with the support from the European Commission. In accordance to its provisions, all project partners are bound to create individual partner’s reports on research at a national level - each partner identifies areas of the Intangible Cultural Heritage which are most relevant for its area and the individuals who carry the knowledge needed for the protection of that heritage (a focus group). According to the Convention for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage adopted by the UNESCO General Conference on 17 October 2003, Intangible Cultural Heritage means the practices, representations, expressions, knowledge, and skills – as well as the instruments, objects, artifacts and cultural spaces associated therewith – that communities, groups and, in some cases, individuals recognize as part of their cultural heritage. This intangible cultural heritage, transmitted from generation to generation, is constantly recreated by communities and groups in response to their environment, their interaction with nature and their history, and provides them with a sense of identity and continuity, thus promoting respect for cultural diversity and human creativity. It is sometimes called living cultural heritage, and is manifested inter alia in the following domains:  oral traditions and expressions, including language as a vehicle of the intangible cultural heritage;  performing arts;  social practices, rituals and festive events;  knowledge and practices concerning nature and the universe;  traditional craftsmanship. The Polish partner organization, Stowarzyszenie Inicjatyw Lokalnych w Żeszczynce (SILWZ), helps to protect the regional living cultural heritage of the Southern Podlasie, particularly the domains of oral traditions (regional language), social practices and traditional craftsmanship. SILWZ gathers a large number of local inhabitants many of whom are individuals carrying the knowledge and skills needed to protect the regional intangible cultural heritage. It also managed works which led to creation of this publication. 5 Stowarzyszenie Inicjatyw Lokalnych w Żeszczynce (SILWZ) Local Initiatives Association in Zeszczynka Żeszczynka 41, 21 – 518 Sosnówka http://zeszczynka.wordpress.com +48 511 366 426, email: silwz@wp.pl NIP: 537-25-16-814 REGON: 060376508

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This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This publication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. I. Poland, Stowarzyszenie Inicjatyw Lokalnych w Żeszczynce (SILWZ), Local Initiatives Association in Żeszczynka In the region of South Podlasie the intangible cultural heritage is manifested particularly in the domains of oral traditions (regional dialects composing an unofficial language), social practices, rituals and traditional craftsmanship. The regional language is still being kept alive by a small number of local inhabitants who are also keepers of traditional customs, social practices, rituals. SILWZ has identified and gathered several such people who may be willing to share their skills and knowledge within the framework of the project, in particular during the incoming partners’ meeting in Poland this year. In the field of traditional craftsmanship, SILWZ has also identified and gathered a number of craftsmen who still keeps traditional professions alive. Within the frameworks of the project the following artisans are going to show their part of the regional intangible cultural heritage. Most of these craftsmen will lead workshops for the project participants during the meeting in Poland and provide other support in accordance with the project provisions. Buttermaker The workshop presents a traditional method of manufacturing butter with use of original tools (churns) and ingredients. Originally, butter was made from cream that had been allowed to stand and sour naturally. The cream was then skimmed from the top of the milk and poured into a wooden tub. Buttermaking was done by hand in butter churns. The recipe and the method you will be presented is being passed on to the next generations for centuries and hasn’t changed a little. The workshop’s program includes presentation of original churns, buttermaking, forming pats of butter “osełki”. Cheesemaker Cottage cheese has a long history and because of this it has evolved into a variety of styles. It was originally made on the farm from the family cow(s). It was often made from older milk in which the natural bacteria had already started to work. The milk would be brought in 6 Stowarzyszenie Inicjatyw Lokalnych w Żeszczynce (SILWZ) Local Initiatives Association in Zeszczynka Żeszczynka 41, 21 – 518 Sosnówka http://zeszczynka.wordpress.com +48 511 366 426, email: silwz@wp.pl NIP: 537-25-16-814 REGON: 060376508

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This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This publication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. and placed in a warm place (near the fire, behind the wood stove, or in the warming oven). Then after a day or so the natural bacteria would produce enough acid to cause the milk to form a curd. This was then cut, cooked to a dry curd, then washed with cold water. The finish was a cold dry curd with a tangy flavor. At some point someone realized that the taste improved with the addition of some cream to make the much richer tasting creamed cottage cheese. In the days when farmers brought their milk to the cheese dairies by horse and wagon, the process was sometimes slow and the milk was not very fresh, especially in warmer weather. By the time this milk arrived at the dairy, the milk had already developed too much acidity to make a good cheese and the only use for this already acidified milk was to make Cottage Cheese. The cottage cheese is an important element of the South Podlasian cuisine. Is is an essential ingredient of various cakes, meals and an additive to bread. The most typical South Podlasian cottage cheese is made with addition of fresh herbs and spices. There are three unchangeable techniques of making cottage cheese which are being used here for centuries as well as original tools and devices. The traditional process of making cottage cheese is accompanied by various rites which were believed to have huge impact on the final outcome of the work. The workshop include acquiring cheese out of milk, making of the cottage cheese, flavoured cottage cheese, forming shapes, tasting of meals in which cottage cheese is an essential ingredient. Miller The flour has been made since prehistoric times. The earliest methods used for producing flour all involved grinding grain between stones. These methods included the mortar and pestle (a stone club striking grain held in a stone bowl), the saddlestone (a cylindrical stone rolling against grain held in a stone bowl), and the quern (a horizontal, disk-shaped stone spinning on top of grain held on another horizontal stone). These devices were all operated by hand. The millstone, a later development, consisted of one vertical, disk-shaped stone rolling on grain sitting on a horizontal, disk-shaped stone. Millstones were first operated by human or animal power. The workshop includes presentation of a millstone and the milling process. 7 Stowarzyszenie Inicjatyw Lokalnych w Żeszczynce (SILWZ) Local Initiatives Association in Zeszczynka Żeszczynka 41, 21 – 518 Sosnówka http://zeszczynka.wordpress.com +48 511 366 426, email: silwz@wp.pl NIP: 537-25-16-814 REGON: 060376508

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This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This publication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. Breadmaking Bread symbolise welfare and a result of hard work of farmers. In the region of South Podlasie, bread is considered a basic element of nutrition and important element of ancient beliefs and customs. It comes from the pagan belief in the magical properties of grain. Bread which you will be presented during the workshop is “Caravai”. It is a traditional, large round braided bread, traditionally baked from wheat flour and decorated with symbolic flags and figurines, such as suns, moons, birds, animals, and pine cones. Wheat stalks, herbs, nuts, flowers and fruit were also used to enrich or embellish the caravai. The bread has no set design, and the style and ornamentation of the caravai varies by region, although colors red, gold and silver were most commonly employed in decoration. The embellishments served a symbolic function. For instance, caravai given as a wedding gift would have embellishment made out of dough consisting of two birds representing the couple and other birds representing family and friends. The entire arrangement would be surrounded by a wreath of periwinkle, a symbol of love and purity. Traditional bread is made with use of sourdough and without yeast. The process of preparing dough and baking bread is traditionally accompanied by various rites which were believed to have huge impact on the final outcome of the work. The workhop’s programe includes: preparing the dough, lighting the stove, forming bread, tasting. Making of „Sękacz” Sękacz is a traditional, regional cake which still can be seen on weddings and feasts in eastern Poland. The “Sękacze” have been made for centuries with use of the same recipe, natural products, baked on specially selected types of wood. Its name means "branched tree" or "tree with many branches" due to its distinctive shape (it is often conical, like a pine tree, and with the drips as branches). It is baked by painting layers of dough onto a rotating spit in a special open oven or over an open fire. 8 Stowarzyszenie Inicjatyw Lokalnych w Żeszczynce (SILWZ) Local Initiatives Association in Zeszczynka Żeszczynka 41, 21 – 518 Sosnówka http://zeszczynka.wordpress.com +48 511 366 426, email: silwz@wp.pl NIP: 537-25-16-814 REGON: 060376508

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This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This publication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. Herbalism Herbs have always been used as spices and medicine in South Podlasie. Because of very low access to healthcare in this rural region, herbs have long played a vital role in the local society (as an element of the folk medicine, spices and during traditional ceremonies). Large number of recipes for traditional drinks, brews and ointments is still in use here. The workshop includes: presentation of herbs and its properties. Weaving Traditional South Podlasian clothes are handmade. They are manufactured with use of traditional-style looms from linen fabric previously made from natural fibres extracted from the stems of the flax plant. The South Podlasian traditional clothes have specific decorative patterns and ornaments which refer to certain beliefs or customs. The workshop’s programe includes: presentation of the loom, traditional decorative patterns and its meaning, preparing threads (warp), weaving. Shoemaking Until the middle of 20th century, shoes has always been expensive goods in this rural region. The inhabitants usually could afford only one pair of shoes which they wear as their Sunday best. The local inhabitants developed skills necessary to make simple footwear on their own. That footwear was made mostly from wood and bark. The workshop includes: preparing materials and the process of hand-making footwear, possibly also wooden brooms. 9 Stowarzyszenie Inicjatyw Lokalnych w Żeszczynce (SILWZ) Local Initiatives Association in Zeszczynka Żeszczynka 41, 21 – 518 Sosnówka http://zeszczynka.wordpress.com +48 511 366 426, email: silwz@wp.pl NIP: 537-25-16-814 REGON: 060376508

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This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This publication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. Woodworking Until the middle of 20th century wood was a basic building material in the region of South Podlasie. It was used to build both houses and farm buildings. Traditional tools (saw, plane, frame saw) and skills have survived until present times. Workshop includes: presentation of the traditional woodworking tools, making things out of wood. Smithery A Blacksmith used to make many kinds of tools and other objects out of metal. He heated the metal in the forge to make it soft, and then hammered it on an Anvil to shape it. The first metals used were Bronze and Iron. Iron was found to be more readily available and cheaper to produce. Its properties were more useful and desirable than Bronze. Iron is still used today but is nearly always alloyed with carbon to make steel, the steel can then be mixed or alloyed with other metals such as nickel to make steels with special properties. The Blacksmith was at the heart of every country village and was very often thought of as a magician, due mostly to his mastery of iron working and the ability to understand the metallurgy of the iron that he used. The role of the Blacksmith was very diverse not only was he the local toolmaker and "engineer" he was sometimes called upon to act as Dentist, Doctor, Undertaker, Veterinary surgeon and horse dealer. He would also usually hold important offices in the village. He would be the obvious choice for these positions as his job demanded a certain level of intellect, numeracy skills and business sense. The age of the horse was a great source of employment for the old time Blacksmiths and the decline of horses being used for transport and labour has brought about the demise of the traditional country smithy. Blacksmiths were once employed to mend carts and wagons, to make the wheel bonds (metal tyres) that would be shrunk onto the wheels and naves (hubs) of cartwheels, to provide the horse shoes and fit them, to make countless designs of horse drawn implements etc. The workshop includes sightseeing of the old smithy, presentation of the tools and making of simple items. The SILWZ report was made by Adam Rębacz. 10 Stowarzyszenie Inicjatyw Lokalnych w Żeszczynce (SILWZ) Local Initiatives Association in Zeszczynka Żeszczynka 41, 21 – 518 Sosnówka http://zeszczynka.wordpress.com +48 511 366 426, email: silwz@wp.pl NIP: 537-25-16-814 REGON: 060376508

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This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This publication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. II. THE NETHERLANDS; P.C.T Research and identification of focus groups Introduction This chapter is describing a very limited research and description of the living heritage in the Netherlands. The research is done from a touristic, recreational perspective. The Intangible Cultural Heritage (ICH) represents a wealth of knowledge and skills that is transmitted from one generation to the next. There are six areas of the ICH: handicrafts and the visual arts; gastronomy; social practices, rituals and festive events; music and the performing arts; oral traditions and expressions; and knowledge and practices concerning nature and the universe. A responsible use of the living heritage for tourism purposes can provide new employment opportunities and helps alleviate poverty. It can stop the rural flight migration among the young and marginally-employed, and nurture a sense of pride among community members. Tourism also offers a powerful incentive for preserving and enhancing intangible cultural heritage, since the revenue it generates can be channelled back into initiatives to aid its long-term survival. (UNWTO). In the Netherlands almost every Dutch living tradition can be seen in the two most important open air museum at Arnhem (www.openluchtmuseum.nl ) founded in 1912 and at Enkhuizen (www.zuiderzeemuseum.nl). Also the Batavia Wharf at Lelystad is contributing to the living traditional works of craftsmen. See the page about sailing and shipbuilding for more information. You can find in these museums a lot of old functioning objects as well as traditions and handcrafts of the past. Some are still being practiced in the museums: Buttermaker, Cheese maker,Miller, Fresh baker , (www.youtube.com/watch?v=Rbf4pAIwpYg ) Weaver, Spin threader, paper maker (www.youtube.com/watch?v=lasCiSkfQI0&list=PL9D25015413C0BCED&index=4) wooden shoe maker etc. etc. Most of these handcrafts are described already in the Polish Chapter so we will not repeat these descriptions. There are some more general professions and special Dutch handcrafts that are not mentioned in the Polish contribution. Some of these handcrafts will be described in the 11 Stowarzyszenie Inicjatyw Lokalnych w Żeszczynce (SILWZ) Local Initiatives Association in Zeszczynka Żeszczynka 41, 21 – 518 Sosnówka http://zeszczynka.wordpress.com +48 511 366 426, email: silwz@wp.pl NIP: 537-25-16-814 REGON: 060376508

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This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This publication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. Dutch contribution. Beside of that some traditional events will be written down as a possible tourism attraction. Wooden shoe making The wooden shoe is a very practical footwear especially in the clay areas of Holland. It is keeping your feet dry and warm and does not take all clay with you in the farm or house. The model was invented around 1350. It is used even to-day in some agricultural parts in the Netherlands. It is a very environmental friendly product. Square blocks of fresh balsa-white poplar wood is used to make wooden shoes. The wooden shoe maker is chopping and modelling it in the right shape. The still used wooden shoes are painted in yellow with a red pattern. In the old days each regions had their specific patterns. Wooden shoes for tourists are mostly painted with tulips or old traditional designs related to the old plates and pottery designs of Delft and Makkum. See for more information: www.klompenboer.com By the way do not forget the traditional wooden shoe dances: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=811WRua-Yzk Reed wikery (roofs, chairs, baskets etc) Reed is a natural material and used for many purposes. Reed is covering roofs and with reed you are able to make baskets, chairs, mats, pen tips and a rough form of paper. Roofs and houses were already around 6000 year BC constructed with reed all over the world. Traditional seen the reed is bound on cross bars and there has to be a cavity between the reed and the underroof construction. 12 Stowarzyszenie Inicjatyw Lokalnych w Żeszczynce (SILWZ) Local Initiatives Association in Zeszczynka Żeszczynka 41, 21 – 518 Sosnówka http://zeszczynka.wordpress.com +48 511 366 426, email: silwz@wp.pl NIP: 537-25-16-814 REGON: 060376508

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This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This publication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. Reed is also used to baskets. Moses as a baby was found in a reed basket in Egypt and today people are making all kind of baskets for decoration purposes. Handmade chairs of reed or bamboo are still popular in the Netherlands. These regional products are interesting for tourists. www.bing.com/images/search?q=Reed+roofs&id=305AD5F99D4063A7175BF1AF3AA E348487B728F5&FORM=IQFRBA#view=detail&id=C33D8126B26CF096BFE4086A2CC 28AEED7A6F6C1&selectedIndex=5 ; www.riet.com Beekeeper One of the oldest living heritage professions is the beekeeper. He or she has bee colonies in bee hives, bee houses. The beekeeper takes his bees to blossoming agricultural fields and yards during spring, summer and autumn. The bees takes care of pollination, so fruits and crops can grow. This is one of the most elementary function of bee keeping now a days. Of course people like also the honey so the beekeeper takes a part of the produced honey from a colony and replace it by sugar. Also wax is taken a bit and used for candles and wax for example. You have professional and amateur bee keepers. The number of colonies maintained by the beekeeper is varying very much. Town bee keeping as a hobby is booming in the Netherlands. The more “modern” beekeeping has bee-houses with moveable frame hives. The very traditional beekeeper used the fixed comb hive, mostly straw skeps. To remove the honey you had to damage the comb. That is why now a days preference is given to the `bee houses of the last century. With their removable frames there will be no harm for the bees and the bee accommodation while harvesting honey. In the middle of the Netherlands there is a traditional bee market at the town of Veenendaal-de Klomp since 1400. Swarms and colonies are changing of owner and there 13 Stowarzyszenie Inicjatyw Lokalnych w Żeszczynce (SILWZ) Local Initiatives Association in Zeszczynka Żeszczynka 41, 21 – 518 Sosnówka http://zeszczynka.wordpress.com +48 511 366 426, email: silwz@wp.pl NIP: 537-25-16-814 REGON: 060376508

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This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This publication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. are demonstrations how to gather the honey. In special glass bee houses the daily life of the bees can be watched. Wax, candles and honey can be bought by visitors and tourists. A lot of inland tourists are visiting this yearly bee market where also other old trades are shown like weaving, spin threading, wooden shoe making etc. See for more information about bee keeping and beekeepers: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beekeeper www.bing.com/images/search?q=bijenkast&id=AC47EBA8EB46020BEAAEBEA0FD0C3 97E752E419B&FORM=IQFRBA#view=detail&id=5B165D6AA13BE07FC952E01B116DC 79808720B3D&selectedIndex=42 14 Stowarzyszenie Inicjatyw Lokalnych w Żeszczynce (SILWZ) Local Initiatives Association in Zeszczynka Żeszczynka 41, 21 – 518 Sosnówka http://zeszczynka.wordpress.com +48 511 366 426, email: silwz@wp.pl NIP: 537-25-16-814 REGON: 060376508

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